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Publication - Statistics Publication

Census 2011 equality results: analysis, part two

Published: 26 Mar 2015
Part of:
Communities and third sector, Equality and rights
ISBN:
9781785442261

Publication bringing together relevant statistics from the census and other sources to paint a detailed picture of equality in Scotland.

Contents
Census 2011 equality results: analysis, part two
Chapter 4A: Disability

Chapter 4A: Disability

Introduction

This chapter presents an analysis of the characteristics of those people who indicated on the 2011 Census form that they had a limiting long-term health problem or disability, and compares the characteristics of this group to the general population.

There are many other important inter-relationships between disability and other variables that could not be examined; either due to limitations of Census data or time constraints. In addition, the report does not try to provide commentary on the causes and background to the differences illustrated. The intention is that the report should stimulate discussion by highlighting interesting differences between people with or without a limiting long-term health problem or disability.

Summary of Disability Findings

In 2011, compared to the population in Scotland, disabled people were:

  • More likely to be economically inactive;
  • More likely to be 'retired';
  • Less likely to be in the higher NS-SeC groups;
  • Much more likely to have never worked;
  • More likely to be in the lowest ('D and E') social grades;
  • More likely to have 'no qualifications';
  • More likely to live in a flat, and less likely to have access to a car;
  • Less likely to drive to work, and more likely to work from home.

Background

As part of the 2011 Census, all people in Scotland were asked to indicate whether or not their day-to-day activities were limited because of a health problem or disability that had lasted, or was expected to last, at least 12 months, including those related to age. The majority (80 per cent, or 4,255,000 people) reported in the 2011 Census that they were 'not limited' by a long-term health problem or disability; 10 per cent (506,000 people) reported that they were 'limited a lot', and a further 10 per cent (535,000 people) reported that they were 'limited a little'.

The following analysis explores the responses to this question and draws upon other data sources. It compares results to other relevant variables to examine relationships, but does not seek to determine causation.

List of Sub-chapters

Chapter 4A.1: Labour Market

Chapter 4A.2: Education

Chapter 4A.3: Housing

Chapter 4A.4: Transport

Chapter 4A.1: Labour Market

Key Findings:

Disabled people were:

  • More likely to be economically inactive;
  • More likely to be 'retired';
  • Less likely to be in the higher NS-SeC groups;
  • Much more likely to have never worked;
  • More likely to be in the lowest ('D and E') social grades.

The Life Opportunities Survey (2011) explored the barriers to employment for both disabled and non-disabled people. The findings showed that disabled people were more likely than non-disabled people to face barriers to work because of lack of confidence and attitudes of employers. Disabled people also cited health conditions, impairments and disability as barriers to work.

Chart 4A.1: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Economic Activity, All People (16 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.1: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Economic Activity, All People (16 years+), Scotland 2011

Economic activity [71] relates to whether or not a person aged 16 and over was working or looking for work in the week before the census. Rather than a simple indicator of whether or not someone was currently in employment, it provides a measure of whether or not a person was an active participant in the labour market.

Chart 4A.1 shows that people who were limited by a long-term health problem or disability were much less likely to be economically active than those who were not limited. Only 12 per cent of those who were 'limited a lot' were economically active compared to 63 per cent of the population and 74 per cent who were 'not limited'.

The vast majority (88 per cent) of people whose day-to-day activities were 'limited a lot' were economically inactive; consisting mostly of people who were 'retired' (53 per cent) and 'permanently sick or disabled' (30 per cent).

The 'limited a little' group had a similar proportion of people who were 'retired' (48 per cent) as the 'limited a lot' group (53 per cent), but the proportion of people who reported that they were 'permanently sick or disabled' was much smaller (9 per cent compared to 30 per cent).

Chart 4A.2: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Occupational Group, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.2: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Occupational Group, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011

A person's occupational group relates to their main job and is derived from either their job title or details of the activities involved in their job. [72]

Chart 4A.2 shows that people aged 16-74 whose day-to-day activities were limited were less likely to be working in the highest three occupational groups, and were more likely to be working in the lower groups. Those whose activities were 'limited a lot' were more likely to be working in 'Elementary Occupations' (16 per cent), and as 'Process, Plant & Machine operatives' (11 per cent) compared to those who were not limited.

