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Publication - Statistics Publication

Education Maintenance Allowances (EMA): 2015-2016

Published: 7 Nov 2017
Part of:
Children and families, Education, Statistics
ISBN:
9781788514071

The EMA programme aims to provide support for young people aged 16 to 19 from low income families to overcome financial barriers to stay on in education.

Contents
Education Maintenance Allowances (EMA): 2015-2016
2. Analysis and Interpretation

 

2. Analysis and Interpretation

Recipients of EMA

5. In 2015-16 there were 31,735 young people who received EMA payments, a decrease of 4% (1,445) from 33,180 in 2014-15.

Figure 1: Young people in receipt of EMA by institution type: 2006-07 to 2015-16

Figure 1: Young people in receipt of EMA by institution type: 2006-07 to 2015-16

6. Figure 1 shows how the number of people receiving EMA has changed over time. The overall total show a downward trend in the number of claimants since 2006-07.

7. In 2015-16, the majority (68% or 21,620) of EMA recipients accessed the programme while studying at a Scottish school, with the remaining 32% (10,115) attending a Scottish college ( Table 1).

8. Of all school pupils in Scotland aged 16 to 19 [1] , 31% (21,620) received at least one EMA payment in 2015-16 ( Table 1). This is the same proportion as seen in 2014-15, but a decrease from a high of 41% in 2006-07. Please note that this decrease does not necessarily indicate the rate of uptake has decreased. There are no data available on the number of school pupils who were eligible for EMA each year.

9. Of all full time college students [2] aged 16 to 19, 21% (10,115 [3] )* received at least one EMA payment in 2015-16 ( Table 1). This is the same proportion as seen in 2014-15.

*This was originally published as 11,015 (23%) representing an increase of 2 pp. This has been corrected on 8th November 2017.

Gender

10. In 2015-16, 49% (15,500) of EMA recipients were male and 51% (16,235) were female. [4]

11. Table 1 shows that the difference between the number of male and female EMA recipients at schools gradually decreased to close to zero from 2008-09 to 2014-15. This gap has reopened to 410 in 2015-16. The difference has similarly decreased for college students, and has remained steady since 2012-13.

Table 1: Young people in receipt of EMA by institution type and gender: 2006-07 to 2015-16

  Academic Year Total Male Female
All Institutions 2006-07 37,480 17,245 20,235
2007-08 37,275 16,955 20,320
2008-09 39,000 17,870 21,130
2009-10 37,230 17,385 19,850
2010-11 34,780 16,660 18,115
2011-12 34,390 16,730 17,660
2012-13 35,515 17,400 18,115
2013-14 35,470 17,175 17,885
2014-15 33,180 16,300 16,875
2015-16 31,735 15,500 16,235
Schools 2006-07 24,430 11,485 12,945
2007-08 24,020 11,270 12,750
2008-09 24,460 11,555 12,905
2009-10 23,290 11,095 12,190
2010-11 21,120 10,240 10,880
2011-12 22,135 10,900 11,235
2012-13 23,335 11,530 11,810
2013-14 24,195 11,930 12,220
2014-15 22,530 11,245 11,285
2015-16 21,620 10,605 11,015
Colleges 2006-07 13,050 5,760 7,290
2007-08 13,255 5,685 7,570
2008-09 14,540 6,315 8,225
2009-10 13,945 6,285 7,655
2010-11 13,660 6,420 7,235
2011-12 12,255 5,830 6,430
2012-13 12,175 5,870 6,305
2013-14 11,275 5,250 5,665
2014-15 10,650 5,055 5,590
2015-16 10,115 4,895 5,220

Figures in this table have been rounded to the nearest 5.
See paragraph 3 for time series comparability.

Age

12. Figure 2 shows time series data for the different ages that receive EMA. Young people cannot receive EMA until they reach school leaving age. However, for data collection purposes, age is recorded on 30 th September each academic year, therefore there are some 15 year olds recorded as receiving EMA.

Figure 2: Young people in receipt of EMA by Age: 2006-07 to 2015-16

Figure 2: Young people in receipt of EMA by Age: 2006-07 to 2015-16

13. As in previous years, the majority of EMA recipients were 16 years old (14,405, 45%). 18 year olds and over make up the smallest number of EMA recipients (2,510; 8%). ( Table 2).

