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Publication - Publication

15 to 24 Learner Journey Review phase one: analysis

Published: 21 Mar 2018
Directorate:
Learning Directorate
Part of:
Economy, Education, Work and skills
ISBN:
9781788517003

Analysis undertaken as part of stage one of the Learner Journey review examining current education and training provision for 15 to 24 year olds in Scotland.

84 page PDF

1.7 MB

84 page PDF

1.7 MB

Contents
15 to 24 Learner Journey Review phase one: analysis
2. Apprenticeships

84 page PDF

1.7 MB

2. Apprenticeships

This section provides a brief overview of Foundation Apprenticeships ( FAs) before examining the available information around Modern Apprenticeship ( MA) provision in Scotland. MAs combine paid employment and training (for those aged over 16) to achieve industry qualifications at the level required for the job. They are geared towards helping new recruits or existing employees gain invaluable skills and industry recognised vocational qualifications.

What are Foundation Apprenticeships?

Foundation Apprenticeships ( FAs) are run by SDS and provide 'work-based learning opportunities for secondary school pupils making their senior phase subject choices'. [9] There were 10 FA frameworks available for those starting their FA in academic year 2017/18, with two additional frameworks in Accountancy and Food and Drink Technologies in development for academic year 2018/19. These frameworks are aligned to key sectors of the Scottish economy.

Young people engaging in FAs spend time out of school at college or with a local employer and can also study other subjects alongside their FA, such as National 5s and Highers. FAs are SQA certified at SCQF level 6, this is the same level of learning as a Higher.

FAs were designed to appeal to a range of different learners and is designed to take pupils directly to work, onto a Modern Apprenticeship in the same subject, a Graduate Apprenticeship or onto College or University. They are currently accepted as entry requirements for courses at 18 Scottish Universities. [10]

How many FA starts have there been?

FAs were first introduced in 2014 with two initial pathfinder phases (2014-2016 and 2015-2017) followed by two groups of FAs described as Cohort 1 (2016-2018) and Cohort 2 (2017-2019). Further detail on the number of FA starts for Cohorts 1 and 2 can be found in Table 2.1. The Scottish Government's ambition is to have 2,600 pupils start an FA in academic year 2018/19 rising to 5,000 starts in academic year 2019/20.

Table 2.1 Foundation Apprenticeship Cohort 1 and 2 starts by framework

Framework Cohort 1 (2016-2018) Cohort 2 (2017-2019)
Starts % of total Starts % of total
Business Skills* 5 1% 67 5%
Civil Engineering 47 14% 87 7%
Creative and Digital Media ~ ~ 43 3%
Engineering 71 21% 232 19%
Financial Services 38 11% 54 4%
Information Technology: Hardware / System Support 13 4% 40 3%
Information Technology: Software Development 30 9% 130 10%
Scientific Technologies ~ ~ 20 2%
Social Services and Healthcare 85 25% 107 9%
Social Services Children and Young People 57 16% 465 37%
Grand Total 346 100% 1,245 100%

Source: SDS (2018), 'Foundation Apprenticeships: Early Progress and Learning Insights'
Notes: * The business skills framework was developed late for Cohort 1, leaving a very short time for recruiting starts, which affected take-up and retention rates.
~ The Creative and Digital Media and Scientific Technologies frameworks were not available for Cohort 1 pupils.

How many MA starts have there been each year?

The Scottish Government ambition is to have 30,000 apprenticeship starts a year by 2020. In keeping with this ambition, the MA starts target was increased to 26,000 for 2016/17 up from the 25,500 target in 2015/16 previous years.

Table 2.2 shows the number of MA starts in each year from 2012/13 to 2016/17. The total number of MA starts has only slightly increased over this period with the number of starts remaining consistently over 25,000 in each year.

There were 26,262 MA starts in 2016/17. Additionally, there were 13 Graduate Apprenticeship ( GA) starts. Graduate Apprenticeships have been in operation since February 2016 and provide work-based learning opportunities up to Master's degree level for employees. Together, the combined total of MA and GA starts for 2016/17 is 26,275 and from 2017/18 the GA starts will be included in the apprenticeship total and contribute towards the MA starts target.

