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Publication - Report

Equality Outcomes and Mainstreaming Report 2013

Published: 30 Apr 2013

Report on how the public sector equality duty is being integrated across Scottish Government functions.

232 page PDF

3.2MB

232 page PDF

3.2MB

Contents
Equality Outcomes and Mainstreaming Report 2013
Part 2. Equality Outcomes

232 page PDF

3.2MB

Part 2. Equality Outcomes

Introduction

2.1 The Scottish Government is committed to improving the outcomes for the people of Scotland, and to addressing the significant inequalities that we know exist in Scottish society. Our policies and programmes reflect that ambition but we know that there is more that we can do. The Equality Outcomes that we set will help us to make further progress and to make a difference.

2.2 The Scottish Government has developed a set of outcomes which cover the following protected characteristics:

  • age;
  • disability;
  • gender reassignment;
  • pregnancy and maternity;
  • race;
  • religion or belief;
  • sex;
  • sexual orientation.

2.3 Our intention is to improve data collection and evaluation, transparency and accountability. Our Equality Outcomes add value to work already in progress and provide real opportunity to examine our role as an employer and as a public policy maker. They are positioned at the heart of our improvement agenda to raise the standard of performance against the Equality duty.

The Legal Context

2.4 "Equality Outcome" means a result that the Scottish Government aims to achieve in order to further one or more of the needs mentioned in section 149(1) of the Equality Act 2010.

2.5 Equality Outcomes in this report generally are set to cover the functions for which that body is responsible. So our outcomes do not cover activity for which other public bodies are responsible. Local authorities, health boards and other public authorities covered by the legislation will set outcomes which relate to their responsibilities.

2.6 "Equality duty" means the duty to have due regard to the need to eliminate unlawful discrimination, advance equality of opportunity and foster good relations.

Scottish Government Approach to Setting Equality Outcomes

2.7 The public sector landscape is changing and the Scottish Government believes the public sector equality duty is important in its work to progress reform and improve public services, to make the shift towards prevention and to respond to difficult economic conditions.

2.8 Communities are facing difficult times and now more than ever it is important to ensure that policies for which we are responsible and practices over which we have influence are taking account of their needs and experiences. Our outcomes are designed to support improvement in both policy and practice.

2.9 We believe that equality should be an integral part of our business and that our equality outcomes should be similarly integral to our business performance. As such our Equality Outcomes are designed to align with the Government's economic strategy and our strategic objectives. They contribute to the Scottish Government's National Performance Framework and in particular to the delivery of the National Outcome: 'we have tackled the significant inequalities in Scottish society'. Links to National Outcomes are contained within each Equality Outcome.

2.10 The Scottish Government aspires to a more diverse workforce but at this time of constrained resources the opportunities to realise that ambition are limited. Nevertheless our People Strategy is designed to support the organisation through this period and ensure that employees have an environment within which they can thrive. The public sector equality duty with the equality outcomes identified will be another helpful driver.

Involving Others in the Development of Equality Outcomes

2.11 The Scottish Government supports a number of national intermediary organisations to promote equality, challenge discrimination and work closely with equality communities to improve their life chances and opportunities. We value their engagement with us and the insight they provide through our on-going dialogue and collaboration.

2.12 We met with intermediary organisations throughout the development process.

We explored with them, early on, our approach to setting the outcomes and sought their views on priorities, issues and evidence. A number provided supporting evidence ahead of hosting events with equality communities.

2.13 A programme of events hosted by different communities was organised to discuss the outcomes and the priorities communities saw over the next four years. Headline data was provided for these meetings to aid discussion.

2.14 Scottish Government facilitated events hosted by the following organisations:

  • BEMIS;
  • CRER;
  • Inclusion Scotland and Independent Living in Scotland;
  • Engender;
  • LGBT Youth;
  • Scottish Refugee Council; and
  • Scottish Women's Convention.

2.15 In addition we welcome the consultation carried out by the Scottish Women's Convention with their local networks to support the process. We welcome the helpful input from the Black Leaders' network and CRER, and the consideration given by the Interfaith Scotland. We also acknowledge the national engagement and research carried out by the Equality Network. The findings have, along with the Scottish Government evidence reviews and engagement sessions, informed decisions on the development of the Outcomes.

2.16 More broadly we have drawn on the work of others such as the Scottish Parliament's Equal Opportunities Committee, the STUC Women's Committee and Independent Living Programme and from the material and discussion at the Women's Employment Summit held in September 2012.

2.17 The Scottish Government Diversity Team consulted with staff networks, Human Resources and trade unions with a particular emphasis on the priorities and issues for our role as an employer.

Evidence

2.18 The Scottish Government has conducted a series of evidence reviews to inform the development of the Equality Outcomes. Individual evidence reviews have been developed to explore experiences and outcomes for each relevant protected characteristic. Each review reports on the available evidence on a range of policy areas including poverty, health, crime and transport.

Deciding on the Outcomes

2.19 The Equality Outcomes do not cover all that we do on equality neither do they indicate all that is important on equality. They are areas of activity on which we believe there should be some focus over the coming four years because:

a) they are issues raised by communities and translated into outcomes appropriate to our functions, competencies and responsibilities; or

b) they are issues of process and practice which need to be addressed for the effective implementation of duty and to improve our performance on the duty; or

c) the available evidence shows that there are key issues that need to be addressed.

