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Publication - Publication

Adoption: better choices for our children

Published: 29 Jun 2005
Part of:
Children and families, Communities and third sector
ISBN:
0 7559 4486 0

The report of the Adoption Policy Review Group makes 107 recommendations to improve the legal framework for adoption and permanence.

225 page PDF

2.3MB

225 page PDF

2.3MB

Contents
Adoption: better choices for our children
Page 19

225 page PDF

2.3MB

Chapter 1 Footnotes

1 Adoption Statistics 2003, Scottish Executive National Statistics Publication (2004).

2 Table 1.2, Children's Social Work Statistics 2003-04, Scottish Executive (2004).

Chapter 2 Footnotes

1 Caroline Thomas, et al, Adopted Children Speaking (London: BAAF, 1999).

2 Alexandra Plumtree, Choices for Children (Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2003).

3 http://www.scotland.gov.uk

4 Annex A, below.

Chapter 3 Footnotes

1 P. G. B. McNeill, Adoption of Children in Scotland 3rd edition (Edinburgh: W. Green, 1998) (hereafter, McNeill), paragraph 1.01.

2 Adoption (Scotland) Act 1978, ss.12(1) and (3) (hereafter, 1978 Act).

3 1978 Act, ss.14 and 15.

4 1978 Act, s.16; Chapter 5, paragraphs 5.3-5.11, 5.53-5.63, below.

5 1978 Act, s.12(8).

6 Alexandra Plumtree, Choices for Children (Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2003) (hereafter, Choices for Children), chapter 7.

7 1978 Act, s.12(6); McNeill, paragraphs 8.32-8.34; Choices for Children, chapter 2.

8 See chapter 2, paragraph 2.1, below.

9 Adoption Policy Review Group - Report on Phase I, Scottish Executive (2002) (hereafter, Phase I report), chapter 1, paragraph 13; Department of Health, "Adoption: A New Approach, a White Paper", December 2000 (hereafter, "Adoption"), p. 14; J. Triseliotis, J. Shireman and M. Hundley, Adoption: Theory, Policy and Practice (London: Cassell, 1997), pp. 19-28.

10 R. Parker, ed., Adoption Now: Messages From Research (London: Department of Health, 1999), pp. 76-78, 144-148.

11 "Adoption," p. 14; Phase I Report, p. 12.

12 Chapter 1, paragraphs 1.2 - 1.3, below.

13 Annex A, below.

14 Choices for Children, chapter 1.

15 Annex C, paragraph 5.2, below.

16 See chapter 5, below.

17 Paragraphs 3.45 - 3.54, below.

18 1978 Act, ss.16(1), 16(2) and 18(1).

19 Annex C, paragraphs 5.3-5.11, 5.53-5.63, below.

20 1978 Act, s.16(2).

21 Choices for Children, chapter 6.

22 Adoption and Children Act 2002 (hereafter 2002 Act), c.38.

23 2002 Act, c.38, s.52(1).

24 Chapter 5, Paragraphs 5.21 - 5.22, below.

25 1978 Act, s.46.

26 Choices for Children, chapter 7.

27 Law Commission of New Zealand, Report 65, Adoption and its alternatives (2000), paragraph 461.

28 2002 Act, s.55.

29 A summary of the responses can be found on the Scottish Executive website at http://www.scotland.gov.uk .

30 Annex B, below.

31 2002 Act, s.144(4) and (5).

32 Annex A, below.

33 Annex A, paragraph 3.2, below.

34 Children Act 2004 (hereafter "2004 Act"), c.33.

35 2002 Act, s.144(4) and (5).

36 Chapter 10, paragraphs 10.15 - 10.19, below.

37 1978 Act, s.15(1)(aa).

38 1978 Act, s.39(1).

39 McNeill, paragraphs 1.04, 4.06-4.07.

40 2002 Act, s.112.

41 1995 Act, s.4; Children Act (1989), s.4.

42 Family Matters: improving family law in Scotland (Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2004).

43 2002 Act, s.51(2).

44 1978 Act s.15(1)(aa) inserted by 1995 Act, s.97.

45 1978 Act, s.12(3A).

