1. Independent Advisor on Poverty and Inequality, 'Shifting the curve: a report to the First Minister'. 2016: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2016/01/1984.
2. Scottish Government, 'The life chances of young people in Scotland: an evidence review for the First Minister's Independent Advisor on Poverty and Inequality', 2017: www.gov.scot/astrongstartevidencereview
3. Where data sources use a broader age range, this is stated.
4. Scottish Government, 'The life chances of young people in Scotland.
5. Scottish Government, 'Scottish Surveys Core Questions 2015: supplementary tables', 2016: http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/About/Surveys/SSCQ/SSCQ2015
6. H. Aldridge and C. Hughes 'Informal carers & poverty in the UK', 2016: http://www.npi.org.uk/files/2114/6411/1359/Carers_and_poverty_in_the_UK_-_full_report.pdf
7. Information Services Division (ISD), 'Teenage pregnancy', 2016: http://www.isdscotland.org/Health-Topics/Sexual-Health/Publications/2016-07-05/2016-07-05-TeenPreg-Report.pdf
8. Centre for Social Justice, Finding their Feet: Equipping care leavers to reach their potential, 2015: http://www.centreforsocialjustice.org.uk/core/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Finding.pdf
9. Scottish Government, 'Introduction to The Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2016': http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0050/00504809.pdf
10. D. Hirsch et al., 'A minimum income standard for remote rural Scotland', 2013: http://www.hie.co.uk/regional-information/economic-reports-and-research/archive/a-minimum-income-standard-for-remote-rural-scotland.html
11. N. Bailey et al., 'Poverty and social exclusion in urban and rural areas of Scotland', 2016: http://www.poverty.ac.uk/sites/default/files/attachments/PSE-Report-Scotland-urban-rural-poverty-March-2016.pdf
12. P. Matthews and K. Besemer, 'Poverty and social networks evidence review', 2014: https://dspace.stir.ac.uk/bitstream/1893/21042/1/JRF%20final%20published%20report.pdf .
13. Titheridge, H., et al., 'Transport and poverty: a review of the evidence', 2014: https://www.ucl.ac.uk/transport-institute/pdfs/transport-poverty.
14. Matthews and Besemer 'Poverty and social networks' (2014)
15. Scottish Government, 'The life chances of young people in Scotland'
16. Institute for Fiscal Studies (IFS), 'The economic circumstances of different generations: the latest picture', 2016: https://www.ifs.org.uk/uploads/publications/bns/bn187.pdf; Joseph Rowntree Foundation (JRF), 'Understanding age and the labour market', 2015: https://www.jrf.org.uk/report/understanding-age-and-labour-market.
17. IFS, 'The economic circumstances of different generations'
18. Scottish Government, 'The life chances of young people in Scotland'
19. Gunson, R. et al., 'Jobs and skills in Scotland: addressing productivity, progression and in-work poverty', 2016: http://www.ippr.org/files/publications/pdf/scotland-skills_June2016.pdf?noredirect=1.
20. Scottish Government, 'The life chances of young people in Scotland'
21. Children and Young People's Commissioner Scotland, 'Coping is difficult, but I feel proud Perspectives on mental health and wellbeing of young carers': https://www.cypcs.org.uk/ufiles/CopingWithCaring.pdf
22. M. Lalani et al., 'How place influences employment outcomes for ethnic minorities', 2014: https://www.jrf.org.uk/sites/default/files/jrf/migrated/files/ethnicity-employment-location-full.pdf
23. Kirchner Sala L. et al. (2015) 'Youth transitions to and within the labour market: A literature review'. London: Department for Business, Innovation and Skills.
25. E.g. Scottish Government, Summary statistics for attainment, leaver destinations and healthy living, No.6: 2016 Edition: /publications/summary-statistics-attainment-leaver-destinations-healthy-living-6-2016-edition/; Skills Development Scotland (SDS), Annual Participation Measure for 16 - 19 year olds in Scotland. 2016: http://www.skillsdevelopmentscotland.co.uk/media/42120/annual-participation-measure-2016.pdf.
26. Gunson, R. et al. (2016) 'Jobs and Skills in Scotland'.
27. R. Gunson and R. Thomas, 'Equipping Scotland for the Future: Key Challenges for the Scottish Skills System', 2017: http://www.ippr.org/publications/equipping-scotland-for-the-future.