14. There has been a decrease of 4% in the number of 15 year olds (170); a decrease of 4% in the number of 16 year olds (545) and a decrease of 8% in 17 year olds (935) receiving EMA. Conversely, there has been an increase of 9% (200) in the number of over 18 year olds claiming EMA, which has been largely caused by college students.

Table 2: Young people in receipt of EMA by deprivation and age: 2006-07 to 2015-16

Deprivation Area Academic Year Age
Total 15 16 17 18+
All Areas 2006-07 37,480 6,895 18,870 11,110 605
2007-08 37,275 6,505 18,865 11,210 690
2008-09 39,000 6,850 19,400 12,055 690
2009-10 37,230 5,520 17,305 12,950 1,450
2010-11 34,780 4,915 15,855 11,345 2,665
2011-12 34,390 5,280 15,955 11,040 2,115
2012-13 35,515 5,525 16,275 11,540 2,170
2013-14 35,420 5,210 16,825 11,405 1,975
2014-15 33,180 4,645 14,950 11,280 2,310
2015-16 31,735 4,475 14,405 10,345 2,510
20% most deprived areas 2006-07 10,780 2,015 5,325 3,250 190
2007-08 10,760 1,810 5,440 3,280 230
2008-09 11,575 2,095 5,650 3,610 220
2009-10 11,495 1,725 5,340 3,895 525
2010-11 11,195 1,545 5,085 3,690 875
2011-12 11,060 1,660 5,135 3,625 640
2012-13 11,725 1,805 5,415 3,820 685
2013-14 12,135 1,805 5,750 3,920 660
2014-15 11,590 1,640 5,250 3,875 825
2015-16 11,015 1,570 4,980 3,600 865
80% least deprived areas 2006-07 26,470 4,835 13,420 7,810 410
2007-08 26,330 4,670 13,325 7,880 455
2008-09 27,240 4,720 13,670 8,390 460
2009-10 25,370 3,755 11,810 8,915 885
2010-11 23,290 3,335 10,645 7,560 1,750
2011-12 23,075 3,580 10,700 7,330 1,460
2012-13 23,515 3,695 10,735 7,625 1,460
2013-14 23,100 3,380 10,990 7,425 1,305
2014-15 21,425 2,980 9,620 7,355 1,465
2015-16 20,555 2,890 9,350 6,690 1,625

Figures in this table have been rounded to the nearest 5. Deprivation category was identified for over 99% of EMA recipients. [5]
SIMD 2012 has been used for academic years 2013-14. 2014-15, and 2015-16.
SIMD 2009 has been used for all other academic years.
See paragraph 3 for time series comparability.

Deprivation

15. The proportion of EMA recipients living in Scotland’s 20% most deprived areas in 2015-16 remained stable at 35% (11,015). This is an increase 6 percentage points since 2006-07 (see Table 3). People from the 20% most deprived areas are therefore over-represented among EMA recipients. This might be explained in part by the fact that one of the main criterion for eligibility is household income, and income is a key domain in the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation. [6]

16. The actual number of EMA recipients living in Scotland’s 20% most deprived areas in 2015-16 decreased by 575, in line with the overall decrease in EMA recipients (1,445).

17. Figure 3 shows that the trend over time is an increase in the proportion of school pupils receiving EMA who live in the 20% most deprived areas, which increased by 7 percentage points between 2006-07 and 2015-16 to 33%, compared to a 3 percentage point increase among college students over the same period, to 37%.

18. The proportion of college students receiving EMA who are from deprived areas has remained relatively stable over recent years, and has consistently been higher than the proportion for school pupils. This might be explained in part by the fact that people from the 20% most deprived areas in Scotland are generally over-represented in Scotland’s colleges.

Figure 3: Percentage of young people in receipt of EMA that are from deprived areas by institution type: 2006-07 to 2015-16

Figure 3: Percentage of young people in receipt of EMA that are from deprived areas by institution type: 2006-07 to 2015-16

SIMD 2012 has been used for academic years 2013-14, 2014-15, and 2015-16.
SIMD 2009 has been used for all other academic years.