46 Adoption Agencies Regs, reg. 11(5).

Chapter 4 Footnotes

1 Adoption (Scotland) Act (1978) (hereafter, 1978 Act), s.12(6).

2 Children (Scotland ) Act (1995) (hereafter, 1995 Act), s.11(3)(a)(iii) and (4); for further details on the current law see P. G. B. McNeill, Adoption of Children in Scotland 3rd edition (Edinburgh: W. Green, 1998), paragraphs 8.32 - 8.34, and Alexandra Plumtree, Choices for Children (Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2003) (hereafter, Choices for Children), chapter 2.

3 See Annex A, below.

4 Chapter 7, paragraphs 7.16 - 7. 18, below. 5 1995 Act, s.11(3)(a)(iii) and (4); Choices for Children, chapter 2.

6 Chapter 5, paragraph 5.3 - 5.7, below.

7 West Lothian Council v M 2002 S.L.T. 1155.

8 Children Act (1989), ss.8 and 10; West Lothian Council v M 2002 S.L.T. 1155.

9 1978 Act, s.20(5); 1978 Act, s.16, as prospectively amended by 2002 Act, Schedule 3, paragraph 23(b), inserting subsections (3A) to (3D).

10 Chapter 7.16 - 7.18, below.

Chapter 5 Footnotes

1 Alexandra Plumtree, Choices for Children (Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2003) (hereafter, Choices for Children), chapter 3.

2 Choices for Children, chapter 1.

3 Some local authorities pay "residence allowances" under s.50 of the Children Act (1975), but these are discretionary.

4 1996 Regulations, rr.12-18.

5 Children (Scotland) Act 1995 (hereafter, 1995 Act), ss.86 - 88.

6 1995 Act, s.17(6)(c).

7 1995 Act, s.86(3).

8 1995 Act, s.11(3)(a)(iii) and 4(d).

9 Table 1.2, Children's Social Work Statistics 2003-04, Scottish Executive (2004).

10 Chapter 2, below.

11 See Annex A, below.

12 1995 Act, s.2(1)(a).

13 1995 Act, s.1(a), (b) and (d) and s.2(1)(a), (b) and (d).

14 1995 Act, s.17(6)(c).

15 Choices for Children, chapter 10.

16 1995 Act, ss.29 and 30.

17 1995 Act, s.86(2).

18 Adoption (Scotland) Act 1978 (hereafter, 1978 Act), s.16(1)(a).

19 Chapter 3, paragraphs 3.19 - 3.23, below.

20 1978 Act, s.20(5).

21 Chapter 4, paragraphs 4.15 - 4.18, below.

22 Paragraphs 5.36 - 5.48, below.

23 Chapter 7, paragraphs 7.16 - 7.19, below.

24 1995 Act, s.3(4).

25 1978 Act, s.22A; 1995 Act, s.73.

26 See Chapter 9, paragraphs 9.10 - 9.23, below.

27 1978 Act, ss.12(9) and 18(9).

28 Adoption and Children Act ,2002 (hereafter, 2002 Act), s.115.

29 See Chapter 10, paragraphs 10.8 - 10.11, below.

30 Choices for Children, chapter 13.

31 Adoption Agencies Regs, reg. 14(2)(a).

32 Adoption Agencies Regs, reg. 14(2)(b).

33 RCS 1994, r.67.13(3)(aa); AS 1997, r.2.11(2)(b).

34 1978 Act, s.18(7).

35 A v G, unreported, 12 April 1994.

36 RCS 1994, r.67.25(2)(ii); AS 1997, r.2.28(4)(d).

37 1978 Act, s.27.

38 1978 Act, s.28.

39 1978 Act, ss.27(3) and 28(7).

40 Choices for Children, chapter 14.

41 cf. 1978 Act, s.29.

Chapter 6 Footnotes

1 Adoption (Scotland) Act 1978 (hereafter, 1978 Act), s.1(2)(bb) and (c).

2 1978 Act, ss.51 - 51B; Adoption Allowance (Scotland) Regulations 1996 (1996 No. 3257 (S.247)).

3 1995 Act, s.17; Arrangements to Look After Children (Scotland) Regulations 1996 (1996 No. 3262 (S.252)); Fostering of Children (Scotland) Regulations 1996 (1996 No. 3263 (S.253)).

4 Adoption Policy Review Group - Report on Phase I (Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2002) (hereafter, Phase I report), Chapter 3.