2.20 A number of issues raised during the discussions have been included in the outcomes:

  • Disabled people's access to justice, in particular advice services, was strongly advocated. This is particularly important at this time of welfare reform and the impact of measures on disabled people.
  • The Women's Employment Summit highlighted a number of issues to be taken forward including occupational segregation and this was supported by the discussions with a number of women's and men's organisations. In addition there was a strong call for a focus on tackling the underlying assumptions about men's and women's roles in the economy. The outcome covers these elements and includes childcare.
  • The discrimination against Gypsies/Travellers was documented in the report of the Equal Opportunities Committee and there was compelling evidence for identifying this as an issue to be given focus in the period ahead.
  • Women's organisations argued strongly for an outcome on Violence against Women as it remains one of the major problems of violence in Scotland. This has been reflected in an outcome.
  • Ethnic minority organisations sought outcomes on increasing the representation of ethnic minorities in the Scottish Government workforce and in improving the collection of monitoring information so that discrimination or disadvantage could be identified and tackled more readily. These issues have been incorporated into our outcomes.
  • The issues of diversity in public appointments and women on boards were raised and although progress has been made in these areas, there is still under-representation. This is covered in an outcome.
  • Discussions also highlighted the concerns which organisations have about the levels of understanding amongst policy makers about the public sector equality duty and around issues such as when to use positive action measures and to deal with conflicting equality interests when developing policy. Furthermore, threading through much of the discussion was a view that engagement with communities needed to be more innovative and effective, including ensuring the voices of those affected by discrimination were heard. Older people for example have been keen to strengthen the mechanisms to engage with public policy making. We have set an outcome which addresses these concerns.

2.21 We realise that there are significant issues in policy areas which have not been touched by the outcomes. Work will continue in these areas as it will across the Government more widely. Our approach to embedding equality across Government is outlined in part 1 of this report.

2.22 There were a number of issues which were raised during discussions but which are not being taken forward as outcomes:

  • Hate crime was of major concern to a number of groups. Whilst there was agreement about its importance there was less clarity about where any outcome might focus or indeed if the focus should more readily be at a local level. The Scottish Government has already legislated on hate crime and has taken forward specific pieces of work for example around sectarianism which features within the Justice Strategy as a priority. We also recognise the importance of tackling the underlying attitudes and behaviours which contribute to hate crime. Although we have not identified hate crime as an equality outcome at this stage, we do want to give it some further consideration and to reflect on whether this might form the basis of a further outcome or programme of work to be developed during the course of the coming period with the range of equality interests.
  • Sport and in particular the forthcoming Commonwealth Games were flagged by equality groups representing the protected characteristics of disability, race, gender and sexual orientation. In exploring this further, we are aware that work is already ongoing with SportsScotland and there is a positive programme developing. Information on this is provided in Annex D of this mainstreaming report. Other key policies highlighted by equality groups such as independent living and, child care although not specifically expressed as an outcome are nevertheless referenced in the outcomes. The outcome on disabled people's access to justice for example is an outcome within the Independent Living Programme.

Addressing the Gaps in Data

2.23 Significant progress has been made in the collection and dissemination of equality data but there remain gaps. This is a matter of concern to equality interests and public bodies alike. We have not made equality data an outcome but this may be an area for consideration as part of the proposals for supporting the delivery of the public sector equality duty which Ministers are duty bound to publish by the end of December 2013. 2

Implementation and Reporting

2.24 Implementation plans will be developed with each of the relevant policy areas within the Scottish Government. Oversight of the outcome delivery will be undertaken by the Mainstreaming Equality Team.

2.25 Our Equality Outcomes will provide a real opportunity to use the principles of the improvement framework to embed our statutory duties across the organisation and to add value to our mainstreaming agenda.

2.26 Over the next period we will want to consider:

a) with equality communities how best to engage around developing and implementing the outcomes;

b) taking stock of the range of outcomes published across the public sector;

c) how we might improve and support better delivery of the public sector equality duty including the focus of the Ministerial proposals for publication in December 2013;

d) the development of a longer-term strategic approach to equality including the identification of appropriate equality indicators.

2.27 We will report on progress towards each of the Equality Outcomes before the end of April 2015.

Scottish Government Equality Outcomes 2013-2017

Scottish Government Representative Workforce
Scottish Government - Equality and Diversity Matters
Ministerial Public Appointments
Violence Against Women is Reduced
Gypsies/Travellers
Women and Employment
Disability and Access to Justice and Advice
Education

Scottish Government Representative Workforce

90% of Scottish Government employees are responding to diversity monitoring by 2017 contributing to the Scottish Government workforce becoming broadly reflective of the Scottish population by 2025

Framing the equality issue

The Scottish Government wants to improve the outcomes for the communities that it serves. To 'be the change it wants to see', the Scottish Government needs a workforce more representative of those communities. It understands that there are deep rooted inequalities which act as barriers and therefore there is a responsibility to ensure that these are not perpetuated in the systems and procedures relating to the employment of and engagement with its staff.