28. Audit Scotland, 'Scotland's colleges', 2016: http://www.audit-scotland.gov.uk/report/scotlands-colleges-2016.
29. Audit Scotland, 'Audit of higher education in Scottish universities', 2016: http://www.audit-scotland.gov.uk/report/audit-of-higher-education-in-scottish-universities.
30. C. Currie et al., 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: World Health Organization Collaborative Cross-National Study: findings from the 2014 HBSC survey in Scotland', 2015: http://www.cahru.org/content/03-publications/04-reports/hbsc_nr14_interactive_final.pdf.
31. A number of measures are used to monitor labour market activity. The youth unemployment rate captures the percentage of the active labour force (aged 16-24, including full-time students) that cannot find work. The denominator is the economically active population i.e. the number of 16-24 year olds who are either employed or unemployed. The youth employment rate is the number of employed people aged 16-24 (including full-time students) divided by the whole population aged 16-24. Economically inactive people are neither in employment nor unemployment. The inactivity rate is expressed as a percentage of the total population.
32. Scottish Government, The life chances of young people in Scotland'
34. 'Commission for Developing Scotland's Young Workforce: contextual data'. 2014: http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Education/edandtrainingforyoungple/commissiondevelopingscotlandsyoungworkforce/contextualdata.
35. M. Kelly, 'Poverty and ethnicity'.
36. L. Kirchner Sala et al., 'Youth transitions to and within the labour market'.
37. Scottish Government, The life chances of young people in Scotland'; JRF, 'Understanding age and the labour market'
38. Scottish Government, The life chances of young people in Scotland'
39. Scottish Government, 'Fairer Scotland Action Plan', 2016: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2016/10/9964
40. Timewise, A Flexible Jobs Index for Scotland, 2017, forthcoming.
41. Sutton Trust, 'Research Brief: Internship or indenture?', 2014: https://www.suttontrust.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Unpaid-Internships.pdf
42. Sutton Trust, 'Research Brief: Internship or indenture?'
43. UK Commission for Employment and Skills (UKCES), The labour market story: an overview, 2014: http://www.employment-studies.co.uk/resource/labour-market-story-overview; Fraser of Allander Institute, 'Scottish labour market trends, Vol 1 No 3', 2017: https://www.sbs.strath.ac.uk/economics/fraser/20170613/labour-market-trends.pdf; S. Boyd, 'Labour market changes and implications for policy and labour market information (LMI) in Scotland: https://www.sbs.strath.ac.uk/economics/fraser/20161118/20161118-Labour-Market-Trends.pdf. 38(2): p. 63-80; IPPR Scotland, 'Jobs and skills in Scotland'.
44. Scottish Government, The life chances of young people in Scotland'
45. Scottish Government, The life chances of young people in Scotland'
46. T. Shildrick et al., 'The low-pay, no-pay cycle: understanding recurrent poverty', 2010: https://www.jrf.org.uk/report/low-pay-no-pay-cycle-understanding-recurrent-poverty; S. Thompson, The low-pay, no-pay cycle, 2015: https://www.jrf.org.uk/report/low-pay-no-pay-cycle.
47. 'Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings 2016 - Scottish Government Tables': http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Labour-Market/Earnings/ASHE-SGTables. Estimates for 2016 are based on an hourly rate of £8.25.
48. The Resolution Foundation, 'Low Pay Britain', 2016: http://www.resolutionfoundation.org/publications/low-pay-britain-2016/
49. Ernst & Young LLP, 'The employment landscape for young people in the UK', 2016: http://www.ey.com/uk/en/issues/business-environment/financial-markets-and-economy/youth-unemployment-in-the-uk
50. The National Living Wage is £7.20 per hour, while the current National Minimum Wage is £4.00 per hour for under 18s, £5.55 per hour for 18-20 year olds and £6.95 per hour for 21-24 year olds.