5 Alexandra Plumtree, Choices for Children (Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2003) (hereafter, Choices for Children), Chapter 10.

6 1978 Act, ss.1(1)-1(2).

7 Research in England and Wales identified a number of concerns over support, particularly with regard to adoption allowances. See Prime Minister's Report on Adoption, July 2000, pp. 43-46.

8 Annex A, below.

9 Chapter 12, paragraphs 12.3 - 12.11.

10 Adoption and Children Act 2002 (hereafter, 2002 Act), ss.2(6)-2(7).

11 SI 2005 No. 691.

12 1978 Act, ss.51 to 51B; Adoption Allowance (Scotland) Regulations 1996 (1996 No. 3257 (S.247)).

13 1978 Act, s.1(2)(bb).

14 Adoption Support Services Regulations 2005, r.3(3).

15 cf. 2002 Act, s.5(1).

16 Children (Scotland) 1995 Act (hereafter 1995 Act), s.19.

17 cf. 1995 Act, s.21.

18 cf. 2002 Act, s.8.

19 1978 Act, s.1(3).

20 Adoption Support Services Regulations 2005, r.7.

21 cf. 2002 Act, s.4.

22 2002 Act, s.4(4).

23 Chapter 10, paragraphs 10.4 - 10.7, below.

24 Chapter 5, paragraph 5.24, below.

25 Chapter 10, paragraphs 10.4 - 10.11, below.

Chapter 7 Footnotes

1 Dundee City Council v M, 2004 S.L.T. 640 at 644.

2 Adoption (Scotland) Act 1978 (hereafter 1978 Act), s.25A.

3 Act of Sederunt (Rules of the Court of Session) 1994 (" RCS 1994"), Chapter 67 for the Court of Session; Act of Sederunt (Child Care and Maintenance Rules) 1997 (" AS 1997") for the Sheriff Court ; RCS 1994, r.67.4A; AS 1997, r.2.4.

4 Alexandra Plumtree, Choices for Children (Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2003) (hereafter, Choices for Children), chapter 6.

5 Adoption Policy Review Group - Report on Phase I (Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2002), paragraphs 34-35, and chart 1.

6 Similar problems were identified in England and Wales. See Prime Minister's Report on Adoption, July 2000, pp. 29-33.

7 Sheriff Courts (Scotland) Act 1971, s.15.

8 Annex E, below.

9 Dundee City Council v M 2004 S.L.T. 640 at 644.

10 Research in England and Wales made similar conclusions. See Prime Minister's Report on Adoption, July 2000, pp.71-72.

11 Chapter 5, paragraphs 5.37 - 5.49, below.

12 F v F 1991 S.L.T. 357, also reported as AB and CD Petitioners 1992 S.C.L.R. 274.

13 Chapter 5, paragraphs 5.41 - 5.43, below.

14 Chapter 5, paragraphs 5.46 - 5.49, below.

18 cf. AS 1997, r.2.28(4)(d).

15 Chapter 5, paragraphs 5.64 - 5.67, below.

16 1978 Act, s.20(5).

17 Chapter 4, paragraphs 4.15 - 4.18, below.

19 Chapter 8, paragraphs 8.14 - 8.23, below.

Chapter 8 Footnotes

1 Adoption (Scotland) Act 1978 (hereafter, 1978 Act), s.58(1)(a); 1995 Act, s.87(4)(a); RCS 1994, rr.67.10, 67.23; AS 1997, rr.2.7, 2.16, 2.25, 2.39, 2.44(3).

2 RCS 1994, rr.67.11(2), 67.24(2); AS 1997, rr.2.8(2), 2.16(2), 2.26(2), 2.40(2), 2.44(3).

3 1978 Act, s.58(1)(b); Children (Scotland) Act 1995 (hereafter, 1995 Act), s.87(4)(b); RCS 1994, rr.67.10, 67.23; AS 1997, rr.2.7, 2.25, 2.39.

4 RCS 1994 rr.67.11(1), 67.24(1); AS 1997, rr.2.8(1), 2.26(1), 2.40(1).

5 1978 Act, s.58(2); 1995 Act, s.87(4); AS 1997, rr.2.7(1), 2.25(1), 2.39(1).

6 1995 Act, s.41.

