Step 2: Review the evidence
For best results, use a range of evidence
To draw the most robust conclusions about 'what works,' and why, you should take account of evidence produced through a range of methods.
- Quantitative studies (including the results of RCTs and impact evaluations) might help you to establish what usually works and for whom.
- Qualitative work (e.g. interviews with users who 'succeed' and 'fail' and/or with practitioners) might help you to understand the processes through which interventions work or don't work and consider why barriers may exist to achieving your aims.
TIP! If you are short on time and resources, systematic and/or literature reviews are an excellent source of evidence. They often analyse both quantitative and qualitative studies on a particular topic and should do the work of summarising all this evidence for you.
When time and resources, are limited, evidence reviews (also called systematic reviews or literature reviews) are a realistic solution - enabling an overview of the evidence in a relatively short time.
Online databases and archives are the most convenient means through which to locate evidence reviews. The following slides provide a summary of the evidence on reducing crime and reoffending and links to full reviews. However, the following databases can be of general help in locating relevant evidence:
Search academic databases:
Search government archives:
TIP! Try searching for "evidence/literature/systematic review" + your behaviour change aim (i.e. "reoffending", "impulse control", "collective efficacy", "parenting" or "motivation").
The following three groups of points summarise the evidence on
The full evidence review 'What Works to Reduce Crime' can be found here:
Tackle the root causes of crime
- Low self control in children is linked to offending
- Parenting programmes are effective in improving self-control
- Social skills training designed to improve emotional intelligence, may help reduce delinquent behaviour
- Offending is linked to abuse, neglect, exposure to domestic violence and parental substance misuse
- Quality of care of children and young people and protection from abuse and neglect are key
- Identification of abuse and neglect at the earliest stage
Address key social factors
- Retain an attachment to school
- Staying at school is a protective factor
- Exclusion could be a significant risk factor
- Behavioural boundary setting is key
- Diversion activities e.g. sport play an important role
- Enable children to realise their potential
- Holistic employment programmes that also provide social and educational support can be effective
- Minimise the impact of criminal justice sanctions on family bonds
- Restrict access to alcohol
- Tackle drug and alcohol abuse (improving social control through effective parenting may play a part)
Deterrence and Changing the Situation
- Detection and punishment used alone are ineffective.
- People are more likely to comply with rules if they are perceived to be fair and legitimate not because they fear punishment.
- Tackling areas of 'concentrated disadvantage' is the most important step to take to reduce crime
- People offend less when communities look after their areas - 'collective efficacy' has been found to be an important factor in reducing crime.
- The certainty of punishment (increasing the likelihood of detection) is more effective as a deterrent than the severity of punishment
- Increasing 'security by design' reduces crime (deadlocks, alarms etc)
Reducing Reoffending: Desired outcomes based on criminogenic needs
'What works' evidence matrix
The following table describes the findings from the international 'what works' evidence on reducing reoffending.
The results are generated by quantitative randomised controlled trials of programmes and interventions.
Links to full evidence reviews can be found in the 'Helpful Resources' section.
There are more evidence summaries in the FULL version of this pack.
|Risks to reoffending (evidence-based)||Indicator that the risk is present in an individual||Desired intermediate outcomes||Approaches that work to address the risk||Promising approaches but more evidence needed|
|Limited social skills, problem-solving skills and poor emotion management||Impulsive, pleasure-seeking, irritable, poor recognition of problems, poor problem-solving skills, poor social skills, lack of awareness of consequences of actions||Skills in problem-solving and perspective taking
Emotion management skills
|Structured CBT programmes such as cognitive skills
Restorative Justice Conferencing
|No evidence identified but trained supervisors/mentors could help offenders engage in CBT programmes|
|Criminal attitudes||Rationalisations for crime, negative attitudes towards the law, negative attitudes to supervision and to society as a whole||Development of pro-social attitudes and a non-criminal identity||Structured CBT programmes such as cognitive skills training and cognitive restructuring techniques||Pro-social modelling, positive supervisor/mentor and
Supervisors/mentors challenge anti-social attitudes
|Criminal friends||Criminal friends, isolation from pro-social others, easily influenced by criminal associates||Criminal friends replaced by prosocial friends and associates||More evidence needed||Mentoring, circles of support and accountability (for sex offenders)|
|Lack of positive recreation or leisure activities /anti-social lifestyle||Lack of involvement and satisfaction in prosocial recreational activities. Regular activities encourage offending, recklessness and risk taking behaviours||Participation in pro-social recreational activities, sense of reward form pro-social recreation and sustained involvement in pro-social lifestyle||More evidence needed||No evidence identified but supervisors/mentors could aim to engage offenders in pro-social activities|
|Drug misuse||Uses drugs, injects drugs, unmotivated to tackle drug misuse, drug use and obtaining drugs a major occupation||Substance use reduced or stopped||CBT programmes, detox, opiate substitution therapy (for acquisitive opiate-addicted offenders) psycho-social support to maintain abstinence,12 step programmes, structured, therapeutic communities for drug misuse.||No evidence identified but supervisors/mentors could help offenders engage with drug programmes|
