Published references cited in consultation responses
The references below have been cited by respondents within their further comments. The substantial majority were cited by respondents broadly opposed to the use of electronic training aids (at Question 1 and elsewhere). The formal evidence sources cited as supporting the case for electronic training aids were the DEFRA commissioned reports Cooper et al, 2013.
If a partial reference was provided (for example a surname and date only) the research team have sought to provide a full reference. A degree of judgment may have had to be used in deciding the document or evidence source to which respondent(s) were referring. If this was the case, references have been marked with an asterisk (*).
Please note that, in addition to published references of the type listed below, a number of respondents referred to a range of other, primarily web-based, materials. These included information and videos on animal trainer websites, other material posted on video sharing websites or written material provided by various organisations, including campaign groups.
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Beerda, B., Schilder, M.B.H., van Hooff, J.A.R.A.M., de Vries, H.W., Mol, J.A. (1998) Behavioural, saliva cortisol and heart rate responses to different types of stimuli in dogs. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 58: 365-381.
Blackwell, E.J., Bolster, C., Richards, G.J., Loftus, B. and Casey, R.A. (2012) The use of electronic collars for training domestic dogs: estimated prevalence, reasons and risk factors for use, and owner perceived success as compared to other training methods. BMC Vet. Res. 8: 93-101.
Blackwell, E.J. and Casey, R.A. (2006) The use of shock collars and their impact on the welfare of dogs: A review of the current literature. West Sussex, U.K: RSPCA, Horsham. Report to the RSPCA. https://www.rspca.org.uk/servlet/Satellite?blobcol=urlblob&blobheader=application%2Fpdf&blobkey=id&blobtable=RSPCABlob&blobwhere=1138718966544&ssbinary=true
Blackwell, E.J., Twells, C., Seawright, A. and Casey, R.A. (2008) The relationship between training methods and the occurrence of behavior problems, as reported by owners, in a population of domestic dogs. J. Vet. Behav. 3: 207-217.
Bodnariu, A. (2005) The effects of stress on cognitive abilities in kennelled dogs. MSc Thesis : The University of Edinburgh, Royal School of Veterinary Studies, Division of Animal Health & Welfare, Easter Bush Veterinary Centre, Easter Bush, Roslin EH25 9RG.
*Bolshakov V., Kandel E., Benes F., Carlezon W., & Tsevtkov E. (2002) Fear conditioning occludes LTPinduced presynaptic enhancement of synaptic transmission in the cortical pathway to the lateral amygdala. Neuron, 34: 289-300.
Bradshaw J.W.S., Blackwell E.J.and Casey R.A. (2009) Dominance in domestic dogs - useful construct or bad habit? J. Vet. Behav. 4: 135-144.
Brambell Committee Report (1965). Report of the Technical Committee to Enquire into the Welfare of Animals kept under intensive Livestock Husbandry Systems, The Brambell Report, December 1965. London: HMSO. ISBN 0 10 850286 4
British Small Animal Veterinary Association (2012) Position Statement on Aversive Training Methods (Electronic and Other Aversive Collars). Position Statement No. 31.
Burch, M. and Bailey, J. (1999) How Dogs Learn. New York, NY: Wiley Publishing Inc.
Casey, R. A., Loftus, B., Bolster, C., Richards, G. J., and Blackwell, E. J. (2014) Human directed aggression in domestic dogs (Canis familiaris): Occurrence in different contexts and risk factors. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 152: 52-63.
Church, R.M., LoLordo, V., Overmier, J.B., Solomon, R.L. and Turner, L.H. (1966) Cardiac responses to shock in curarized dogs: Effects of shock intensity and duration, warning signal, and prior experience with shock. J. Comp. Physiol. Psych. 62 (1).
Companion Animal Welfare Council (2012) The Use of Electric Pulse Training Aids ( EPTAs) in Companion Animals. http://eprints.lincoln.ac.uk/14640/1/CAWC%20ecollar%20report.pdf
Cooper, J.J., Cracknell, N., Hardiman, J., Wright, H. and Mills, D. (2014) The Welfare Consequences and Efficacy of Training Pet Dogs with Remote Electronic Training Collars in Comparison to Reward Based Training. PLOS ONE 9(9): e102722.