The growth in MA starts towards the 30,000 target also reflects the policy priority to focus on higher level apprenticeships. The number of starts at level 3 or above increased to 17,263 in 2016/17, an increase of 500 starts (3 per cent increase) on 2015/16. This year, the proportion of starts at level 3 or above was 66 per cent (0.8 percentage points higher than 2015/16). Table 5.1 also shows the increase in the number of Level 4 starts over the period – from 496 in 2012/13 to 1,136 in 2016/17.

Table 2.2: Number of MA Starts by Age and Level between 2012/13 and 2016/17

Level Age 2012/13 2013/14 2014/15 2015/16 2016/17
Level 2 16-19 5,705 5,506 5,246 4,794 4,760
20-24 2,887 2,482 2,368 2,634 2,339
25+ 2,189 1,641 1,521 1,627 1,900
Level 3 16-19 7,013 7,596 7,978 7,989 7,831
20-24 4,052 4,217 4,410 4,861 4,650
25+ 3,274 2,992 3,081 2,953 3,508
Level 4* 16-24 24 72 121 225 266
25+ 472 654 426 637 870
Level 5* All Ages 75 124 96 98 138
Total 25,691 25,284 25,247 25,818 26,262

Source: SDS (June 2017), ' Modern Apprenticeship Statistics, Full Year Report 2016/17 '
*Age bands at levels 4 & 5 have been collapsed to avoid disclosure of small numbers.

What is the gender breakdown for MA starts in 2016/17?

Of the 26,262 MA starts in 2016/17, 60 per cent were male and 40 per cent female. However, when examining the data across the different frameworks we observe considerable variation in the gender split. There are several frameworks where the gender balance is 75/25 or greater. These frameworks are presented in Table 2.3.

Table 2.3: Frameworks where the gender split is 75/25 or worse, 2016/17

Framework Total Number of Starts Proportion (%) of total starts by gender
Female Male
Construction: Specialist 257 0 100
Game and Wildlife Management 16 0 100
Gas Industry 35 0 100
Glass Industry Operations 122 0 100
Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration 103 0 100
Industrial Applications 30 0 100
Land-based Engineering 59 0 100
Maritime Operations 30 0 100
Rail Engineering 9 0 100
Trees and Timber 15 0 100
Electrical Installation 743 1.1 98.9
Construction: Building 1,527 2.0 98.0
Construction: Technical Apprenticeship 597 2.3 97.7
Automotive 1,099 2.4 97.6
Horticulture 214 2.8 97.2
Construction: Technical 905 3.9 96.1
Social Services (Children & Young People) 1,319 96.0 4.0
Extractive and Mineral Processing 270 5.2 94.8
Engineering 864 5.4 94.6
Hairdressing and Barbering 889 93.0 7.0
Agriculture 64 7.8 92.2
Sustainable Resource Management 65 7.7 92.3
Freight Logistics 1,089 9.7 90.3
Upstream Oil and Gas Production 57 12.3 87.7
Social Services and Healthcare 1,171 85.5 14.5
IT and Telecommunications 900 15.6 84.4
Equine 47 80.9 19.1
Social Services and Healthcare Technical Apprenticeship 73 80.8 19.2
Print Industry Operations 22 22.7 77.3
Travel Services 70 77.1 22.9
All Frameworks 26,262 39.8 60.2

Source: SDS (June 2017), ' Modern Apprenticeship Supplementary Tables 2016/17 Q4 '
Notes: Table ordered by size of gender split.

SDS highlight in their MA Statistics Full Year Report that on-going MA expansion to 30,000 starts per year is mainly in sectors/frameworks related to areas such as STEM and Construction.

In 2016/17, over a third of all MA starts (37%) were in STEM frameworks. SDS note that these are areas which show marked gender segregation in the workforce, and this is therefore reflected in MA starts. It is stated in the report that if we are to consider 'Construction & Related' frameworks separately, 2 per cent of starts were female and 98 per cent male. The gender breakdown in the remaining occupational groupings ( i.e. excluding Construction & Related) is 51 per cent female and 49 per cent male. [11]

It is useful to compare the gender split in MAs with current participation in employment and education, along with University and college enrolments. For context, as set out by SDS in their MA Full Year Report, gender preferences are evident across subject choices at school and in the participation (in education, employment or training) of those aged 16-19. Annual Participation Measure data for 2016 shows that females aged 16-19 are more likely to participate in education than males (75.9 per cent of females in education in comparison with 66.9 per cent of males). Conversely, males are more likely to participate in employment than females (20.3 per cent compared to 13.4 per cent respectively).

