1. The methodological challenges are discussed in more detail in Chapter 10 of this report. Benefits of environmental research can be wide ranging including preservation of natural resources (a benefit in its own right and underpinning sectors of the economy that depend on natural resources), avoidance of re-instatement costs and realising value from non or under exploited resources. The challenges include the difficulties of valuing environmental quality and of quantifying costs avoided. This estimate is based on one example of an environmental benefit, based on published research on the social and economic implications of nitrogen in the environment.
2. Throughout this report, employment is measured in terms of headcount jobs supported.
3. Meagher L (2014), Review of the impact of the Scottish Government rural and environment strategic research portfolio on policy and practice (unpublished). See also, RESAS Strategic Research Highlights, Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2016/12/8280 and http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0047/00474715.pdf
4. Scottish Government's Rural Affairs and the Environment Strategic Research Strategy 2011-2016 http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/02/8714
5. A copy of the strategy is available here: http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0044/00443642.pdf
7. This activity is 'Non Programme Research Activity', further details: http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Research/About/EBAR/StrategicResearch/future-research-strategy/nonprogramme
8. Source: http://www.bioss.ac.uk/
9. Source: http://www.moredun.org.uk/
10. Source: http://www.abdn.ac.uk/rowett/about/index.php
11. Source: http://www.rbge.org.uk/home
12. Source: http://www.sruc.ac.uk/
13. Goldscheider (2002), Use of the 25% rule in valuing IP, les Nouvelles.
14. Scottish Government (2016), Statistics - Farm Livestock, Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Agriculture-Fisheries/agritopics/alllivestock
15. BBSRC (2016), Bioscience Facts and Figures
16. Savary et al. (June 2012), Crop losses due to diseases and their implications for global food production losses and food security.
17. Scottish Government (2016), Economic Report on Scottish Agriculture 2016 Edition, Table A1
18. Potato Council (May 2009), Pesticide availability for potatoes following revision of directive 91/414/ EEC: impact assessments and identification of research priorities
19. BiGGAR Economics (December 2016), Economic impact of the James Hutton Institute
20. Brassley P (2000), Output and technical change in twentieth-century British agriculture.
21. Produce Business UK (16 th September 2016), Blueberry growers in Peru respond to UK retail requirements
22. Knowledge Scotland (18 th July 2011), Developing a British Blueberry Industry
23. The food and drink sector, as defined by the Scottish Government, encompasses: crop and animal production; fishing and aquaculture; manufacture of food products; and manufacture of beverages.
24. Scottish Government (December, 2016), Growth Sector Statistics Database.
25. Scotland Food and Drink, Food and Health Innovation Service (2012), Good Practices on Regional Research and Innovation Strategies for Smart Specialisation
26. Scottish Enterprise and HIE (2013), The UK Retail Edible Rapeseed Oil Category
27. Williams et al (2010), The Economic Cost of Invasive Non-Native Species on Great Britain.
28. Williams E (2012), Preliminary exploration of the use of ecosystem service values in a regulatory context
29. Scottish Natural Heritage (2008), The economic impact of Scotland's natural environment
30. Rayment et. al. (2009), the economic benefits of environmental policy
31. PricewaterhouseCoopers (2006), Economic benefits of environmental science
32. Department for Business, Innovation and Skills (2011), The Returns to Higher Education Qualifications
33. HEFCE (2011), PhD Study: Trends and Profiles 1996-97 to 2009-10
34. BBSRC (2016), Bioscience Facts and Figures
35. Le, C. et al. (2014), Economic burden and cost determinants of coronary heart disease in rural southwest China: a multilevel analysis, Public Health, Volume 129, Issue 1, 68 - 73
36. Diabetes UK (Oct 2016), Facts and Stats
37. European Commission (2013), A Study on the Economic Effects of Current VAT Rates Structures
Email: Eilidh Totten, Eilidh.Totten@gov.scot
Phone: 0300 244 4000 – Central Enquiry Unit
The Scottish Government
St Andrew's House