7 Alexandra Plumtree, Choices for Children (Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2003) (hereafter, Choices for Children), chapters 4 and 19.

8 Choices for Children, chapter 4.

9 RCS 1994, rr.67.11, 67.24; AS 1997, rr.2.8, 2.26, 2.40.

10 Annex F, below.

11 1995 Act, s.101; Curators ad Litem and Reporting Officers (Panels) (Scotland) Regulations 2001 ( SSI 2001 No. 477).

12 1995 Act, ss.41(4) and 101; Panels of Persons to Safeguard the Interests of Children (Scotland) Regulations 2001 ( SSI 2001 No. 476).

13 Regulation of Care (Scotland) Act 2001 (2001 asp 8), s.75(c); 1995 Act, s.101(4) and schedule 1, paragraphs 9 and 10(b).

14 Choices for Children, chapter 19.

Chapter 9 Footnotes

1 To avoid confusion with local authority Adoption and Fostering Panels this paper avoids the term 'panel' or 'children's panel' when referring to the children's hearing system. The terms 'hearing' or 'children's hearing' are used instead.

2 Children (Scotland) Act 1995 (hereafter, 1995 Act), s.73(2).

3 Adoption (Scotland) Act 1978 (hereafter, 1978 Act), s.22A; 1995 Act, s.73(4) and (8) - (14); see also Alexandra Plumtree, Choices for Children (Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2004) (hereafter, Choices for Children), chapter 4.

4 Choices for Children, chapter 4.

5 Annex A, below.

6 Adoption Policy Review Group - Report on Phase I (Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2003) (hereafter, Phase I report), Chapter 1 and Recommendation 4.

7 1995 Act, s.73(4)(c).

8 Annex E, below.

9 Chapter 5, paragraphs 5.41 - 5.49, below.

10 1995 Act, s.73(8) - (14).

11 1995 Act , ss.73(8) and 73(13).

12 Annex E, below.

13 1995 Act, s.44.

14 Choices for Children, chapter 14.

Chapter 10 Footnotes

1 Chapter 5, below.

2 Alexandra Plumtree, Choices for Children (Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2004) (hereafter, Choices for Children), chapters 8 and 12.

3 Children (Scotland) Act 1995 (1995 Act), s.17; Arrangements to Look After Children (Scotland) Regulations 1996 (1996 No. 3262 (S.252)) (hereafter, LAC Regs); Fostering of Children (Scotland) Regulations 1996 (1996 No. 3263 (S.253)) (hereafter, Fostering Regs).

4 LAC Regs, regs. 3 - 6 and Schedule 2.

5 LAC Regs, regs. 8 - 10.

6 Fostering Regs, reg. 8 and Schedule 2.

7 Fostering Regs, reg. 9.

8 Chapter 5, paragraph 5.24, below.

9 Chapter 6, paragraphs 6.11 - 6.14, below.

10 Chapter 5, paragraphs 5.50 - 5.52, below.

11 Scotland's Children, The Scottish Office (1997), volume 2 (hereafter, Scotland's Children), paragraph 74.

12 Fostering Regs, reg. 12(4).

13 Choices for Children, chapter 8.

14 Chapter 3, paragraph 3.34 and Annex D, below.

15 Choices for Children, chapter 8.

16 Scotland's Children, paragraph 96.

17 Scotland's Children, paragraph 97.

18 Fostering Regs, reg. 13.

19 Fostering Regs, reg. 14.

20 Fostering Regs, reg. 15; Children's Hearings (Scotland) Rules 1996 (1996 No. 3261 (S.251)), r.20(6).

21 Fostering Regs, reg. 15; Children's Hearings (Scotland) Rules 1996 (1996 No. 3261 (S.251)), r.20(6).

22 Choices for Children, chapter 8.

23 1995 Act, s.25(1).

24 1995 Act, s.25(2).

25 1995 Act, s.17(6)(a).

26 Choices for Children, chapter 8.

27 Choices for Children, chapter 8.

28 Fostering Regs, regs. 16 and 17.

29 Choices for Children, chapter 8.

30 Chapter 11, paragraphs 11.37 - 11.40, below.

31 Annex A, below.

32 Choices for Children, chapter 12.

33 Foster Children (Scotland) Act 1984 (1984 c.56); Foster Children (Private Fostering) (Scotland) Regulations 1985 ( SI 1985 No 1798 (S.134)).