51. Matthews and Besemer, 'Poverty and social networks'.
52. Scottish Government, The life chances of young people in Scotland'
53. JRF, 'Understanding age and the labour market'.
54. Primary responsibility for publicising the fund lies with Jobcentre Plus advisers. However the Social Security Advisory Committee expressed concern at how little is known about the FSF and suggested its low profile allowed opportunities for partnerships with local authorities and agencies to be missed. An investigation by Channel 4's Dispatches programme into a Universal Credit contact centre in Bolton found advisers choosing not to inform claimants about the FSF. One adviser likened the FSF to the illegal boxing clubs in the film Fight Club, in that they don't talk about the FSF." http://researchbriefings.parliament.uk/ResearchBriefing/Summary/SN06079
55. Scottish Government, The life chances of young people in Scotland'
56. Scottish Government, The life chances of young people in Scotland'
57. Scottish Government, 'Scotland's People annual report: results from the 2015 Scottish Household Survey' , 2016: http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/16002/PublicationAnnual.
58. Scottish Government, 'Analysis of Equality Results from the 2011 Census - Part 2', 2015: /publications/analysis-equality-results-2011-census-part-2/.
59. IFS, 'The economic circumstances of different generations'.
60. OMSE data from Scottish Government records 2011/12 - 2015/16. Help to Buy sales from Scottish Government log form records from Sept 2013 - March 2016.
61. Scottish Government, 'Scotland's people annual report'
62. National Records of Scotland (NRS), 'Household composition for specific groups of people in Scotland, Scotland's Census 2011' , 2015: http://www.scotlandscensus.gov.uk/documents/analytical_reports/HH%20report.pdf
63. Scottish Government. 'Housing and Regeneration Outcomes Framework - Performance Indicators' 2016: http://www.gov.scot/About/Performance/scotPerforms/partnerstories/HARO/Indicators/Well-functioning#A1.
64. K. McKee and J. Hoolachan, 'Housing generation rent: what are the challenges for housing policy in Scotland?' 2015: http://ggsrv-cold.st-andrews.ac.uk/CHR/Uploads/Edit/file/Carnegie%20Final%20Report_June2015.pdf.
65. NHS Health Scotland, 'Scotland's mental health: adults 2012': http://www.healthscotland.com/documents/6123.aspx; NHS Health Scotland, Scotland's mental health: children and young people 2013': http://www.scotpho.org.uk/publications/reports-and-papers/1159-Scotlands-mental-health-children-and-young-people-2013.
66. Scottish Government, The life chances of young people in Scotland'. It should be noted that this analysis relies on self-reported data on mental health and wellbeing which, while indicative of concern, does not equate to prevalence of mental illness nor, necessarily a need for treatment. In addition, prevalence data for mental health problems is poor, especially when compared to physical health problems.
68. NHS Health Scotland, Scotland's mental health: children and young people'; C. Black and C. Martin, 'Mental health and wellbeing among adolescents in Scotland: profile and trends'. 2014: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2015/11/9339.
69. Currie, C. et al., 'Findings from the HBSC 2014 survey in Scotland'
70. Royal Society for Public Health, '#StatusOfMind: Social media and young people's mental health and wellbeing', 2017: https://www.rsph.org.uk/our-work/policy/social-media-and-young-people-s-mental-health-and-wellbeing.html.
71. Mental Health Foundation, Mental health statistics: children and young people', 2017: https://www.mentalhealth.org.uk/statistics/mental-health-statistics-children-and-young-people.
72. NHS Health Scotland, 'Scotland's mental health: adults'.
73. Scottish Government, The life chances of young people in Scotland'.
74. ACEs refer to stressful events occurring in childhood (between 0 to 18 years) including: being the victim of abuse (physical, sexual and/or emotional) or neglect (physical and emotional); and growing-up in a household in which there are adults experiencing alcohol and drug use problems, mental health conditions, domestic violence or criminal behavior resulting in incarceration. ACEs have been found to lead to a range of poorer outcomes, including in health, education, employment and crime. They have been found to be associated with poorer mental wellbeing, mental illness and suicide.
75. Scottish Government, 'Scotland's carers', 2014: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2015/03/1081.
76. RCPCH, 'State of Child Health 2017: Recommendations for Scotland, 2017: http://www.rcpch.ac.uk/system/files/protected/page/SOCH-recommendations-Scotland.pdf.
77. Scottish Government, 'Mental Health Strategy 2017-2027', 2017: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2017/03/1750.
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