Table 3: Young people in receipt of EMA by deprivation area and institution type: 2006-07 to 2015-16

  Total Schools Colleges
Year Total 20% most deprived areas 80% least deprived areas Total 20% most deprived areas 80% least deprived areas Total 20% most deprived areas 80% least deprived areas
2006-07 37,480 10,780 26,470 24,430 6,320 17,920 13,050 4,460 8,555
2007-08 37,275 10,760 26,330 24,020 6,075 17,770 13,255 4,685 8,560
2008-09 39,000 11,575 27,240 24,460 6,290 18,000 14,540 5,280 9,240
2009-10 37,230 11,495 25,370 23,290 6,340 16,800 13,945 5,155 8,570
2010-11 34,780 11,195 23,290 21,120 6,110 14,890 13,660 5,085 8,400
2011-12 34,390 11,060 23,075 22,135 6,610 15,365 12,255 4,455 7,710
2012-13 35,515 11,725 23,515 23,335 7,230 15,945 12,175 4,495 7,575
2013-14 35,470 12,135 23,100 24,195 7,890 16,140 11,275 4,245 6,960
2014-15 33,180 11,590 21,425 22,530 7,490 14,915 10,650 4,100 6,505
2015-16 31,735 11,015 20,555 21,620 7,235 14,280 10,115 3,780 6,280

Figures in this table have been rounded to the nearest 5
Deprivation category was identified for over 99% of EMA recipients. For more information please refer to the methodological note. [7]
SIMD 2012 has been used for academic years 2013-14. 2014-15, and 2015-16.
SIMD 2009 has been used for all other academic years.
See paragraph 3 for time series comparability.

EMA Payments

Total Spend on Payments

19. The EMA payment spend in 2015-16 was £24.8 million, a decrease of £1.7 million in 2014-15. The decrease was driven by fewer school pupils claiming EMA (down £1.2 million from £18.6 million to £17.4 million), while the overall payment spend for college students continued to decrease over the same period (down £0.5 million from £7.9 million to £7.4 million).

20. The proportion of the EMA payment spend for school pupils in 2015-16 was 70%, unchanged from 2014-15 ( Table 4).

Table 4: EMA spend by institution type: 2006-07 to 2015-16

  Academic Year Number of Recipients Total (£) Weekly Payments (£) Bonus Payments (£) Average Spend (£)
Total 2006-07* 37,480 32,433,285 25,430,085 7,003,200 678
2007-08* 37,275 33,340,440 25,977,090 7,363,350 697
2008-09* 39,000 35,441,160 27,537,960 7,903,200 706
2009-10* 37,235 33,193,010 26,802,110 6,390,900 720
2010-11* 34,780 27,177,220 27,177,220 0 781
2011-12* 34,390 27,613,140 27,613,140 0 803
2012-13* 35,515 27,817,195 27,817,195 0 783
2013-14 35,470 28,592,255 28,592,255 0 806
2014-15 33,180 26,486,790 26,486,790 0 798
2015-16 31,735 24,759,975 24,759,975 0 780
Schools 2006-07* 24,430 22,923,580 17,975,080 4,948,500 736
2007-08* 24,020 23,537,100 18,374,400 5,162,700 765
2008-09* 24,460 24,182,020 18,755,020 5,427,000 767
2009-10* 23,290 23,477,730 18,295,230 5,182,500 786
2010-11* 21,120 17,805,960 17,805,960 0 843
2011-12* 22,135 18,678,480 18,678,480 0 844
2012-13* 23,335 19,503,310 19,503,310 0 836
2013-14 24,195 20,374,920 20,374,920 0 842
2014-15 22,530 18,578,760 18,578,760 0 825
2015-16 21,620 17,383,110 17,383,110 0 804
Colleges 2006-07* 13,050 9,509,705 7,455,005 2,054,700 571
2007-08* 13,255 9,803,340 7,602,690 2,200,650 574
2008-09* 14,540 11,259,140 8,782,940 2,476,200 604
2009-10* 13,945 9,715,280 8,506,880 1,208,400 610
2010-11* 13,660 9,371,260 9,371,260 0 686
2011-12* 12,255 8,934,660 8,934,660 0 729
2012-13* 12,175 8,313,885 8,313,885 0 683
2013-14 11,275 8,217,335 8,217,335 0 729
2014-15 10,650 7,908,030 7,908,030 0 743
2015-16 10,115 7,376,865 7,376,865 0 729

Figures in this table have been rounded to the nearest 5. *Years where there were three levels of payment (£10, £20, £30). See paragraph 3 for time series comparability.

21. The proportion of the EMA payment spend for each gender was 49% for males and 51% for females. This mirrors the gender balance for the overall number of EMA recipients ( Table 5).