Our current staffing profile does not yet reflect the wider Scottish population: although women make up 52% of the population and 51.3% of our workforce, only 36.3% are in our most senior grades: only 1.4% of our staff are from a minority ethnic background, compared to a recent (2009 i ) estimate of 3% in the wider Scottish population. And only 3.9% of our staff have recorded that they are a disabled person compared to a figure of 20% for the wider population.

We are aware also that the coverage of our employment data has gaps. Although we currently have a 78.3% response rate for ethnicity and 63% for disability, we only have 19.4% response rate for sexual orientation and 19.5% for religion and belief. We are aware that these need to be addressed to ensure that we have an effective evidence base for our employment policy decisions and work is underway to improve these response rates.

2011 Census data will provide robust information that will help us understand more about people's identities and experiences. The 2011 Census data will become available later in 2013 and the data will inform our understanding and decisions about what a representative workforce should look like.

We are committed to improving diversity of our staff. We however recognise that delivering our business at a time of constrained resources and declining headcount means opportunities to improve staff diversity solely through recruitment will be limited.

Latest Scottish Government employee data by pay band

Disability

April 2012 (% of staff)

Target (% of staff) ***

SCS 3

4.3

6

Band C

2.9

4.5

Band B

5.7

7.5

Band A

10.3

10

Ethnicity

SCS

**

2

Band C

1.1

2

Band B

1.7

2

Band A

2.4

2

Gender

SCS (Women)

36.9

40

Band C

48.3

****

Band B

50.6

****

Band A

59.0

****

Response rates to staff diversity monitoring

April 2013

Target (2015)

Ethnicity

78.3

80

Disability

63.0

80

Sexual orientation

19.4

80

Religion or belief

19.5

80

* All figures are percentages of known staff responses for the Scottish Government Main Bargaining Unit.
** Not published to preserve confidentiality
*** Our current targets reflect the data from Census 2001. We will revise these once data from Census 2011 becomes available.
**** No target set

Links to National Performance Framework

We have tackled the significant inequalities in Scottish society

Our public services are high quality, continually improving, efficient and responsive to local people's needs.

EQUALITY OUTCOME

90% of Scottish Government employees are responding to diversity monitoring by 2017 contributing to the Scottish Government workforce becoming broadly reflective of the Scottish population by 2025

Activity/Plans

  • Employee information should be collected with a 80% response rate across all characteristics by 2015; 90% by 2017 and 100% response rate by 2021
  • Undertake awareness raising of the Scottish Government as an employer and use positive action as appropriate to address under-representation.
  • Develop a plan for moving towards a more representative workforce by 2025.
  • Monitor and review our promotion and progression opportunities to ensure they are fair and transparent.
  • Review and update our monitoring categories on our HR electronic information system to reflect the revised Census categories.
  • Undertake targeted monitoring to address the gaps in our existing information.
  • Work with staff networks to increase the understanding and confidence of staff in employee monitoring.
  • Work with staff networks and trade unions to ensure that staff are able to work in a supportive and inclusive environment where they feel safe and respected.

Measuring Progress

  • Employee data, disaggregated by protected characteristic.
  • Annual employee survey responses provided by staff across protected characteristics on an annual basis.
  • Qualitative feedback mechanisms on staff experience.

Public Sector Equality Duty

eliminate discrimination

advance equality of opportunity

foster good relations

Protected Characteristics

age; disability; gender reassignment; race; religion or belief; sex; sexual orientation

Scottish Government - Equality and Diversity Matters

Scottish Government directorates are by 2017 more confident in and better informed on equality and diversity matters and can engage with partners and stakeholders to effect change and improvement

Framing the equality issue

Despite much progress people across the range of protected characteristics still experience inequality and discrimination. Public policy touches on many aspects of their lives and can be important in addressing these inequalities. In addition it is important for those making policy to recognise that a lack of attention to equality in policy and practice can lead unwittingly to creating or perpetuating discrimination or disadvantage. As such those engaged in public policy and in serving the public will be better equipped in the performance of their jobs if they are aware of, and have confidence in dealing with matters of equality and diversity.

The Scottish Government has a strong mainstreaming agenda to embed equality in the business of Government and its People Strategy commits it to creating an environment for individuals to thrive and to be successful. This includes creating the conditions for good people management and development, treating staff with dignity and respect and promoting equality and diversity.

Our employee survey helps us understand our staff and issues of concern to them. We know from that survey that there are differences in the levels of employee engagement between particular groups of staff. In addition, we know we currently have gaps in the information available to us due to the low numbers of staff declaring to belong to particular diversity groups, this means that making meaningful analysis is difficult.

We are also aware that an absence of external data can contribute to a lack of understanding by policy makers about the inequalities facing particular communities.

It is important too for those involved in policy making to be aware of the underlying attitudes which contribute to discriminatory behaviour. For example the 2010 Scottish Social Attitudes Survey module on attitudes to discrimination shows that progress is being made but that there are still negative attitudes towards equality groups and with some such as transgender people and Gypsies/Travellers being the subject of fairly widespread discriminatory attitudes ii .

