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Publication - Statistics Publication

Census 2011 equality results: analysis, part two

Published: 26 Mar 2015
Part of:
Communities and third sector, Equality and rights
ISBN:
9781785442261

Publication bringing together relevant statistics from the census and other sources to paint a detailed picture of equality in Scotland.

Contents
Census 2011 equality results: analysis, part two
Chapter 4B: BSL users

Chapter 4B: BSL users

Introduction

This chapter describes the characteristics of those who indicated on the 2011 Census form that they used British Sign Language ( BSL) at home. BSL is a language in its own right, having been officially recognised by the UK Government in 2003 as being a full, independent language. It is the most common form of signed communication used by deaf people in Scotland.

Deaf people face barriers in their everyday lives that are caused by a lack of understanding of their language, culture and history. This chapter seeks to strengthen the evidence base in this area, and does not try to provide commentary on the causes and background to any differences illustrated. The intention is that the report should stimulate discussion by highlighting interesting differences between people who are users of BSL and those who are not.

The Scottish Government supports the principles of British Sign Language ( BSL) (SCOTLAND BILL) proposed by Mark Griffin MSP and has suggested a number of changes to streamline and strengthen its provisions and set these out in the Government Memorandum. The Bill requires listed authorities to publish BSL plans setting out how they will promote and support BSL across their functions.

Summary of BSL Findings

In 2011, compared to the population in Scotland, BSL users were:

  • Less likely to be economically active, and more likely to be 'permanently sick or disabled';
  • More likely to be employed in 'Public Administration, Education and Health' industries;
  • Much more likely to have never worked;
  • More likely to work fewer hours per week;
  • Less likely to be in the highest AB social grade;
  • More likely to have no qualifications, and less likely to hold high level qualifications;
  • Much more likely to live in social rented accommodation, and less likely to be home owners;
  • Much more likely to be living in overcrowded households;
  • More likely to have no access to a car or van, and less likely to have multiple cars.

Background

The 2011 Census included a question for the first time on British Sign Language ( BSL) use at home: 'Do you use a language other than English at home?' Respondents, including both those with and without a hearing impairment, could tick more than one option, including 'Yes, British Sign Language'. The census questions on language asked in other parts of the UK were different and therefore comparisons can't be made across the UK countries.

Around 12,500 people in Scotland (0.24 per cent of the population aged 3 years and over) indicated on the 2011 census form that they used British Sign Language ( BSL) at home; this was a rate of 24 BSL users per 10,000 people in the population.

List of Sub-chapters

Chapter 4B.1: Labour Market

Chapter 4B.2: Education

Chapter 4B.3: Housing

Chapter 4B.4: Transport

Chapter 4B.1: Labour Market

Key Findings:

BSL users were:

  • Less likely to be economically active, and more likely to be 'permanently sick or disabled';
  • More likely to be employed in 'Public Administration, Education and Health' industries;
  • Much more likely to have never worked;
  • More likely to work fewer hours per week;
  • Less likely to be in the highest AB social grade.

Chart 4B.1: BSL users by Economic Activity by Gender, All People (16 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.1: BSL users by Economic Activity by Gender, All People (16 years+), Scotland 2011

Economic activity [89] relates to whether or not a person aged 16 and over was working or looking for work in the week before the census. Rather than a simple indicator of whether or not someone was currently in employment, it provides a measure of whether or not a person was an active participant in the labour market.

Chart 4B.1 shows that BSL users aged 16 and over were less likely to be economically active than the population as a whole (53 and 62 per cent, respectively), and were almost three times as likely to be 'permanently sick or disabled' (13 per cent compared to 5 per cent).

Male BSL users were more likely than females to work full-time as an employee (35 compared to 21 per cent) and were also the more likely to be economically active (57 compared to 50 per cent).

Female BSL users were more likely to be 'retired' and were also three times more likely than males to be working as a part-time employee.