People whose day-to-day activities were 'not limited' were more likely to be 'Managers, Directors and Senior Officials' and 'Professionals', than those who were limited. A quarter of people (26 per cent) who were 'not limited' were in these occupational groups, compared to 17 per cent of people who were 'limited a lot' by a long-term health problem or disability.

Chart 4A.3: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Gender, for Managers, Directors and Senior Officials, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.3: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Gender, for Managers, Directors and Senior Officials, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.3 shows that the majority of 'Managers, Directors and Senior Officials' were male, and this was the case both for groups who were limited and those who were not.

There was a slightly higher proportion of female 'Managers, Directors and Senior Officials' in the 'limited a lot' group (42 per cent), compared to the 'limited a little' (41 per cent) and 'not limited' (38 per cent) groups.

A gender split is available for other occupational groups in the accompanying excel tables.

Chart 4A.4: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Industry, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011 [73]

Chart 4A.4: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Industry, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.4 shows that the industry profile for those who were limited by a long-term health problem was similar to that for those who were not limited. There were only very slight differences between the groups, with a slightly higher proportion (34 per cent) of people who were 'limited a little' in 'Public Administration, Education and Health' compared to 30 per cent of people who were 'not limited' and 'limited a lot'.

Chart 4A.5: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by NS-SeC, All People 16-74 years, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.5: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by NS-SeC, All People 16-74 years, Scotland 2011

The National Statistics Socio-economic Classification ( NS-SeC) provides an indication of socio-economic position based on occupation. It is an Office for National Statistics ( ONS) standard classification. [74]

Chart 4A.5 shows that people who were 'not limited' by a long-term health problem or disability had slightly more representation in the higher NS-SeC groups than people who were 'limited a little' and 'limited a lot'. An eighth (13 per cent) of those who were 'not limited' were in the two highest groups compared to 8 per cent of those who were 'limited a little' and 5 per cent of those who were 'limited a lot'.

Around a tenth (11 per cent) of people whose day-to-day activities were 'limited a lot' by a long-term health problem or disability had never worked, compared to 2 per cent of people who were 'not limited'.

Chart 4A.6: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Weekly Hours Worked, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.6: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Weekly Hours Worked, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.6 shows that people who were limited either 'a little' or 'a lot' generally worked fewer hours per week compared to people who were 'not limited'.

Over half of employed people who were 'limited a little' (56 per cent) and 'limited a lot' (55 per cent) worked 37 hours or less per week, compared to 49 per cent of people who were 'not limited'.

Chart 4A.7: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Social Grade, All People in Households (16-64 years), Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.7: Long-term Health Problems or Disability by Social Grade, All People in Households (16-64 years), Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.7 shows that half of people aged 16-64 were in the highest social grades, AB and C1 [75] . The 'limited a lot' and 'limited a little' groups had lower proportions of people in these grades (29 per cent and 41 per cent, respectively).

Half of people (50 per cent) who were 'limited a lot' by a long-term health problem or disability were in the lowest 'D and E' social grades. This was more than double the proportion from the 'not limited' group (23 per cent).

Chart 4A.8: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Gender, All People (16-64 years) in AB Social Grade Households, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.8: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Gender, All People (16-64 years) in AB Social Grade Households, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.8 presents a breakdown by gender of people in the highest ( AB) social grade households. (The social grade of a household is determined by the social grade of the household reference person). In the population as a whole, and amongst those who were 'not limited', there was a 50-50 split between males and females.

However, amongst those who were limited by a long-term health problem or disability there was a higher proportion of females in the highest ( AB) social grade households (55 per cent).

Chapter 4A.2: Education

Key Finding:

  • People with a limiting long-term health problem or disability were more likely to have 'no qualifications' than people who were not limited.

Chart 4A.9: Long-term Health Problem or Disability, by proportion of All People (16-24 years) who were Full-Time students, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.9: Long-term Health Problem or Disability, by proportion of All People (16-24 years) who were Full-Time students, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.9 shows that 46 per cent of people aged 16 to 24 years in Scotland were full-time students. This proportion was smaller for those who were limited by a long-term health problem or disability; 42 per cent of those 'limited a little' and 32 per cent of those 'limited a lot' were full-time students, compared to almost half (47 per cent) of young people who were 'not limited'.