Table 2.4 highlights the gender balance across MA's, university HEI students and college enrolments in 2015/16. These figures are for individuals across all age groups. The table would suggest that MAs may be more appealing to males whereas university, in particular, attracts more females. To illustrate scale, information on the number of students in each stage has been provided. We observe that there are larger numbers participating in college and university study than undergoing an MA.

Table 2.4 Males and females in MA training compared to University and College in Scotland, 2015/16

Gender MA's in training as at 31 st March 2016 HEI students College enrolments
Number Proportion Number Proportion Number Proportion
Female 10,732 30% 136,545 58% 142,738 51%
Male 25,639 70% 98,905 42% 138,160 49%
Total 36,371 100% 235,565 100% 281,051 100%

Sources: SDS (June 2016),' Modern Apprenticeship Summary Information by age breakdown '
SFC (March 2017), ' Higher Education Students and Qualifiers ' – the total figure includes 79 students whose gender is not reported or was reported as 'Other' and has been rounded to the nearest 5.
SFC (January 2017), ' College Statistics 2015-16 ' – the total figure includes 153 enrolments for whom the gender identity was declared as 'other', or was not declared at all.

What do we know about other equalities breakdowns for MA starts?

Disability

SDS highlight that in 2016/17, the proportion of all MA starts self-identifying an impairment, health condition or learning difficulty was 8.6 per cent (equivalent to 2,178 starts) [12] . Apprentices were asked to provide further details of their disability from a list of options. Of those self-identifying, 'specific learning difficulty' (46.6 per cent) was the most common followed by 'mental health' (17.6 per cent) and 'not covered by list' (11.1 per cent). [13]

SDS provide some context to this, referring to the Annual Population Survey (for January 2016 to December 2016) where the proportion of individuals who are disabled [14] in the 16-24 Scottish population is 12.5 per cent.

Ethnicity

Table 2.5 provides a breakdown of MA starts by ethnic group. 1.7 per cent of all MA starts self-identify as being from a Mixed or Multiple; Asian; African; Caribbean or Black; or other ethnic group.

Table 2.5: Proportion of MA starts by self-identified ethnic group, 2016/17

Ethnic Group Number of MA Starts (known) % of MA starts (known)
White 25,282 98.3%
Asian 217 0.8%
Mixed or multiple 94 0.4%
African 56 0.2%
Other ethnic group 55 0.2%
Caribbean or Black 14 0.1%
Total Known 25,718 100%
Prefer not to say 544 -

Source: SDS (June 2017), ' Modern Apprenticeship Statistics, Full Year Report 2016/17 '

To provide context, according to the APS, 6.1 per cent of 16-24 year olds in Scotland report being from a Mixed or Multiple; Asian; African; Caribbean or Black; Arab; and Other ethnic group.

How many school leavers are progressing to MA's?

Tables 2.6 and 2.7 shows the initial and final destination statistics for school leavers progressing to MAs for each year from 2013/14 to 2015/16. The tables show that, as a proportion of their school leaver cohort, S5 school leavers are more likely to progress to MA's (15.5 per cent of the cohort) and S6/adult learners leavers are least likely (5.5 per cent). However, the numbers of leavers entering MAs from S5 and S6 are broadly the same. The number and proportion of leavers progressing to MA's is higher in the follow-up destination statistics than in the initial destination statistics.

The follow-up destination statistics for 2015/16 show that 12.2 per cent of S3 and S4 leavers, 16.9 per cent of S5 leavers, and around 7 per cent of S6 leavers transitioned to MA's. These proportions have remained largely the same over the considered three year period.