Chart 4B.2: BSL users by Occupational Group by Gender, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011 [90]

Chart 4B.2: BSL users by Occupational Group by Gender, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.2 shows that BSL users aged 16 to 74 in employment were less likely to be in the two highest occupational groups ('Managers, Directors and Senior Officials', and 'Professional occupations') compared to the population as a whole (18 per cent compared to 25 per cent).

A higher proportion of BSL users were employed in 'Caring, Leisure & Other Service Occupations', and this was driven by female BSL users, where just under a quarter (23 per cent) were employed in these occupational groups.

Almost a quarter of male BSL users worked in 'Skilled Trades Occupations' (23 per cent), compared to only 3 per cent of female BSL users.

Chart 4B.3: BSL users by Gender, for Managers, Directors and Senior Officials, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.3: BSL users by Gender, for Managers, Directors and Senior Officials, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.3 shows that a higher proportion of males than females were employed as 'Managers, Directors and Senior Officials', in both the population as a whole and amongst BSL users.

A slightly higher proportion of females who used BSL were employed as 'Managers, Directors and Senior Officials' compared to females in the population as a whole (44 and 38 per cent, respectively).

Chart 4B.4: BSL users by Industry by Age, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011 [91]

chart 4B.4: BSL users by Industry by Age, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.4 shows that the largest proportion of BSL users were employed in 'Public Administration, Education and Health' industries [92] (37 per cent), and this was a higher proportion than for all people (30 per cent).

BSL users in the 16 to 24 age group were twice as likely to be employed in 'Distribution, Hotels and Restaurant' industries (41 per cent) compared to all BSL users (20 per cent).

Chart 4B.5: BSL users by NS-SeC, All People 16-74 years, Scotland 2011 [93]

Chart 4B.5: BSL users by NS-SeC, All People 16-74 years, Scotland 2011

The National Statistics Socio-economic Classification (NS-Sec) provides an indication of socio-economic position based on occupation. It is an Office for National Statistics ( ONS) standard classification. [94]

Chart 4B.5 shows that 10 per cent of BSL users aged 16 to 74 years had never worked. This was a much higher rate than in the population as a whole (3 per cent).

The proportion of BSL users who were full-time students was the same as the population as a whole (9 per cent) - more than two fifths (42 per cent) of BSL users in the 16 to 24 years age group were full-time students, compared to 46 per cent of the population aged 16 to 24 years (see chart 1.9).

BSL users in the 35 to 49 age group had the most representation in the three highest occupational categories.

Chart 4B.6: BSL users by Weekly Hours Worked, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.6: BSL users by Weekly Hours Worked, All People 16-74 years in Employment, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.6 shows that BSL users were more likely to work fewer hours per week, when compared to all people who were in employment. A third (35 per cent) of BSL users worked 30 hours or less per week, compared to 28 per cent of all people in employment.

Male BSL users were most likely to work between 38 and 48 hours per week (45 per cent). Female BSL users were more likely to work shorter hours, between 16 and 30 hours per week (38 per cent).

Four per cent of BSL users worked over 60 hours per week, with males more likely to than females.

Chart 4B.7: BSL users by Social Grade by Age band [95] , All People (16-64 years), Scotland 2011 [96]

Chart 4B.7: BSL users by Social Grade by Age band, All People (16-64), Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.7 shows that two fifths (40 per cent) of BSL users aged 16 to 64 were in the lowest (D and E) social grades, and this was much higher than the proportion of the population (26 per cent) in this social grade. Around a quarter (23 per cent) of BSL users were in the C2 social grade, and a further quarter (26 per cent) in the C1 grade.

Around one in ten BSL users were in the highest AB social grade compared to one in five of the population. BSL users aged 25 to 34 years were slightly more likely to be in the top AB and C1 social grades, compared to those who were aged 50 to 64 years.