More broadly there are some key aspects of the equality agenda which policy makers can find difficult or about which is it is helpful to have insight:

a) positive action and how/when to use it

b) how to address the needs/aspirations of different equality groups where these may seem to be in conflict for example in relation to sexual orientation, gender and religion and belief.

c) how to effectively engage with communities in a way that is empowering, strengthens their voice in policy making, has a wider and deeper reach and uses a broader range of media and technology including social media.

d) how to communicate in an inclusive and accessible manner, for example through using inclusive communication principles in a way that ensures our equality communities have access to Scottish Government information and communications.

e) how to work with a range of partners around the equality agenda and in equality impact assessment where services are being delivered more collaboratively

f) how to generate staff confidence around the collection and use of employment data and to maximise its use in areas such as pay and employment.

g) how to approach the intersectionality (or the cross over) between different characteristics .

Links to National Performance Framework

We have tackled the significant inequalities in Scottish society

Our public services are high quality, continually improving

EQUALITY OUTCOME

Scottish Government directorates are by 2017 more confident in and better informed on equality and diversity matters and can engage with partners and stakeholders to effect change and improvement

Activity/Plans

To continue to improve the current collection of information on staff across equality characteristics to increase understanding of different groups of staff.

To work with directorates dealing with key strategies to ensure that the equality dimensions are better reflected

Promote further awareness of staff policies on equality and diversity with particular emphasis on those groups and issues where there is limited data and information available - religion, sexual orientation and transgender by 2014.

To work with Scottish Transgender Alliance to increase the level of understanding of issues of gender identity/ reassignment as it relates to relevant policy areas - to have a programme outlined by end of 2013 with implementation through to 2017.

To develop and roll out by end of 2016 a targeted programme of information sharing and development around :

a) the use of positive action to promote equality

b) dealing with policy development where there are potential conflicts in the needs and aspirations of different equality groups.

c) the monitoring of staff and the use of data and information in relation to pay and employment

d) intersectionality across protected characteristics.

To develop an approach to engagement with equality communities by 2014 which is empowering, has a wider and deeper reach, which is more innovative in its use of methods and technology and which assists staff to undertake equality analysis and assessment particularly where there is collaboration between services and providers.

  • To support the opportunities for older people to have a voice in policy making through for example the strengthening of the Scottish Older People's Assembly.
  • To identify and implement mechanisms to raise awareness of inclusive communications principles for all staff by 2017.

To roll out the engagement approach across Government through to 2017 when it would be reviewed.

Measuring Progress

Explore the breadth and depth of understanding among Scottish Government staff of key equality and diversity issues, the extent to which they feel confident about these issues and what could be done to assist them in developing their confidence - initially in 2013 and then again in 2015 and 2017:

  • Use the findings generated to inform the development of an awareness raising programme.
  • Pilot and review the impact of the programme of awareness raising before rolling out across Scottish Government.

The methodology to be used in engaging with staff to be determined bearing in mind the limitations of a survey only approach.

In 2016, explore the views of people with protected characteristics about progress towards meeting this outcome. This could include polling groups/citizen juries - the nature and timing of this to be informed by the development of the programme of work on engagement with communities.

Public Sector Equality Duty

Equality of opportunity

Foster good relations

Protected Characteristics

All, with a focus on gender reassignment, religion or belief and sexual orientation.

Ministerial Public Appointments

Ministerial public appointments are more diverse reflecting broadly the general population by 2017

Framing the equality issue

Public bodies make decisions which are of relevance and importance to communities across Scotland. Ministers make appointments to the Boards and governing committees of many of these bodies and it is important that those serving come from the widest of backgrounds if those bodies are to have rounded and informed input and credibility across Scotland.

Appointment is on merit but under-representation of a range of groups makes it likely that talent is being lost or being under-utilised. There is a need therefore to address the barriers to appointment and through effective guidance and training to ensure that processes are fair and transparent. A key issue in parallel is to develop the experience and capacity of under-represented communities to be successful in appointment and thus to contribute to governance in the public sector.

Following on from the work undertaken by the Commissioner for Public Appointments to improve the diversity of public appointments, the Scottish Government Public Appointments Centre of Expertise now has the lead to drive this forward.

Whilst we await the data from the 2011 Census, we work within the context that 52% of the Scottish population are women; 3% are from a minority ethnic background, 20% are disabled people and 67% have a religion or belief (65% Christian). Figures on marital/civil partnership status vary across age-bands and the data on sexual orientation is currently unreliable.

For the year to 31 January 2013

  • 30.5% of our applicants and 39.2% of appointees were women.
  • 21.2% of our applicants were under 50, and 22.7% of appointees were under 50.
  • 14.1% of our applicants and 12.4% of our appointees were disabled people.
  • 4.9% of applicants came from a minority ethnic background, with 6.2% being appointed.
  • 2.6% of applicants were gay, lesbian or bisexual, with 6.2% appointed.
  • Over 50% of applicants were Christian, with 3.9% having another religion or belief.

Links to National Performance Framework

We have tackled the significant inequalities in Scottish society

Our public services are high quality, continually improving, efficient and responsive to local people's needs

EQUALITY OUTCOME

Ministerial public appointments are more diverse reflecting broadly the general population by 2017

Activity/Plans

  • We will work with the Commissioner stakeholders and equality communities to identify and implement mechanisms to raise awareness of public appointment opportunities, including a range of outreach activity.
  • We will focus activity during 2013/14, including holding a specific event, to identify and address the barriers to women's participation in public appointments and to explore the links with the wider work to improve women's representation on Boards.
  • We will work with our stakeholders to ensure that a wide range of applicants is encouraged to apply for our public appointments using a variety of mechanisms, including application support and other positive action initiatives.
  • We will look at what other opportunities exist to develop capacity and experience amongst equality communities and to encourage engagement in other kinds of public and civic appointments particularly at local level.