|Alcohol misuse||Binge drinking, long term alcohol misuse, violent when intoxicated||Reduced alcohol use or stopped drinking, reduced through disturbances promoted by drinking||More evidence needed||Supervisors/Mentors could help offenders engage with 'promising' programmes which address the interaction between alcohol and violence|
|Dysfunctional family relationships||Poor family relationships, no current relationship, no previous experience of close relationships, manipulative lifestyle||Conflict reduced, positive relationships, enhanced warmth
and caring, reintegration into (non-criminal) social and
Strengthened family ties improving family and intimate relationships, improving parenting behaviours and increasing acceptance into communities and social networks
|Therapeutic approaches for young adult offenders that involve the family||No evidence identified but supervisors/mentors could help
young offenders engage with therapeutic approaches
Supervisors/mentors could also help offenders engage in 'promising' approaches, namely relationship coaching interventions and they could also facilitate family visits to prison
|Unemployment||Poor performance, low satisfaction in work, lack of work-related skills, poor attitude to employment, lack of qualifications||Work skills, good interpersonal relationships at work,
reward and satisfaction at work
Long term employment and increased employment skills
|Employment-focussed programmes in which offenders can secure real jobs they enjoy.||Gaining work related qualifications, gaining
Work related support/mentoring
|Homelessness||No fixed abode or transient||Finding and keeping suitable housing||More evidence needed||No evidence identified but supervisors/mentors could assist homeless offenders find homes and retain them|
|Low motivation and/or self-efficacy||Unmotivated to desist and/or the belief that they do not possess the skills to desist from crime||Offenders are highly motivated to engage with supervisors and interventions and offenders are confident they have the skills to desist from crime||Offenders build positive trusting relationships with skilled, empathetic and flexible mentors, collaborative goal-setting||No evidence identified|
Effective Practice - Women offenders
- Relationships with others have a stronger influence on women's offending than on men so they are key to desistance: Women desisters say they have strong social support from others and employ strategies for avoiding situations which could lead them back into offending.
- Interventions should be delivered by interpersonally skilled staff who build a consistent and trusting relationship with offenders.
- Interventions are most effective if they start in prison and continue when women are released, address criminogenic and non-criminogenic needs simultaneously and are well targeted and sequenced.
- To reduce reoffending, interventions should help women improve their financial situation, secure suitable and safe housing, establish loving bonds with children, tackle drug abuse in a residential setting and help women form positive relationships.
- Women offenders value help to solve practical problems such as accommodation, childcare and welfare benefits. These short-term needs may have to be addressed before women are ready to engage with interventions or address longer term needs such as education or employment.
- Substance misuse has a stronger relationship with reoffending in women, and women are more likely offend to support others' drug misuse as well as their own. However, some research has shown that recreational and occasional drug use are not strong predictors of reoffending in women, which suggests that intensive interventions should be targeted at drug use that is criminogenic
- Some social conditions that promote desistance in women are outside the control of some formal interventions - maturation, support from family and friends and establishing healthy personal relationships.
Effective Practice - Desistance theory
Some research is beginning to shed light on the process of desistance from crime, and (to a lesser extent) on the potential role of criminal justice social work supervision in facilitating that process. Although there has been relatively little empirical research on the latter subject, a body of theorising has emerged which, follows the idea that probation practice should become 'desistance-focused' seeks to interpret desistance research for practice. Reviewing the available research , these efforts to interpret desistance research for practice tend to stress (albeit to varying degrees) eight central themes:
- Desistance is likely to involve lapses and relapses. There is value, therefore, in criminal justice supervision being realistic about these difficulties and to find ways to manage setbacks and difficulties constructively. It may take considerable time for supervision and support to exercise a positive effect.
- Since desistance is an inherently individualised and subjective process, approaches to criminal justice social work supervision must accommodate and exploit issues of identity and diversity. One-size-fits-all interventions will not work .
- The development and maintenance not just of motivation but also of hope become key tasks for criminal justice social workers .
- Desistance can only be understood within the context of human relationships; not just relationships between workers and offenders (though these matter a great deal) but also between offenders and those who matter to them.
- Although the focus is often on offenders' risks and needs, they also have strengths and resources that they can use to overcome obstacles to desistance - both personal strengths and resources, and strengths and resources in their social networks. Supporting and developing these capacities can be a useful dimension of criminal justice social work.
- Since desistance is in part about discovering self-efficacy or agency, interventions are most likely to be effective where they encourage and respect self-determination; this means working with offenders not on them.
- Interventions based only on developing the capacities and skills of people who have offended (human capital) will not be enough. Probation also needs to work on developing social capital, opportunities to apply these skills, or to practice newly forming identities (such as 'worker' or 'father')
A fictitious example of an evidence-based proposal:
How the evidence base supports an intervention to design a throughcare intervention for short-term prisoners
|Intervention (what are we doing?)||Evidence (why are we doing this?)|