Chart 4B.8: BSL users by Age band and Gender, All People (16-64 years) Social Grade AB, in Households, Scotland 2011 [97]

Chart 4B.8: BSL users by Age band and Gender, All People (16-64 years) Social Grade AB, in Households, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.8 shows that the majority (60 per cent) of BSL users in the highest, AB, social grade were female compared to half (50 per cent) of the general population.

BSL users in the AB social grade who were aged 25 to 34 years were much more likely to be female (66 per cent) than male.

Chapter 4B.2: Education

Key Finding:

  • BSL users were more likely to have no qualifications, and less likely to hold high level qualifications.

Chart 4B.9: BSL users by Highest Level of Qualification [98] by Age, All People (16 years+), Scotland 2011 [99]

Chart 4B.9: BSL users by Highest Level of Qualification by Age, All People (16 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.9 shows that BSL users were more likely to have no qualifications, and less likely to have 'Level 4 and above' qualifications compared to the population.

Nearly two fifths (38 per cent) of BSL users had no qualifications, while a fifth (19 per cent) held degree or equivalent qualifications (Level 4 and above).Older BSL users were much more likely to have 'no qualifications' and those in the 25 to 34 years age group were the most highly qualified.

Chart 4B.10: BSL users with no qualifications by Age and Gender, All People (16 years+) with No Qualifications, Scotland 2011 [100]

Chart 4B.10: BSL users with no qualifications by Age and Gender, All People (16 years+) with No Qualifications, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.10 shows that there was a 50-50 gender split amongst BSL users who had 'no qualifications'.

Amongst BSL users aged 16 to 24 years, there were a higher proportion of males than females who had 'no qualifications' (60 per cent), whereas in the 75 years and over age group, there was a higher proportion of females who had 'no qualifications' (59 per cent).

Chapter 4B.3: Housing

Key Findings:

BSL users were:

  • Much more likely to live in social rented accommodation, and less likely to be home owners;
  • Much more likely to be living in overcrowded households.

Chart 4B.11: BSL users by Tenure by Gender, All People in households (16 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.11: BSL users by Tenure by Gender, All People in Households (16 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.11 shows that half (50 per cent) of BSL users lived in properties that they owned (either outright or with a mortgage or loan), two fifths (37 per cent) lived in social rented accommodation, and the remaining eighth (12 per cent) were living in private rented accommodation (or living rent free) [101] .

This split was relatively similar regardless of gender. However, compared to the general population, BSL users were almost twice as likely to live in social rented accommodation (37 per cent of BSL users compared to 21 per cent of all people) and were less likely to be home owners - 50 per cent of BSL users owned their home, compared to 67 per cent of all people.

Chart 4B.12: BSL users by Accommodation Type by Gender, All People (3 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.12: BSL users by Accommodation Type by Gender, All People (3 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.12 shows that just over a third (35 per cent) of BSL users were living in a flat or temporary structure. A quarter (22 per cent) lived in a terraced house, and a further quarter (25 per cent) lived in a semi-detached house. The remainder (18 per cent) of BSL users lived in a 'detached' house.

BSL users were less likely to be living in detached accommodation and more likely to be living in a flat compared to the population as a whole.

A slightly higher proportion of male BSL users (37 per cent) were living in a 'flat or temporary structure' [102] , compared to female BSL users (33 per cent).

Chart 4B.13: BSL users by Landlord Type, All People (3 years+) in Rented Accommodation, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.12: BSL users by Landlord Type, All People (3 years+) in Rented Accommodation, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.13 shows that BSL users in rented accommodation were less likely to rent privately than those in the population (21 and 32 per cent, respectively).

BSL users were more likely to rent from the Council (42 per cent) or from a Housing Association/Registered Social Landlord (35 per cent). This trend was similar for both male and female BSL users. [103]

Chart 4B.14: BSL users by Occupancy Rating [104] , All HRPs (3 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.14: BSL users by Occupancy Rating, All HRPs (3 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.14 shows that BSL users were almost twice as likely to live in overcrowded households (16 per cent) compared to the population as a whole (9 per cent).