Cooper, J., Wright, H., Mills, D., Casey, R., Blackwell, E., van Driel, K. and Lines J. (2013) Studies to assess the effect of pet training aids, specifically remote static pulse systems, on the welfare of domestic dogs. Defra Research Project AW1402: Final Report. http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Default.aspx?Module=More&Location=None&ProjectID=15332
Cooper, J., Cracknell, N., Hardiman, J. and Mills,D. (2013) Studies to assess the effect of pet training aids, specifically remote static pulse systems, on the welfare of domestic dogs; field study of dogs in training. Defra Research Project AW1402a: Final Report. http://randd.defra.gov.uk/Default.aspx?Module=More&Location=None&ProjectID=17568
Deldalle, S. and Gaunet, F. (2014) Effects of 2 training methods on stress-related behaviors of the dog (Canis familiaris) and on the dog-owner relationship. J. Vet. Behav. 9: 58-65.
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Feddersen-Petersen, D.and Teutsch, G.M. (1999) Grundlagen einer tierschutzgerechten Ausbildung von Hunden. Verband für das Deutsche Hundewesen ( VDH), 1st ed., Dortmund, Germany.
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Herron, M., Shofer, F. and Reisner, I. (2009) Survey of the use and outcome of confrontational and non-confrontational training methods in client-owned dogs showing undesired behaviors. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 117: 47-54.
Hiby, E.F., Rooney, N.J. and Bradshaw J.W.S. (2004) Dog training methods: their use, effectiveness and interaction with behaviour and welfare. Anim. Welfare 13: 63-69.
Jacques, J and Myers, A. (2007) Electronic training devices: a review of current literature. Anim. Behav. Consult.: Theor. Pract., 3, 22-39
Lieberman, D. (2000) Learning - Behavior and Cognition. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thompson Learning.
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Lindsay, S. (2005) Handbook of Applied Dog Behaviour and Training: Volume 3: Procedures and Protocols. Blackwell Publishing, Iowa, USA.
Lines, J. A. and van Driel, K. and Cooper, J. J. (2013) The characteristics of electronic training collars for dogs. Vet. Rec. 172 (11).
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Mertens, P.A. (2002) Canine aggression. In: Horwitz, D., Mills, D., Heath, S. (Eds.), BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Behavioural Medicine. BSAVA, Gloucester, pp. 195-215.
Mills, D.S. (2002) Learning, training and behaviour modification techniques. In: Horwitz, D., Mills, D., Heath, S. (Eds.), BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Behavioural Medicine. BSAVA, Gloucester, pp. 37-48.
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Reisner, I.R. (2003) Differential diagnosis and management of human-directed aggression in dogs. Vet. Clin. Small Anim. 33: 303-320.
Rooney, N.J. Cowan, S. (2011) Training methods and owner-dog interactions: Links with dog behaviour and learning ability . Appl Anim Behav Sci. 132(3-4): 169-177.
Rudolph, J.K. and Myers, L.J. (2004) Is the bark worse than the bite?. Vet Forum. 2004, 26-43.
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*Sankey, C., Häsler, B. and Hiby, E. (2012) Change in public perception of roaming dogs in Colombo City Collars not Cruelty. In 1st DPM conference. Colombo. Available at: https://secure.fera.defra.gov.uk/dogs2012/Comp PDFs Pres/HibyE.pdf
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Schalke, E., Stichnoth, J., Ott, S., Jones-Baade, R. (2007) Clinical signs caused by the use of electric training collars on dogs in everyday life situations. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 105: 369-380.
Schilder, M.B.H. and van der Borg, J.A.M. (2004) Training dogs with help of the shock collar: short and long term behavioural effects . Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 85: 319-334.
Schilder, M.B.H. (2005) Miscommunications in interactions between humans and their canine and feline pets. In F.H. de Jonge and R. van der Bos (Eds): The human-animal relationship; Forever and a day. Animals in Philosophy and Science. pp 98-109.
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Steiss, J.E., Schaffer, C., Ahmad, H.A. and Voith, V.L. (2007) Evaluation of plasma cortisol levels and behavior in dogs wearing bark control collars. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 106: 96-106.
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Wells D.L. (2001) The effectiveness of a citronella spray collar in reducing certain forms of barking in dogs. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 73: 299-309.
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