34 Regulation of Care Scotland Act 2001, s.2(14)(c).

Chapter 11 Footnotes

1 Alexandra Plumtree, Choices for Children (Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2004) (hereafter, Choices for Children), chapter 6.

2 Annex A, below.

3 A summary of the responses can be found on the Scottish Executive website at http://www.scotland.gov.uk .

4 Adoption and Children 2002 Act (hereafter 2002 Act), s.1(4).

5 2002 Act, s.1(4)(c).

6 Adoption Policy Review Group - Report on Phase I (Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2002) (hereafter, Phase I report), Executive Summary, paragraph 2.

7 Choices for Children, chapter 18.

8 Fostering Regs, reg. 6(1); Adoption Agencies (Scotland) Regulations 1996 ( SI 1996 No. 3266 (S.254)), regs. 11(1) (hereafter, Adoption Agencies Regs).

9 Phase I report, chapter 1, paragraph 26.

10 Choices for Children, chapter 15.

11 Choices for Children, chapter 15.

12 Adoption Agencies Regs, reg. 11(3).

13 In Dundee City Council v M 2004 S.L.T. 640 the First Division of the Court of Session held that birth parents' rights under Articles 6 or 8 of the ECHR were not breached if they were not invited to attend an adoption panel.

14 Paragraphs 11.5 - 11.7, below.

15 Phase I report, chapter 1, paragraphs 34 - 35, and chart 1.

16 Phase I report, chapter 1, recommendations 2 - 7.

17 Adoption Agencies (Scotland) Regulations 1996 ( SI 1996 No. 3266 (S.254)), regs. 12-18.

18 National Care Standards for adoption agencies, Scottish Executive (2002).

19 Choices for Children, chapter 18.

20 Chapter 7, paragraph 7.9, below.

21 Choices for Children, chapter 18.

22 Choices for Children, chapter 15.

23 National Care Standards for foster care and family placement services, standards 5 - 12.

24 Adoption Agencies Regs, reg. 10(5)(b).

25 National Care Standards for foster care and family placement services, Scottish Executive (2002), standard 6.1.

26 National Care Standards for foster care and family placement services, standard 12.10.

27 National Care Standards for foster care and family placement services, standard 11.10.

28 Fostering Regs, reg. 10(1.)

29 Choices for Children, chapter 17.

30 Fostering Regulations 2002 (S.I. 2002/57) and the Fostering Regulations (Wales) 2003 (S.I. 2003/237 (W.35)).

31 National Minimum Standards for Fostering Services, Department of Health (2002), standards 22.8 - 22.10.

32 Choices for Children, chapter 15.

Chapter 12 Footnotes

1 Alexandra Plumtree, Choices for Children (Edinburgh: Scottish Executive, 2004) (hereafter, Choices for Children), chapter 11.

2 Adoption (Scotland) Act 1978 (hereafter, 1978 Act), s.45(5).

3 RCS 1994, r.67.32(2)(a); AS 1997, rr.2(14)(2)(a) and 2.33(2)(a).

4 Adoption Agencies Regs, reg. 25.

5 Adoption Agencies Regs, reg. 24(2); 1978 Act, s.1(2)(bb).

6 1978 Act, ss.1(1)(b) and 1(2)(c).

7 Adoption and Children Act 2002 (hereafter 2002 Act), ss.56 - 65; Disclosure of Adoption Information (Post-Commencement Adoptions) Regulations 2005 (2005 No. 888).

8 Choices for Children, Chapter 5.

9 Adoption Agencies Regs, regs. 6(1), 8(b) and 9; LAC Regs, reg. 13(1).

10 Adoption Agencies Regs, reg. 19(1).

11 Adoption Agencies Regs, reg. 19(2)(c) and (d).

Annex A Footnote

1 Every young person did not complete all the questions in each section relevant to their circumstances.

Annex C Foornotes

1 Information on adoption in Spain was provided by Jesus Palacios of the Dept of Psychology, University of Seville.

2 This section is based on a more extensive discussion of outcomes of adoptions of older and special needs children in Selman (2003).


Contact

Email: looked_after_children@gov.scot