Publication  Research Publications
Growing up in Scotland: health inequalities in the early years
This report investigates health inequalities in the early years in terms of risk factors and outcomes.
91 page PDF
2.4MB
91 page PDF
2.4MB
APPENDIX
The following table presents the full results of the logistic regression described in Section 4.6.2. For each variable included in the model a reference category was chosen against which the other categories were compared. The reference categories are shown below in brackets.
The regression results are presented as odds ratios for each category within an independent variable, all of which have a significance value and 95% confidence intervals attached. Odds ratios estimate the effect of each individual independent variable on the outcome variable, adjusted for all other independent variables in the regression model. For variables with categories, logistic regression compares the odds of a reference category (shown in the tables in brackets) with that of the other categories. An odds ratio of greater than one indicates that the group in question is more likely to demonstrate this characteristic than is the chosen reference category, an odds ratio of less than one means they are less likely. For example, in the second column of Table A.1, girls have an odds ratio of 1.49. This indicates that the odds of girls avoiding negative outcomes are 1.49 times greater than they are for boys (the reference category).
For continuous, scale variables, such as the first three shown in Table A1, the odds ratio shows the change in odds associated with a one unit change in the scale. For example, the odds of avoiding negative outcomes increase by 1.03 for each increase in the home learning environment scale.
The final column shows the significance value for each independent variable. Those with a value greater than 0.05 are not considered to be statistically significant.
Table A.1 Estimate odds ratios for avoiding negative outcomes by resilience measures and other associated risk factors
Odds Ratio 
P value for each category 
95% Conf. Interval 
P value for variable 


Attitude to seeking help 
1.10 
0.012 
1.02  1.19 
0.012 
SF12 mental health scale 
1.01 
0.480 
0.99  1.02 
0.480 
Home learning environment 
1.03 
0.000 
1.02  1.04 
0.000 
SIMD* 
0.686 

(1st  most deprived) 

2nd 
1.13 
0.650 
0.66  1.92 

3rd 
0.84 
0.447 
0.52  1.33 

4th 
1.07 
0.726 
0.72  1.61 

Household income* 
0.076 

(5th  lowest) 

2nd 
0.80 
0.571 
0.36  1.76 

3rd 
1.12 
0.673 
0.66  1.89 

4th 
0.62 
0.015 
0.42  0.91 

Missing 
1.05 
0.900 
0.46  2.39 

NS SEC* 
0.413 

(Semiroutine & routine) 

Intermediate 
0.72 
0.092 
0.49  1.06 

Small employers/own account workers 
0.82 
0.438 
0.50  1.36 

Lower supervisory & technical 
0.95 
0.790 
0.64  1.41 

Mother's education 
0.715 

(No qualifications) 

Degree 
1.55 
0.279 
0.70  3.46 

HE below degree 
1.22 
0.409 
0.75  1.99 

Higher grades 
1.67 
0.263 
0.67  4.14 

Standard grades 
1.17 
0.541 
0.70  1.94 

Sex of child 
0.006 

(Boy) 

Girl 
1.49 
0.006 
1.12  1.97 

Family type 
0.199 

(Lone parent) 

Couple 
1.38 
0.199 
0.84  2.28 

Maternal smoking 
0.355 

(Mother smoked when child was 10 & 34 months old) 

Mother smoked at 10 or 34 months 
0.93 
0.764 
0.57  1.51 

Mother did not smoke when child was 10 & 34 months old 
1.21 
0.253 
0.87  1.69 

Maternal longterm illness 
0.017 

(1+ longterm health problem/ disability since child's birth) 

No longterm health problem/ disability since child's birth 
1.51 
0.017 
1.08  2.12 

Pregnancy planning 
0.881 

(Planned) 

Not planned/not prevented 
0.99 
0.944 
0.70  1.40 

Unplanned 
0.91 
0.631 
0.61  1.36 

Breastfeeding 
0.529 

(Not breastfed) 