Measuring Progress

  • Annual data on public appointments applicants and appointees.

Public Sector Equality Duty

eliminate discrimination

advance equality of opportunity

Protected Characteristics

age; disability; gender reassignment; race; religion or belief; sex; sexual orientation.

Violence against women is reduced

Progress is made towards the reduction in violence against women by 2017 through a strategic and co-ordinated approach by agencies and women's organisations.

Framing the inequality issue

The Scottish Government is committed to a gender based approach to tackling violence against women. We believe that violence against women is an issue of such importance that resource and energy should be devoted to tackling it. A significant investment has been, and continues to be, made in ensuring appropriate support for the women and children affected and in ensuring that perpetrators are held accountable. Prevention and early intervention are also required in order to both reduce the effects and stop violence and abuse before it happens.

Gender is an important factor in the experience of violence. In the context of sexual violence and violence by partners and ex partners women experience a disproportionate rate of violence, as compared with men. Violence against women ( VAW) has an adverse impact on the individuals concerned, including any children and on the wider community. It is underpinned by gender inequality and abuse of power. The problem remains acute and the gender based approach to tackling the issue is important to successful intervention and resolution.

There were 59,847 incidents of domestic abuse recorded by the police in 2011 - 12. Of these, 46,439 (81%) had a female victim and a male perpetrator iii . For homicides recorded in the last ten years, 51% of female victims aged 16 - 70 were killed by their partner or ex-partner. For male victims of the same age, 6% were killed by their partner or ex-partner iv . There were 7359 sexual offences in 2011 - 12 and the majority of victims were female v .

Men experience high rates of more general violence and those between the ages of 16 -24 are most vulnerable vi . Therefore, specific strategies and approaches have been developed to reduce the levels of violence in Scotland. This includes programmes such as No Knives Better Lives carried out as part of the work of the Violence Reduction Unit.

While men also experience abuse by partners and crimes of sexual violence, it is less common and does not, by and large, heighten fears more broadly in the community as it does for women although the impact on individual victims can be severe.

Partners within same sex relationships may also experience abuse and violence.

It has been estimated that VAW costs the Scottish economy £4bn per annum vii .

While no woman is immune from violence, not all women experience it in the same way. Factors such as age, disability, ethnicity, pregnancy or poverty can heighten women's vulnerability to violence and abuse and its impact. Trans women can be particularly vulnerable in this respect, and may have significant difficulties in accessing services.

Links to National Performance Framework

We have tackled the significant inequalities in Scottish society

We have improved the life chances for children, young people and families at risk

We live our lives safe from crime, disorder and danger

EQUALITY OUTCOME

Progress is made towards the reduction in violence against women by 2017 through a strategic and co-ordinated approach by agencies and women's organisations

Activity/Plans

A Violence Against Women Strategy for Scotland, which provides a clear co-ordinated approach to reducing violence against women including commitments across Scottish Government and partners, will be published by the end of 2013.

An implementation plan will be developed for the strategy by Spring 2014.

Scottish Government to deliver on immediate commitments in the VAW strategy by 2017.

Continued support for current range of activities to 2015 to tackle violence against women, including funding for White Ribbon Scotland campaign to increase the numbers of men engaged in tackling violence against women.

The VAW Strategy will include actions where appropriate around specific issues for women with different protected characteristics and issues for trans women.

Measuring Progress

Following the publication of the Violence Against Women Strategy for Scotland, we will monitor and report on the progress of Scottish Government and partners in fulfilling the commitments for action made in the strategy. We will also set out (by Summer 2014) the statistical indicators that will be used to measure progress towards reducing violence against women - including, for example, measures of key intermediate outcomes such as attitudes towards violence against women among men, women and young people in Scotland.

We will include our progress towards developing indicators in the violence against women strategy which will be published by the end of this year.

We will also continue to draw on:

Scottish Crime and Justice Survey data

Data and information produced by Scottish Women's Aid and ASSIST

Public Sector Equality Duty

eliminate discrimination

advance equality of opportunity

Protected Characteristics

mainly sex but also gender reassignment, race, and disability

Gypsies/Travellers

Gypsies/Travellers experience less discrimination and more positive attitudes towards their culture and way of life by 2017.

Framing the equality issue

The Scottish Government recognises that Gypsies/Travellers are an important community in Scotland who have made, and continue to make, a significant contribution to the life of our nation. We believe in the importance of eliminating racism and racial discrimination against this community.

Gypsies/Travellers are subject to widespread levels of prejudice, discrimination and abuse. They experience much poorer education and health outcomes than other communities and can have difficulty accessing services which are appropriate for their needs. For example:

Life expectancy for Gypsies/Travellers, men and women, is 10 years lower than the national average viii ;

Gypsies/Travellers mothers are 20 times more likely than the rest of the population to have experienced the death of a child ix .

Gypsies/Travellers are in the group which has the lowest rates for educational attainment and leaver destinations (along with Occupational Travellers, and Other Travellers) x .