Chart 4A.10: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Highest Level of Qualification, All People (16 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.10: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Highest Level of Qualification, All People (16 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.10 shows that around a quarter (27 per cent) of people aged 16 and over had no qualifications. Just over a quarter (26 per cent) of the population aged 16 and over held a 'Level 4 and above' qualification, i.e. held degree or equivalent qualifications. [76]

Those who were 'not limited' by a long-term health problem or disability were most likely to be highly qualified; 29 per cent of people in this group held 'Level 4 and above' qualifications. Those who were 'limited a lot' were the least likely to be highly qualified (12 per cent).

People who reported that they were 'limited a lot' were most likely to have 'no qualifications' (61 per cent) and the 'not limited' group were the least likely (19 per cent). [77]

Chart 4A.11: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Gender, All People (16 years+) with No Qualifications, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.11: Long-term Health Problems or Disability by Gender, All People (16 years+) with No Qualifications, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.11 shows that a majority of those with no qualifications were female (53 per cent).

Of those with no qualifications who were limited by a long-term health problem or disability, 57 per cent were female compared to 51 per cent of females who recorded that they were 'not limited'.

Chapter 4A.3: Housing

Key Finding:

  • People who reported a limiting long-term health problem or disability were more likely to live in a flat, and less likely to have access to a car.

Chart 4A.12: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Accommodation Type, All People in Households, Scotland 2011 [78]

Chart4a.12: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Accommodation Type, All People in Households, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.12 shows that over two thirds (71 per cent) of people lived in houses and just under a third (29 per cent) lived in flats. A quarter (26 per cent) of people lived in a detached house; a further quarter (25 per cent) in a semi-detached house and a fifth of people (20 per cent) lived in a terraced house.

Those who were 'limited a lot' by a long-term health problem or disability were most likely to live in a flat (38 per cent) and people who were 'not limited' were the most likely to live in a detached house (27 per cent).

Chart 4A.13: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Tenure, All People (16 years+) in Households, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.13: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Tenure, All People (16 years+) in Households, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.13 shows that two thirds (67 per cent) of people owned their home (either outright or with a mortgage), a fifth (20 per cent) social rented and the remaining eighth (13 per cent) rented privately or lived rent free [79] .

Home ownership was highest amongst those who recorded that they were 'not limited' by a long-term health problem or disability (70 per cent); however, outright ownership was higher amongst those who were limited, and this is likely to be related to the older age profile of these groups.

Almost half of people who were 'limited a lot' (43 per cent) lived in social rented accommodation, and rented from either the council or a housing association/registered social landlord - this was double the proportion in the population as a whole.

Chart 4A.14: Long-Term Health Problem or Disability by Landlord Type, All People (16 years+) in Rented Accommodation, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.14: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Landlord Type, All People (16 years+) in Rented Accommodation, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.14 shows a fairly even split for those who rented their accommodation across the three main types of landlord - private, housing association and council. [80]

However people who recorded that their day-to-day activities were 'limited a lot' (87 per cent) were more likely to social rent than those who were 'limited a little' (80 per cent) and those who were 'not limited' (56 per cent).

Those who were 'not limited' were much more likely to rent privately. Two fifths (40 per cent) of the 'not limited' group who rented their home did so through a private landlord.

Chart 4A.15: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Occupancy Rating [81] , All HRPs, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.15: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Occupancy Rating, All HRPs, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.15 shows that almost a tenth (9 per cent) of households in Scotland were overcrowded and the proportion was slightly higher (10 per cent) in households where the household reference person ( HRP) was 'limited a lot' by a long-term health problem or disability.

Households where the HRP was 'limited a lot' by a long-term health problem or disability were less likely to be under-occupied ( i.e. have more rooms than the standard requirement).

Chart 4A.16: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Type of Central Heating, All HRPs, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.16: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Type of Central Heating, All HRPs Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.16 shows that only a small proportion (around 2 per cent) of households from each group had no central heating. The most common type of central heating for households in Scotland was gas central heating, and around three quarters of people in each of the groups had this type of heating.