Table 2.6: School Leavers whose Initial Destination is Modern Apprenticeship ( MA), 2013/14 to 2015/16

Stage Number Percentage
MA Other destinations MA Other destinations
2013/14 S3 & S4 689 5,342 11.4 88.6
S5 1,982 10,792 15.5 84.5
S6, S9 & AD 1,808 30,803 5.5 94.5
2014/15 S3 & S4 637 5,218 10.9 89.1
S5 1,866 11,307 14.2 85.8
S6, S9 & AD 1,806 31,657 5.4 94.6
2015/16 S3 & S4 575 5,248 9.9 90.1
S5 1,863 11,306 14.1 85.9
S6, S9 & AD 1,694 31,619 5.1 94.9

Source: Scottish Government (2017), School leaver destination statistics
AD – Adult learners; S9 is also adult learners, often when they come back to repeat S6.

Table 2.7: School Leavers whose Follow-up Destination is Modern Apprenticeship ( MA), 2013/14 to 2015/16

Stage Number Percentage
MA Other destinations MA Other destinations
2013/14 S3 & S4 722 5,285 12.0 88.0
S5 2,067 10,668 16.2 83.8
S6, S9 & AD 1,987 30,564 6.1 93.9
2014/15 S3 & S4 700 5,121 12.0 88.0
S5 2,014 11,120 15.3 84.7
S6, S9 & AD 2,045 31,337 6.1 93.9
2015/16 S3 & S4 706 5,085 12.2 87.8
S5 2,219 10,898 16.9 83.1
S6, S9 & AD 2,315 30,890 7.0 93.0

Source: Scottish Government (2017), School leaver destination statistics
AD – Adult learners; S9 is also adult learners, often when they come back to repeat S6.

What are the entry routes to MA's?

The SDS MA Intermediate Outcomes Survey (2016) [15] outlines that just over half (51 per cent) of all MA's had been recruited specifically as a MA. However, younger MA's such as school leavers, were more likely to be recruited specifically for the apprenticeship with three-quarters (75 per cent) of under 20's reporting they were taken on as MA's.

What are the levels of prior qualifications for those undertaking an MA? Are there any qualification requirements for those undertaking an MA?

A previous SDS report on MA Outcomes undertaken in 2012 provides information around highest prior qualification by MA level. This is shown below in Table 2.8.

Table 2.8: Highest Prior Qualification by MA Level, 2012

Highest prior qualification Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
Other/unsure 9% 7% 19%
No formal qualifications 5% 3% 3%
National certificate 2% 2% 5%
General Standard Grade, Int1, SVQ 1 18% 16% 3%
Credit Standard Grade, Int2, SVQ 2, GCSEs 25% 30% 10%
Highers/Advanced Highers 28% 25% 9%
HNC/ SVQ L3 6% 9% 21%
Degree/ HND/ SVQ L5 7% 8% 30%

Source: SDS (2013), ' Modern Apprenticeship Outcomes 2012 '
Note: This survey was undertaken before the introduction of National 4 and National 5 qualifications.

What can be said about the level of MA achievements?

Table 2.9 shows the number and proportion of MA achievements by local authority. There is some variation in the rate of achievements across the local authorities, although all are between 72 per cent and 93 per cent. The average rate of achievements is 78 per cent.

Table 2.9: Number and Proportion of MA Achievements by Local Authority, 2016/17

Local Authority Achievements Achievements as a % of All Leavers
Aberdeen City 670 77%
Aberdeenshire 986 79%
Angus 517 80%
Argyll & Bute 268 75%
Clackmannanshire 239 85%
Dumfries & Galloway 655 78%
Dundee City 505 75%
East Ayrshire 635 83%
East Dunbartonshire 307 81%
East Lothian 362 76%
East Renfrewshire 217 79%
Edinburgh, City of 1,089 72%
Falkirk 757 82%
Fife 1,359 77%
Glasgow City 2,175 77%
Highland 1,061 81%
Inverclyde 280 78%
Midlothian 372 75%
Moray 367 80%
Na h-Eileanan Siar 72 83%
North Ayrshire 664 79%
North Lanarkshire 1,754 81%
Orkney Islands 121 93%
Perth & Kinross 665 78%
Renfrewshire 728 79%
Scottish Borders 290 77%
Shetland Islands 168 88%
South Ayrshire 381 76%
South Lanarkshire 1,311 78%
Stirling 313 82%
West Dunbartonshire 452 80%
West Lothian 609 76%
Outwith Area 55 85%
Grand Total 20,404 78%

Source: SDS (June 2017), ' Modern Apprenticeship Statistics, Full Year Report 2016/17 '

What are the outcomes for MA's?

