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Publication -

Growing up in Scotland: the circumstances of persistently poor children

Published: 29 Apr 2010
Part of:
Children and families, Education, Equality and rights
ISBN:
9780755983117

This report looks at how many children experience persistent poverty and which children are most likely to be persistently poor. It also examines the outcomes of children from persistently poor families.

72 page PDF

700.6kB

72 page PDF

700.6kB

Contents
Growing up in Scotland: the circumstances of persistently poor children
Appendix 2: Additional tables

72 page PDF

700.6kB

Appendix 2: Additional tables

Table A2.1 Odds ratios from the ordinal regression model of risk of longitudinal poverty

Birth cohort

Child cohort

Socio-demographic background

Ethnic group of the mother (ref: White)

Ethnic minority communities

5.60***

1.52

Sex of the child (ref: male)

Female

1.24

0.89

Age of the mother at birth of the child (ref: 30-34)

< 25

1.77**

1.65*

25-29

1.14

1.24

35+

1.14

0.93

Family type (ref: couple at Sweep 1 & Sweep 4)

Split up

2.43***

3.53***

Partnered

3.01***

3.38**

Single at Sweeps 1 & 4

3.33***

3.34***

Number of children at Sweep 1 (ref: 1)

2

1.01

1.79*

3+

1.89

3.41***

Change in the number of children (Sweeps 1-4) (ref: no change)

Increase

1.39*

1.02

Decrease

1.95**

2.13*

GUS child is the first child (ref: no)

0.81

1.84**

Yes

1.2

1.13

Mother's health status (ref: no health problems at Sweeps 1 or 4)

Health problems at Sweep 1 but not at Sweep 4

1.20

1.13

Health problems at Sweep 4 but not at Sweep 1

1.50*

0.91

Health problems at both Sweeps 1 & 4

1.11

0.89

Socio-economic characteristics

Mother's education (ref: higher education)

Standard grade or lower

1.42*

1.59*

Father's education (ref: higher education)

Standard grade or lower

1.28

1.44*

Socio-economic status of the main earner at Sweep 1

Managerial/professional

2.10***

1.51

Intermediate occupations

3.97***

3.52***

Small employer/own account

2.39***

1.93*

Lower supervisory/technical occupations

3.94***

2.84***

Semi-routine and routine occupations

3.08***

3.33**

Average work intensity (ref: 76-100%)

51-75%

1.91***

1.57

26-50%

5.06***

3.82***

0-25%

56.85***

30.94***

Family has a car (ref: at all four sweeps)

At 1-3 sweeps

1.29

1.38

At none of the sweeps

1.44

0.99

Whether family uses childcare (ref: both at Sweeps 1 & 4)

At Sw1 but not at Sw4

0.83

1.23

At Sw4 but not at Sw1

0.98

1.70*

Neither at Sw1 nor at Sw4

1.09

1.66

Tenure (ref: owner occupier)

Social renter

2.51***

2.57***

Private renter

2.05**

1.64

Other

4.95***

6.16***

Area Indicators

Urbanisation (ref: large city)

Medium city (<125,000)

0.8

1.50*

Town

0.83

0.9

Rural

0.81

1.43

Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (quintiles) (ref: least deprived)

2

1.4

1.92*

3

1.67**

2.43**

4

1.76**

2.41**

Most deprived

1.77**

2.64**

Base: Birth cohort 2914, Child cohort 1527
Notes: Asterisks represent statistical significance: *** = p<.001, ** = p<0.01, * = p<0.05

Table A2.2 Associations between poverty duration and negative outcomes, birth cohort, odds ratios

BMI

Accidents

Language

Development

Difficulties

Multiple

Poverty duration (ref: temporary poverty)

No poverty

1.15

1.01

0.83

0.83

0.84

0.95

Persistent poverty

0.98

0.82

1.13

1.16

1.17

1.19

Sex of child (ref: boy)

Girl

1.51***

0.79*

0.46***

0.57***

0.51***

0.61***

Ethnicity of child (ref: White)

Ethnic minority communities

0.92

0.92

0.74

2.44**

3.16***

1.69

Age of mother at child birth (ref: 30-34)

< 25

1.26

1.29

0.95

1.31

1.04

1.43*

25-29

0.89

0.91

0.84

0.96

0.97

0.94

35+

0.93

0.87

0.81

1.17

0.79

0.85

Family type (ref: couple at Sweep 1 & 4)

Split up

1.26

1.55*

1.14

0.87

1.81*

1.47

Partnered

0.71

0.97

0.99

1.16

0.85

0.92

Single at Sweeps 1 & 4

0.94

1.47*

0.96

0.95

1.18

0.93

Number of children at Sweep 1 (ref: 1)

2

0.80

1.28

2.35**

1.11

1.58

1.28

3

0.81

1.35

2.51**

1.08

1.35

1.21

Change in the number of children Sweeps 1-4 (ref: no change)

Increase

0.85

0.98

1.58***

1.21

1.92***

1.19

Decrease

1.38

0.61

1.17

0.96

1.35

1.08

GUS child is the first child (ref: no)

Yes

0.88

1.15

1.35

1.25

1.76

1.20

Mother's health status (ref: Health problems at both Sweeps 1 & 4)

No health problems at Sweeps 1 or 4

0.94

1.01

1.75**

1.34

1.29

1.27

Health problems at Sw 1 but not at Sw 4

1.02

1.40*

1.38*

1.44*

1.53*

1.78***

Health problems at Sw 4 but not at Sw 1

1.04

1.15

1.41*

2.30***

2.53***

2.42***

Mother's education (ref: higher education)

Standard grade or lower

1.03

1.14

0.68*

1.12

1.57**

1.11

Father's education (ref: higher education)