Gypsies/Travellers have limited voice and influence in the public policies which affect them.

The 2010 Scottish Social Attitudes Survey Attitudes to Discrimination and Positive Action module concluded that Gypsies/Travellers are the subject of widespread discriminatory attitudes xi . Successive reports from the Equal Opportunities Committee of the Scottish Parliament have highlighted the difficulties in accessing services and discrimination experienced by Gypsies/Travellers xii .

Links to National Performance Framework

We live in well-designed sustainable places where we are able to access the amenities and services we need.

We have tackled the significant inequalities in Scottish society

EQUALITY OUTCOME

Gypsies/Travellers experience less discrimination and more positive attitudes towards their culture and way of life by 2017

Activity/Plans

The Scottish Government will work with Gypsies/Travellers and stakeholders to determine the best way to raise awareness and improve understanding in order to tackle discriminatory attitudes and foster good relations between Gypsies/Travellers and settled communities.

We will work with Gypsies/Travellers to explore and build more sustainable means of engagement which take account of their culture and transient lifestyle. We will identify an appropriate approach by 2014 with a view to piloting the mechanism during 2014/15 and wider implementation as appropriate from 2015.

We will review the relevant existing data sources across a range of policy domains, and identify evidence gaps. This work will inform evidence requirements and plans moving forward.

We will work through a cross government group to take forward recommendations made by the Equal Opportunities Committee in their two reports on "Gypsy/Travellers and Care" and "Where Gypsy/Travellers Live".

Measuring Progress

We will assess the extent of discriminatory attitudes towards Gypsies/Travellers in Scotland over time.

This will include:

Analysis of the information from the Census 2011

Exploration of the opportunities to use surveys of public attitudes to provide insight on shifts in attitudes

We will assess the extent to which communities feel progress is being made and attitudes are shifting by:

Periodic collection of information and data from direct engagement with Gypsies/Travellers communities (see above) to establish a baseline and track changes over time.

Appropriate measurement of activities which follow from the Cross-Government Group on Gypsies/Travellers will be identified.

Public Sector Equality Duty

eliminate discrimination

advance equality of opportunity

foster good relations

Protected Characteristics

Race and with relevance to age and sex.

Women and Employment

Women's position in the economy and in employment is improved in the long term and reflected more comprehensively in Scottish Government economic policy and strategies by 2017.

Framing the equality issue

The Scottish Government recognises the importance of women to the economy and addressing issues of inequality. We are committed to gender equality and are supporting a range of activities to promote equality including those resulting from the women's employment summit 2012.

Men and women have different experiences in the labour market which reflect the traditional and often stereotypical assumptions about men's and women's roles in society. Women's roles and outcomes typically do not reflect their potential, and they are often concentrated in particular occupations such as catering, cleaning and caring which tend to be lower paid and less well valued. In other professional and managerial occupations they are under-represented in the higher levels or senior positions within organisations.

Occupational segregation, both vertical and horizontal, is one of the barriers which prevent women and men from fulfilling their potential in the labour market and employers from sourcing the best people for their jobs. It consequently contributes to the continuation of the gender pay gap and has the potential to impact negatively on the economic growth of Scotland.

Women with caring responsibilities often have to opt for part-time employment for flexibility. As most part-time work is in low paid, stereotypically "female" jobs, or jobs that are found at the bottom of pay and grading structures, this asserts a downward pressure on women's earnings relative to men's.

Women in full-time work, can be put off applying for promoted posts in workplaces where there may be a perception that senior roles are less flexible.

The importance of caring and unpaid work to the economy is often not recognised and there are particular issues for unpaid carers - both men and women, in accessing, or remaining in, employment. Around 60% of the identified 657,000 carers in Scotland are female.

The differential nature of men and women's employment and position in the economy is not always reflected in policy development and in key strategies and programmes. For example, economic models don't typically disaggregate employment within different sectors of the economy by gender or pay. They also focus on the formal economy - that is the goods and services which have a monetary transaction, which does not capture unpaid work. Extending economic models to capture these factors will provide a more holistic framework for analysis of policy on a broader socio-economic basis.

Links to National Performance Framework

We realise our full economic potential with more and better employment opportunities for our people

We have tackled the significant inequalities in Scottish society.

Equality Outcome

Women's position in the economy and in employment is improved in the long term and reflected more comprehensively in Scottish Government economic policy and strategies by 2017

Activity/Plans

The Council of Economic Advisers will take forward an analysis of the social and economic benefits of a high quality universal early learning and childcare system for children, parents, women, families and society as a whole. This analysis will:

  • draw on the best available international evidence to inform the position in Scotland;
  • look at different models of provision and funding; and
  • produce an analysis to consider how we can shift to levels of support commonplace across European countries.

The Council will draw on evidence from a range of experts in this area and will discuss initial results of the analysis at their next meeting in August 2013.