The following section provides an overview of the results from The SDS Modern Apprenticeship Intermediate Outcomes Survey (2016). The survey found that older apprentices and those undertaking apprenticeships at higher levels are more likely to be in work around six months after leaving their apprenticeship. Similarly, completers are much more likely to be in work than non-completers.

For completers and non-completers in 2016, 85 per cent were in work around six months after leaving their apprenticeship, (86 per cent in 2012). Furthermore, 90 per cent of all apprentices were either in work or education, the same as 2012. Chart 2.1 summarises the work outcomes for all MAs and also examines the differences by age, level and completion status.

Chart 2.1: Work Outcomes at 6 Months Out, 2016
Chart 2.1: Work Outcomes at 6 Months Out, 2016

Source: SDS (2016), ' Modern Apprenticeship Intermediate Outcomes 2016 '
Note: n is number of respondents.

What are the MA outcomes by age?

Those apprentices aged 25+ were more likely to be in work six months after leaving or completing their MA than those aged 20-24 and those aged under 20.

  • 94 per cent of apprentices aged over 25 years old were in work around six months after leaving or completing their apprenticeship, showing no change from 2012.
  • For those aged under 20 years and those aged 20 to 24 years old, the corresponding figures were 79 per cent and 89 per cent respectively. This compares with 2012 findings of 81 per cent for those under 20 years and 91 per cent for 20 to 24 year olds.
  • Six months after completion, 94 per cent of those aged 25 years and over, 94 per cent of 20 to 24s and 92 per cent of under 20s were in work or education.

What are the MA outcomes by gender?

The survey found there to be little difference in outcomes by gender. 86 per cent of males were in work six months after leaving or completing their apprenticeship with this rising to 92 per cent if we also include those in education.

For females, 84 per cent were in work six months after leaving or completing their apprenticeship, rising to 94 per cent if we also include those in education.

What are the MA outcomes for other equalities breakdowns?

The SDS Modern Apprenticeship Statistics Full Year Report 2016/17 provides information on achievement rates for equalities groups.

Disability

During 2016/17, the achievement rate of disabled MAs was 65 per cent, compared to an overall achievement rate of 78 per cent, and a rate of 79 per cent for MAs who were not disabled. SDS have measures in place - outlined in the MA Equality Action Plan – to optimise the chances of disabled MAs succeeding in their MA.

Ethnicity

The achievement rate of MA starts who self-identify as 'White' (79 per cent) and the overall achievement rate (78 per cent) is slightly higher than those who self-identify as being Mixed or Multiple; Asian; African; Caribbean or Black; or Other ethnic group (77 per cent).

What are the differences in MA outcomes by the level of the MA?

Of those undertaking a Level 4 MA 97 per cent were in work six months after leaving or completing their apprenticeship. For those at Level 2 and those at Level 3, the corresponding figures were 82 per cent and 86 per cent respectively.

When looking at those in education or work, these figures rise to 90 per cent of Level 2 MAs, 93 per cent of Level 3 MAs, and 98 per cent of Level 4 MAs.

What are the differences in outcomes for MA completers and MA non-completers?

The SDS MA Intermediate Outcomes survey 2016 also highlights that:

  • Of those who completed their MA 91 per cent were in work around six months after completing compared with 63 per cent of non-completers. This is in line with 2012 results (92 per cent completers in work and 66 per cent non-completers in work in 2012).
  • Just over two thirds (67 per cent) of all completers were still employed with the same employer. Once again, there is no significant change from the 2012 findings (70 per cent).
  • However, there was a significant increase in the proportion of non-completers in work or education – 80 per cent up from 70 per cent in 2012.
  • Most non-completers who were working six months or so after leaving their MA were now working for a different employer (78 per cent). Conversely, the majority of MAs who had completed their MA and were employed six months later were with the same employer (75 per cent) they undertook their MA with.

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