Female BSL users were slightly more likely to be living in overcrowded accommodation than males. A slightly higher proportion of male BSL users lived in under-occupied accommodation (55 per cent) compared to female BSL users (50 per cent).

Chart 4B.15: BSL users by Type of Central Heating, All HRPs (3 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.15: BSL users by Type of Central Heating, All HRPs (3 years+), Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.15 shows that the majority of BSL user households had gas central heating (69 per cent), with around one fifth (17 per cent) having electric central heating. Two per cent of BSL households had no central heating, and a slightly higher proportion of male BSL users were in households with no central heating (3 per cent).

A slightly higher proportion of BSL households had electric central heating compared to all households (17 and 13 per cent, respectively).

Chapter 4B.4: Transport

Key Finding:

  • BSL users were more likely to have no access to a car or van, and less likely to have multiple cars or vans.

Chart 4B.16: BSL users by Car or Van availability, All People (16 years+) in Households, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.16: BSL users by Car of Van availability, All People (16 years+) in Households, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.16 shows that over a third (34 per cent) of BSL users aged 16 and over in households had no access to a car or van; 40 per cent had access to one car or van, and a quarter of BSL users had access to 2 or more cars or vans.

Compared to the population as a whole, BSL users were more likely to have no car or van access (34 versus 23 per cent), and less likely to have access to multiple cars/vans (25 versus 36 per cent).

Chart 4B.17: BSL users by Method of Travel to Work by Gender, All People 16-74 years in Employment, excluding Full-Time students, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.17: BSL users by Method of Travel to Work by Gender, All People 16-74 years in Employment, excluding Full-Time students, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.17 shows that half (51 per cent) of BSL users drove to work, with home working and travelling by bus the next most common methods for travelling to work.

Female BSL users were less likely to drive to work (49 per cent) compared to male BSL users (53 per cent), but were more likely to walk to work than males (11 per cent and 8 per cent, respectively).

Chart 4B.18: BSL users by Distance Travelled to Work by Age, All People 16-74 years in Employment, excluding Full-Time students, Scotland 2011 [105]

Chart 4B.18: BSL users by Distance Travelled to Work by Age, All People 16-74 years in Employment, excluding Full-Time students, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.18 shows that the travel to work profile of BSL users aged 16 to 74 in employment was fairly similar to that of the population as a whole. Over half of BSL users travelled less than 10km to get to their place of work. Older BSL users, aged 65 to 74, were most likely to work from home (22 per cent), and least likely to travel more than 10km to get to work.

BSL users who were aged between 25 and 49 were the most likely to travel furthest to get to work, with around two-fifths of this group travelling more than 10km to get to work.

Chart 4B.19: BSL users by Method of Travel to Study by Gender, All People (4 years+) studying the week before the Census, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.19: BSL users by Method of Travel to Study by Gender, All People (4 years+) studying the week before the Census, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.19 shows that BSL users were more likely to study [106] at home compared to the population (19 and 12 per cent, respectively). [107]

Four per cent of BSL users drove to their place of study compared to 5 per cent of the population. A quarter took the train or bus, and a fifth studied mainly from home. The remaining half of BSL users used a different method of transport, including walking and cycling.

Female BSL users were slightly more likely to use the train or bus (28 per cent) than males (25 per cent) to travel to their place of study.

Chart 4B.20: BSL users by Distance Travelled to Study, All People (4 years+) Studying the week before the Census, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.20: BSL users by Distance Travelled to Study, All People (4 years+) Studying the week before the Census, Scotland 2011

Chart 4B.20 shows that a fifth (19 per cent) of BSL users studied mainly at or from home, with the majority travelling less than 5Km to get to their place of study [108] (68 per cent), including those who studied at home. [109]

Compared to all people, BSL users were more likely to study at or from home; 12 per cent of people studied at or from home, compared to 19 per cent of BSL users.


Contact

Email: Poppy Wilson

Phone: 0300 244 4000 – Central Enquiry Unit

The Scottish Government
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