During 2013, the Scottish Government will shape and outline plans to improve women's experience in the labour market in Scotland through the Ministerial Group on Women's Employment. This plan will draw on the recommendations of the Women's Employment Summit. It will include activity on workforce issues, childcare and occupational segregation, such as:

  • By March 2014 the Cross Government Working Group on Occupational Segregation will have identified and co-ordinated work in the relevant policy areas across Government in relation to the recommendations made at the Women's Employment Summit and the Royal Society of Edinburgh's Tapping All Our Talents report.
  • Scottish Government will continue to fund the work of the Scottish Resource Centre for Women in Science, Engineering and Technology and Close the Gap, which seek to support the recruitment, retention, return and success of women where they are significantly under-represented; and to change employment practices and workplace cultures to support gender equality and tackle the pay gap; driving forward actions on occupational segregation
  • Within this work we will consider the particular issues which impact on the experience of ethnic minority women and disabled women in the employment.

To link this work to that being pursued in relation to the Equality Outcome which seeks to improve the diversity of the Scottish Government workforce.

Monitor and review our promotion and progression opportunities to ensure they are fair and transparent.

By 2016 to have developed an approach to data collection which enables the capture of data on utilisation of resources and time in Scottish households by gender.

By 2017 to have developed a more holistic economic framework that reflects the position and contribution (paid and unpaid) of women to the economy.

By 2017 to have heightened the understanding across Government of the issues relating to men and women's employment and position in the economy and the importance and benefits of gender equality for other outcomes for example improved educational attainment at 16, especially for boys, where the gender share of male staff is increased.

Measuring Progress

Reflect the progress with regard to the economic framework and modelling in the Equality Budget Statement(s) and Government Economic Strategy(s)

Draw on the evidence which becomes available from the reports on occupational segregation under the new equality regulations to publish statements on equal pay and occupational segregation:

  • for Scottish Government
  • for the wider public sector

Undertake an audit of Scottish Government key strategic documents in 2015 and 2017.

Explore the breadth and depth of understanding among Scottish Government staff of key equality and diversity issues, the extent to which they feel confident about these issues and what could be done to assist them in developing their confidence - initially in 2013 and then again in 2015 and 2017.

Longer term impact can be evidenced through:

  • Decreased gender pay gap in Scotland, and
  • Increased employment rates for women.

Public Sector Equality Duty

eliminate discrimination

advance equality of opportunity

Protected characteristic

All, but with particular focus on sex, disability and race.

Disability and Access to Justice and Advice

Disabled people have improved access to justice and to advice in relation to their rights by 2017.

Framing the equality issue

Individual and collective rights are only worthwhile when they can be exercised. Supporting these rights and ensuring that everyone has the opportunity to exercise them is therefore an important role of the state. A focus on widening access to justice is therefore key. This involves enhancing public legal capability, improving information and advice services and giving people greater options to engager with alternative dispute resolution. Justice Strategy 2012

Whilst disabled people, like all people will have a variety of experiences in accessing justice there is evidence that access can be more difficult for disabled people. As identified in the Access to Justice report published in 2010, the barriers to access can be categorised as follows:

  • physical access to buildings
  • access to advice and information
  • communication issues and negative
  • stereotypical attitudes

Disabled people are particularly concerned about access to specific advice on rights, mediation and support in order to resolve matters before having to go to Court.

The impact of cuts in public spending and welfare reform measures are being felt particularly by disabled people and this has heightened further the need for advice and support. The Scottish Government is responding to the welfare reform with a range of mitigation measures and working closely with the third sector in the design of that response.

As identified in the Justice Strategy published in September 2012 disabled people are more likely to experience civil legal problems (30% compared to 26%) than non-disabled people. In addition problems experienced by disabled people are less likely to be resolved than the problems experienced by non-disabled people.(42% and 56% respectively)

This outcome is set within the framework of the Justice Strategy and the focus on widening access to justice. It also reflects the priorities identified by disabled people around access to justice in the 2010 Report and the Independent Living Programme.

Links to National Performance Framework

We have tackled the significant inequalities in Scottish society

EQUALITY OUTCOME

Disabled people have improved access to justice and to advice in relation to their rights by 2017

Activity/Plans

Within the strategic framework outlined in the Justice Strategy a programme of work is identified and taken forward around disabled people's access to justice by 2017. This will draw on the recommendations contained in the 2010 report on disabled people and the justice system.

Building the legal capacity of people is important and following research undertaken by Consumer Focus Scotland an approach to taking forward work will be developed during 2013/14.

The Scottish Government is taking action to mitigate welfare reform and those programmes being developed to provide advice and support will ensure that they are appropriately responsive to disabled people's needs, for example, supporting those who are affected by the transition to Personal Independence Payments and Disability Living Allowance reassessments.

A cross-directorate advice services group is established in 2013 to co-ordinate work across Government including those with an interest in advice to equality groups and disabled people.

Work is undertaken by 2017:

a) to develop access to key points of advice and information for disabled people in relation to their legal rights;

b) to explore the feasibility and use of law clinics as an additional tool in increasing disabled people's understanding of the law and their rights;

c) to develop the capacity amongst disabled people's organisations and third sector organisations to provide appropriate advice and support;

d) to support the work around Independent Living to assist in increasing the opportunities and capacity of disabled people and older people to exercise their rights.

Measuring Progress

Feedback from disabled people and their organisations on improved capacity and provision in term of advice and support

Measurement identified as part of the development of the work programmes outlined above.