People who recorded that they were 'limited a lot' were the most likely to have electric (including storage heaters) central heating (18 per cent).

Chapter 4A.4: Transport

Key Finding:

  • People who were limited by a long-term health problem or disability were less likely to drive to work, and were most likely to work from home.

Chart 4A.17: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Car or Van availability, All People in Households (16 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.17: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Car or Van availability, All People in Households (16 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.17 shows that around a quarter (23 per cent) of people aged 16 and over in households had no access to a car or van, two fifths (40 per cent) had access to one and the remaining third (36 per cent) had access to two or more.

People with a limiting long-term health problem or disability were less likely to have access to a car or van. Those who were 'limited a lot' had the lowest car access with almost half (46 per cent) of people having no access to a car or van.

Chart 4A.18: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Car or Van availability, All People (16 years+) Living in Rural Areas, Scotland 2011

Chart 4a.18: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Car or Van availabilty, All People (16 years+) Living in Rural Areas, Scotalnd 2011

Chart 4A.18 shows that a tenth (10 per cent) of people aged 16 and over in households in rural areas didn't have access to a car or a van. People in rural areas who were limited by a long-term health problem or disability were less likely to have access - only 73 per cent of those 'limited a lot' had access to a car or van compared to 94 per cent of those who were 'not limited'.

It should be noted that the 'limited a lot' group had a much older age profile than the 'not limited' group.

Chart 4A.19: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Method of Travel to Work, All People 16-74 years in Employment, excluding FT [82] students, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.19: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by method of Travel to Work, All People 16-74 eyars in Employment, excluding FT students, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.19 shows that the majority (56 per cent) of people in employment drove to work. All of the other modes of transport were much less common with only a tenth (10 per cent) using the bus and a similar proportion walking. A further tenth (11 per cent) worked mainly at or from home.

People who were 'limited a lot' by a long-term health problem or disability were the least likely to drive to work (51 per cent), and were most likely to work mainly at or from home (15 per cent).

Chart 4A.20: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Distance Travelled to Work, All People 16-74 years in Employment, excluding FT [83] students, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.20: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Distance Travelled to Work, All People 16-74 years in Employment, excluding FT Students, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.20 shows that the majority (60 per cent) of people travelled less than 10km to their place of work, including those who worked mainly at or from home. Two fifths (21 per cent) of people travelled between 10km and 29km; 7 per cent travelled 30km or more, and 11 per cent recorded an 'other' distance [84] .

People 'limited a lot' by a long-term health problem or disability were slightly more likely to travel shorter distances of less than 10km (64 per cent) and people who were 'not limited' were slightly more likely to travel longer distances of 10km or over.

People who were limited by long-term health problems or disability were more likely to work at home than people who were 'not limited'.

Chart 4A.21: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Method of Travel to Study, All People (4 years+) studying the week before the Census, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.21: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Method of Travel to Study, All People (4 years+) studying the week before the Census, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.21 shows that the most common method of travel to study [85] was on foot (39 per cent). A fifth of people travelled to their place of study by car (mainly as passengers) and a further fifth travelled by bus. An eighth (12 per cent) of people studied at home. [86]

Around 40 per cent of those who were not limited by a long-term health problem or disability travelled on foot. Those who recorded that they were 'limited a lot' were less likely to walk (19 per cent) than the other groups.

Chart 4A.22: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Distance Travelled to Study, All People (4 years+) studying the week before the Census, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.22: Long-term Health Problem or Disability by Distance Travelled to Study, All People (4 years+) studying the week before the Census, Scotland 2011

Chart 4A.22 shows that the majority (56 per cent) of people travelled less than 2km to their place of study [87] , including those who studied from home. [88] A further third travelled between 2km and 9km and the remaining 15 per cent travelled 10km or more.

People who were 'limited a lot' were the most likely to travel longer distances, of 2km or more, to their place of study and those who were 'not limited' were the most likely to travel less than 2km.

Those who recorded that their day-to-day activities were 'limited a lot' were the most likely to travel very long distances of 10km or more to get to their place of study.


Contact

Email: Poppy Wilson

Phone: 0300 244 4000 – Central Enquiry Unit

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