Table 5: EMA payment spend (£) by gender: 2006-07 to 2015-16

Academic Year Number of Recipients Total Payments (£) Weekly Payments (£) Bonus Payments (£)
Male Female Male Female Male Female Male Female
2006-07 17,245 20,235 14,847,315 17,585,970 11,663,865 13,766,220 3,183,450 3,819,750
2007-08 16,955 20,320 15,207,780 18,132,660 11,864,430 14,112,660 3,343,350 4,020,000
2008-09 17,870 21,130 16,250,880 19,190,280 12,636,180 14,901,780 3,614,700 4,288,500
2009-10 17,385 19,850 15,527,450 17,664,240 12,545,450 14,255,640 2,982,000 3,408,600
2010-11 16,660 18,115 12,939,870 14,237,350 12,939,870 14,237,350 0 0
2011-12 16,730 17,660 13,327,560 14,285,580 13,327,560 14,285,580 0 0
2012-13 17,400 18,115 13,544,105 14,273,090 13,544,105 14,273,090 0 0
2013-14 17,175 17,885 13,807,980 14,526,005 13,807,980 14,526,005 0 0
2014-15 16,300 16,875 12,864,120 13,620,240 12,864,120 13,620,240 0 0
2015-16 15,500 16,235 12,009,195 12,749,520 12,009,195 12,749,520 0 0

Figures in this table have been rounded to the nearest 5.
See paragraph 3 for time series comparability.

Average Payment Spend per Person (excluding bonus payments)

Figure 4 charts the EMA programme’s average annual payment spend per person for the last 5 academic years. Average payment spend was calculated by dividing the total spend on weekly payments by the number of people who received an EMA payment each year. Bonus payments were excluded to allow comparisons with previous years’ data, as bonus payments ceased in 2010-11 ( Table 4).

Figure 4: Average EMA spend per claimant by institution type: 2011-12 to 2015-16

Figure 4: Average EMA spend per claimant by institution type: 2011-12 to 2015-16

22. Figure 4 shows that the average EMA payment spend per person decreased in 2015-16 (£18 lower than in 2014-15).

23. Table 6 shows the differences in average spend between 2006-07 and 2015-16. The average payment in 2015-16 is £780 per person, showing an increase of 15% (£102) since 2006-07.

Table 6: Average EMA spend by institution type: 2006-07 and 2015-16

  2006-07 2015-16 Change (£)
Number Weekly Payments (£) Average Payment (£) Number Weekly Payments (£) Average Payment (£)
School 24,430 17,975,080 736 21,620 17,383,110 804 68
College 13,050 7,455,005 571 10,115 7,376,865 729 158
Total 37,480 25,430,085 678 31,735 24,759,975 780 102

Numbers in this table have been rounded to the nearest five.
Average spend calculated using rounded numbers. Average was calculated by dividing respective payment total by number of recipients.
See paragraph 3 for time series comparability.

24. One explanation for the increases in average payment is the removal of the £10 and £20 payment levels after 2008-09. Since all students now receive the maximum £30 weekly payment, the average spend per person would be expected to be higher in subsequent academic years.

25. The difference between the average payment for colleges and schools in 2015-16 is the smallest since the EMA programme began.

Impact of January 2016 policy extension

26. In January 2016 the EMA programme was extended, increasing the household income threshold for claimants under both schemes. This raised the threshold for households with one dependent child to £24,421 from £20,351, and households with two or more dependent children to £26,884 from £22,403. It also allowed students on non-advanced part-time college courses to claim EMA.

27. To estimate the number of claimants affected, those who have received no payments up until January 2016, but receive at least one payment before the end of the academic year were analysed. Only claimants aged 16 and above are included in the estimate, this is because it is difficult to directly attribute a 15 year old’s claim after January to be due to the EMA extension, as a claimant must reach school leaving age (typically 16) before they can claim EMA. There may be other reasons a claimant does not receive any payments until this time, including not having adequate attendance or meeting learning agreements, a change in family circumstances, or being unaware of eligibility for EMA.

28. Analysing the data, it is estimated that this EMA extension has impacted approximately 800 school pupils, and 25 college students. These are students who previously would not have been eligible for EMA, but now are. As explained in the previous paragraph, it is likely that these figures are low estimates and some 15 year old students have also been affected, however it is difficult to directly attribute their EMA claim to the EMA extension therefore they have been excluded.


Contact

Email: Scott Dickie

Phone: 0300 244 4000 – Central Enquiry Unit

The Scottish Government
St Andrew's House
Regent Road
Edinburgh
EH1 3DG