Public Sector Equality Duty

eliminate discrimination,

advance equality of opportunity

Protected characteristic

age and disability

Education

Within the longer term outcome that all children and young people will be able to make the most of the education opportunities available to them to reach their full potential, there will be progress by 2017 in the experience of those with protected characteristics who are currently disadvantaged or underperforming.

Framing the inequality issue

We want an education system in Scotland that is inclusive of all pupils, encouraging young people to develop, no matter what additional support they may need. The Scottish Government is aware that children and young people with a protected characteristic may experience barriers to their learning.

In Scotland pupil's achievements are measured in a range of ways including attainment and leaver destination, attendance and exclusion data. In addition, the Scottish Government also uses other research in relation to specific concerns. In setting out equality issues in relation to education, those measures and research have been considered and have informed the information below.

Disability

The picture for pupils with a disability across these four areas is mixed. In terms of attainment, in 2010 the proportion of disabled people who had no or low qualifications was 29%, almost three times the level of non-disabled people (11%). Information on leaver destinations indicate that pupils with additional support needs, including those with a disability continue to be less likely to enter positive destinations on leaving school, with 76.8% in positive follow-up destinations compared to 88.3% for those with no additional support needs. It is clear that pupils with disabilities are also more likely to be excluded than pupils without disabilities. In relation to attendance, pupils with disabilities have very slightly less attendance at school (92% against national average of 93.1%)

Sex (Gender)

In relation to educational outcomes across these four areas it is clear that boys do less well than girls in terms of their attainment and positive leaver destinations, and are more likely to be excluded from school. However, there is little difference between boys and girls rates of attendance (boys 93.2% and girls 93.0%)

Race

Pupils from ethnic minorities (including those categorised as white from outwith UK) make around 10% of all pupils in Scottish schools. The number of pupils from ethnic minority backgrounds means that year on year fluctuations in numbers can have a huge impact on statistical rates, therefore caution in drawing conclusions must be exercised. The picture across these outcome measures is very mixed with some children and young people achieving the highest rates of attainment and best rates of positive leaver destinations (in particular Asian pupils), whilst others are amongst the lowest rates for attainment and leaver destinations (in particular Occupational Travellers, Gypsies/Travellers and Other Travellers). This very mixed picture also applies to exclusion information, where rates are particularly affected by small pupil numbers. Attendance data shows a much more even pattern of attendance across ethnic groupings although Gypsies/Travellers and Other Travellers have the lowest rates of attendance.

Bullying

Research and practice experience over time have led to an emerging understanding of bullying as a behaviour which leaves people feeling helpless, frightened, anxious, depressed, left out or humiliated.

The consequences of bullying can include low attendance and poor attainment. Bullying behaviour may be related to any perceived or actual differences or prejudice-based behaviours including racism, sexism, disability or homophobia; and may compound other difficulties in a child's life. With this in mind vulnerable children and young people may be particularly at risk of experiencing bullying.

Links to National Performance Framework

We have tackled the significant inequalities in Scottish society.

Our young people are successful learners, renowned for our research and innovation.

We are better educated, more skilled and more successful, renowned for our research and innovation.

EQUALITY OUTCOME

Within the longer term outcome that all children and young people will be able to make the most of the education opportunities available to them to reach their full potential, there will be progress by 2017 in the experience of those with protected characteristics who are currently disadvantaged or underperforming

Activity/Plans

The Scottish Government will through providing leadership and strategic vision work to:

  • improve outcomes in qualifications and positive destinations for all children and young people with disabilities for all children and young people's education.
  • improve outcomes for young people at senior stages of school education in gaining higher levels of awards across gender, race, socio-economic background and additional support needs; for all children and young people's education.

We will:

  • continue to support the reductions in exclusions of children and young people with protected characeristics from school education; through the range of approaches supported and outlined in our guidance to authorities and schools on exclusion.
  • identify areas for improvement where children and young people with protected characteristics are not gaining awards in school education and identify where children and young people with protected characteristics have high levels of success in gaining awards in school education;
  • continue to support development of strategic anti-bullying work through 'A National Approach to Anti-bullying for Scotland's Children and Young People'

We will drive forward an improvement programme through the Early Years Taskforce, Early Years Collaborative and a range of policy actions on early learning and childcare, play and parenting to improve outcomes for children in and through early years.

Measuring Progress

  • Annual statistical analysis; Attainment, Leaver Destination, Exclusion and Attendance and pupil census;
  • Annual report to Parliament on Additional Support for Learning - focus on interrupted learners, pupils with a disability, support provided for learning.
  • On-going engagement with Education Scotland to measure and analyse data and trends and support delivery of advice, information and resources to support improvement in delivery of education, including in Inclusion and Equality.
  • On-going engagement with respectme (national anti-bullying service in Scotland core funded by the Scottish Government), progress towards goals in supporting capacity building in preventing and dealing with bullying, including across protected characteristics, considered within service evaluations.

Public Sector Equality Duty

eliminate discrimination

advance equality of opportunity

foster good relations

Protected Characteristics

age; disability; gender reassignment; race; religion or belief; sex; sexual orientation.


Contact

Email: Graeme Bryce, Graeme.Bryce@scotland.gsi.gov.uk

Phone: 0300 244 4000 – Central Enquiry Unit

The Scottish Government
St Andrew's House
Regent Road
Edinburgh
EH1 3DG