Breastfed 
0.90 
0.529 
0.65  1.25 

Mother's age at birth 
0.023 

(1524) 

2534 
1.40 
0.065 
0.98  2.01 

35+ 
1.95 
0.007 
1.21  3.14 

Assessment of parenting ability 
0.102 

(Average or worse parent) 

A very good parent 
0.98 
0.917 
0.62  1.54 

A better than average parent 
1.40 
0.054 
0.99  1.97 

Can't say 
0.49 
0.181 
0.17  1.41 

Fruit consumption 
0.892 

(Eats 01 different fruits a day) 

Eats 2+ different fruits a day 
0.97 
0.891 
0.62  1.53 

Vegetable consumption 
0.594 

(Eats 01 different vegetables a day) 

Eats 2+ different vegetables a day 
1.10 
0.594 
0.77  1.57 

Physical activity level (quartiles) 
0.937 

(Lowest quartile) 

2nd 
0.99 
0.979 
0.67  1.49 

3rd 
0.88 
0.588 
0.55  1.40 

4th  highest 
0.90 
0.634 
0.59  1.39 

Experience with children 
0.910 

(Not very much/none) 

A lot 
0.82 
0.494 
0.45  1.47 

Quite a lot 
1.01 
0.963 
0.61  1.66 

Already had children 
0.90 
0.639 
0.59  1.38 

Missing 
0.70 
0.402 
0.31  1.62 

Tenure stability 
0.221 

(Moved at least twice in four years) 

Not moved at all 
1.21 
0.221 
0.89  1.65 

Child friendliness of local area 
0.277 

(Low) 

Medium 
1.10 
0.631 
0.73  1.66 

High 
1.37 
0.229 
0.82  2.29 

Missing 
1.54 
0.167 
0.83  2.86 

Satisfaction with local facilities 
0.048 

(Low) 

Medium 
1.59 
0.006 
1.15  2.21 

High 
1.04 
0.860 
0.66  1.63 

Missing 
1.23 
0.281 
0.84  1.80 

Household employment status 
0.019 

(No adult in work) 

At least 1 adult working full time 
2.03 
0.010 
1.19  3.45 

At least 1 adult working part time 
1.14 
0.604 
0.69  1.86 

Feelings about income over 4 years (quartiles) 
0.572 

(Least positive quartile) 

1st and 2nd most positive 
1.14 
0.483 
0.79  1.64 

3rd most positive 
1.24 
0.298 
0.83  1.85 

Years parent has attended a parent/toddler group 
0.937 

(None) 

One 
0.95 
0.817 
0.63  1.43 

Two 
0.88 
0.553 
0.58  1.34 

Three or four 
0.91 
0.682 
0.56  1.47 

Years parent has said it would be difficult to find help at short notice to look after child 
0.644 

(Three or four) 

Never difficult 
1.28 
0.286 
0.81  2.01 

One 
1.24 
0.387 
0.76  2.02 

Two 
0.96 
0.862 
0.59  1.56 

Level of grandparental support when child 10 months (quartiles) 
0.235 

(Lowest quartile) 

1st  highest 
1.55 
0.043 
1.01  2.38 

2nd 
1.20 
0.361 
0.80  1.80 

3rd 
1.14 
0.566 
0.72  1.80 

Friend/family member with medical knowledge when child 10 months 
0.369 

(No) 

Yes 
0.88 
0.369 
0.67  1.16 

Major life events since child 10 months old 
0.188 

(2 or more) 

None 
0.96 
0.856 
0.65  1.43 

One 
1.29 
0.142 
0.92  1.80 
Note p value for model = 0.048; weighted sample size: 1,278,
unweighted sample size 1,071.
*The 5th (least deprived)
SIMD
quintile, 1st (highest) income quintile, and
professional/managerial NS
SEC
categories are missing as these cases were excluded from the
analysis.