Standard grade or lower

1.07

1.09

1.10

0.90

1.08

1.23

Family has a car (ref: At all four sweeps)

At 1-3 sweeps

1.03

1.08

1.01

0.89

0.85

0.87

At none of the sweeps

1.29

1.48*

1.19

1.29

1.61*

1.32

Whether family uses childcare (ref: Using at Sweeps 1 & 4)

Stopped using

0.72

0.96

1.12

0.91

0.66

0.83

Started using

0.93

0.84

1.13

1.11

1.03

1.12

Not using at Sweeps 1 & 4

0.86

0.94

0.99

0.95

0.94

0.93

Tenure (ref: Owner occupier)

Social renter

1.51*

0.86

1.24

1.18

1.97***

1.38*

Private renter

0.77

0.85

1.59*

1.46

1.48

1.34

Other

1.54

0.37*

0.66

0.50

0.79

0.62

Urbanisation (ref: Large city >125 000)

Medium city

0.94

0.87

1.14

1.25

1.14

1.10

Town

1.10

0.81

0.66*

0.85

0.95

0.75

Rural

1.24

0.95

1.22

0.92

1.26

1.08

SIMD quintiles (ref: least deprived)

2

1.01

0.87

1.01

0.92

0.76

0.90

3

0.82

1.12

0.93

1.03

0.90

0.92

4

1.00

0.91

1.45*

0.92

0.90

0.95

Most deprived

1.05

0.96

1.35

0.98

1.31

1.20

Base

3289

3553

3551

3553

3518

3553

pseudo R-sq

.024

.024

.065

.051

.140

.075

Notes: Asterisks represent statistical significance: *** = p<.001, ** = p<0.01, * = p<0.05

Table A2.3 Associations between poverty duration and negative outcomes, child cohort, odds ratios

BMI

Accidents

Language

Development

Difficulties

Multiple

Poverty duration (ref: temporary poverty)

No poverty

0.83

0.83

1.05

0.66

0.79

0.72

Persistent poverty

1.02

0.95

0.67

0.73

1.14

0.71

Sex of child (ref: boy)

Girl

1.56***

0.78

0.48***

0.56***

0.64**

0.71*

Ethnicity of child (ref: White)

Ethnic minority communities

1.34

0.52

0.58

1.43

1.01

0.83

Age of mother at child birth (ref: 30-34)

< 25

0.68

1.49

1.36

0.77

2.11**

1.79*

25-29

0.85

0.78

0.85

1.04

1.38

1.26

35+

0.75

1.11

1.35

1.59*

1.39

1.51*

Family type (ref: couple at Sweep 1 & 4)

Split up

1.24

1.28

1.04

1.32

1.83

2.33**

Partnered

1.43

1.06

1.75

1.36

1.36

1.57

Single at Sweeps 1 & 4

1.48

1.25

0.90

1.10

1.09

1.38

Number of children at Sweep 1 (ref: 1)

2

0.85

1.27

1.49

0.89

0.75

1.11

3

0.43**

0.92

2.23*

0.78

0.43*

1.06

Change in the number of children Sweeps 1-4 (ref: no change)

Increase

0.99

1.06

1.07

1.08

1.21

1.12

Decrease

1.11

0.76

0.94

0.65

1.71

0.94

GUS child is the first child (ref: no)

Yes

0.79

0.76

0.75

0.86

0.69

0.88

Mother's health status (ref: Health problems at both Sweeps 1 & 4)

No health problems at Sweeps 1 or 4

0.88

1.09

2.25**

1.66

1.82*

2.05**

Health problems at Sw 1 but not at Sw 4

0.49**

1.34

1.68*

1.33

1.72*

1.45

Health problems at Sw 4 but not at Sw 1

1.17

0.82

1.63*

1.46

2.53***

1.89**

Mother's education (ref: higher education)

Standard grade or lower

0.86

0.92

1.45

1.20

1.21

1.19

Father's education (ref: higher education)

Standard grade or lower

1.14

0.97

0.56**

0.71

1.11

0.73

Family has a car (ref: At all four sweeps)

At 1-3 sweeps

1.08

1.00

1.22

1.04

1.13

1.31

At none of the sweeps

0.85

1.02

1.55

1.79

1.53

1.13

Whether family uses childcare (ref: Using at Sweeps 1 & 4)

Stopped using

1.05

0.81

1.02

1.05

1.29

1.12

Started using

1.14

1.13

1.36

1.01

0.92

1.29

Not using at Sweeps 1 & 4

1.29

1.18

0.69

0.68

0.82

0.87

Tenure (ref: Owner occupier)

Social renter

0.98

1.43

1.08

1.48

1.15

1.12

Private renter

1.04

1.03

1.45

2.15*

1.21

1.44

Other

1.25

0.99

1.55

2.68*

2.16

2.89**

Urbanization (ref: Large city >125 000)

Medium city

1.58**

1.16

0.60**

0.94

0.78

0.83

Town

1.17

0.84

0.70

0.83

0.64

0.76

Rural

1.28

1.02

0.72

0.82

0.99

0.86

SIMD quintiles (ref: least deprived)

2

1.23

0.90

1.32

0.76

1.27

1.19

3

1.35

0.88

1.24

0.52**

1.12

1.21

4

1.38

1.16

1.69

0.63

1.72

1.62

Most deprived

1.38

0.90

1.53

0.58

1.38

1.36

Base

1781

1898

1898

1898

1886

1898

pseudo R-sq

.040

.039

.081

.056

.113

.074

Notes: Asterisks represent statistical significance: *** = p<.001, ** = p<0.01, * = p<0.05