Many public sector organisations (e.g. local authorities, Transport Scotland) and a range of infrastructure providers (e.g. energy transmission companies) have powers to purchase land without the owner's agreement if there is considered to be a strong enough case in the public interest in doing so.
For example, a local council may need to build a new road, assemble land to enable regeneration or build a new school, but cannot reach agreement to purchase the land needed. In these cases they may promote a Compulsory Purchase Order (CPO) and ask Ministers to confirm it. If confirmed by Ministers they may then take ownership of the land and pay compensation to the landowner and others with an interest in the land.
CPOs are a useful tool to enable local authorities and other public sector bodies and infrastructure providers to acquire land to enable projects which are in the public interest to proceed, when they would otherwise not. However, the use of a CPO to take away someone's property rights is a significant step that must be carefully considered and the benefits of the underlying project balanced against the rights of landowners and others with an interest in the land.
When a CPO is used it should be done efficiently and fairly and that uncertainty for landowners and those affected should be minimised wherever possible.
We aim to create a clear, accessible, effective and efficient system of legislation and policy which allows for the compulsory acquisition and purchase of land and property for the public benefit. The provisions relating to any compensation should be fair and transparent and allow for timeous settlement.
We have published a range of information and guidance about the CPO process.
Compulsory Purchase Orders considered by Ministers
We have created a register of all CPOs considered by Ministers since 1 January 2012.
Advice to Acquiring Authorities on the use of compulsory purchase
New guidance notes for Acquiring Authorities considering using CPO were published on 26th April 2018. These aim to guide authorities through the CPO process from start to finish.
- Can I use Compulsory Purchase?
- What should I do before developing a Compulsory Purchase Order?
- How do I prepare and submit a Compulsory Purchase Order?
- How do Scottish Ministers consider a Compulsory Purchase Order?
- Confirmed Orders – Next Steps
- Compulsory Purchase Orders: process maps and checklist
Circular 6/2011 provides more detailed advice on the procedures that Acquiring Authorities must follow when preparing and submitting a CPO. A process map and checklist is also available.
- Circular 6/2011 - Scottish Government policy on making Compulsory Purchase Orders: guidance for acquiring authorities
In certain circumstances, land which was purchased compulsorily and which is later deemed to be surplus should be offered for sale back to the previous owner or owners.
You can contact us if you have questions about the CPO process or need to know where to send draft or final CPOs documentation.
Advice for landowners who may be affected by a compulsory purchase project
We have published advice to landowners who believe they may be affected by a Compulsory Purchase project.
Examples of CPO usage
We have published a number of case studies of how compulsory purchase has been used to deliver a range of projects for the public benefit.
Reform of compulsory purchase
Ministers have committed to supporting interim measures to modernise CPOs in advance of legislation. We are reviewing the current framework for dealing with these. This will build on the Scottish Law Commission's review of compulsory purchase and land compensation law conducted in 2014-16.
You can view the presentations, agenda and key learning points from the CPO Assembly that took place on 12 December 2017 on our blog.
We have created a list of CPO Lead Officers for each policy area.
Telephone: 0141 242 5442
Area 2-H (South)
Planning and Architecture Division
The Scottish Government