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Publication - Statistics Publication

Pesticide Usage in Scotland: Outdoor Vegetable Crops 2015

Published: 5 Oct 2016
Part of:
Farming and rural
ISBN:
9781786524676

Information from a survey of pesticide use on vegetable crops grown for human consumption in Scotland during 2015.

119 page PDF

2.3MB

119 page PDF

2.3MB

Contents
Pesticide Usage in Scotland: Outdoor Vegetable Crops 2015
2015 Pesticide usage

119 page PDF

2.3MB

2015 Pesticide usage

Vining peas

  • An estimated 7,029 hectares of peas were grown in Scotland in 2015, an increase of seven per cent since 2013
  • 100 per cent of the crop was treated with a pesticide
  • Pesticides were applied to 31,284 treated hectares
  • 12,317 kilograms of pesticide were applied in total
  • 34 per cent of pesticides applied were herbicides, 23 per cent seed treatments, 21 per cent insecticides, 19 per cent fungicides and three per cent sulphur ( Figure 13). No molluscicides or biopesticides were applied to the vining pea crop
  • Vining pea crops received on average 2.5 pesticide sprays ( Table 1). These sprays included 1.6 herbicide applications (applied to the whole crop area), 1.1 fungicide and insecticide applications (applied to 80 and 85 per cent respectively) and one application of sulphur (applied to 15 per cent)
  • In relation to timings of pesticide applications, 86 per cent of sulphur, 84 per cent of fungicide and 80 per cent of insecticide applications were in July, whilst 49 per cent of herbicides on vining peas were applied in May ( Figure 14)
  • Where reasons were given, 94 per cent of fungicide use (including sulphur) was for general disease control and six per cent was for mildew. The only specified reason for herbicide use was for general weed control and for insecticide use was aphid control
  • The most common varieties encountered were Corus, Spandimo and Romance, accounting for 38, 18 and 13 per cent of the sample area respectively

Summary of pesticide use on vining peas:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated (ha) Weight of pesticides applied (kg) % of crop area treated Most used formulations (ha)
Fungicides 6,076 1,662 80 Boscalid/pyraclostrobin (3,133)
Herbicides 10,659 4,810 100 Imazamox/pendimethalin (6,300)
Insecticides 6,450 806 85 Pirimicarb (6,450)
Sulphur 1,069 4,277 15 N/A
Seed treatments 7,029 762 100 Cymoxanil/fludioxonil/ metalaxyl-M (7,029)

Figure 13 Use of pesticides on vining peas (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2015

Figure 13 Use of pesticides on vining peas (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2015

Figure 14 Timing of pesticide applications on vining peas – 2015

Figure 14 Timing of pesticide applications on vining peas – 2015

Broad beans

  • An estimated 1,475 hectares of broad beans were grown in Scotland in 2015, an increase of 27 per cent since 2013. This was comprised of 1,469 hectares recorded in the 'broad beans' census category and six hectares recorded in the 'other vegetable' census category.
  • 100 per cent of the crop was treated with a pesticide
  • 20,808 hectares of pesticide formulations were applied
  • 5,988 kilograms of pesticide were used in total on the crop
  • 51 per cent of pesticides applied were fungicides, 29 per cent insecticides, 11 per cent seed treatments and nine per cent herbicides ( Figure 15)
  • No molluscicides, sulphur or biopesticides were applied to the broad bean crop
  • The broad bean crop received on average 6.3 pesticide sprays ( Table 1). These included 4.1 insecticide, 3.8 fungicide and 1.3 herbicide applications
  • 61 per cent of fungicide applications and 58 per cent of insecticide applications were in July and 73 per cent of herbicide applications were in May ( Figure 16)
  • Where reasons were given, all herbicide use was for general weed control. The only specified reason for insecticide use was for control of aphids
  • The two varieties encountered were Listra, accounting for 71 per cent of the crop sampled and Talia accounting for 29 per cent

Summary of pesticide use on broad beans:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated (ha) Weight of pesticides applied (kg) % of crop area treated Most used formulations (ha)
Fungicides 10,634 3,856 100 Tebuconazole (3,399)
Herbicides 1,931 1,562 100 Imazamox/ pendimethalin (1,469)
Insecticides 6,013 276 100 Lambda-cyhalothrin (2,937) pirimicarb (2,314)
Seed treatments 2,230 294 100 Thiram (1,469)

Figure 15 Use of pesticides on broad beans (percentage of total area treated with formulations) - 2015

Figure 15 Use of pesticides on broad beans (percentage of total area treated with formulations) - 2015

Figure 16 Timing of pesticide applications on broad beans – 2015

Figure 16 Timing of pesticide applications on broad beans – 2015

Brussels sprouts

  • An estimated 777 hectares of Brussels sprouts were grown in Scotland in 2015, a decrease of six per cent since 2013. 776 hectares were recorded in the 'Brussels sprouts' census category and one hectare was recorded in the 'other vegetable' census category.
  • All of the Brussels sprouts crop was grown from transplants
  • 100 per cent of the crop was treated with a pesticide
  • Pesticides were applied to 20,062 treated hectares
  • 4,206 kilograms of pesticides were applied to the crop
  • 39 per cent of pesticides applied were insecticides, 30 per cent fungicides, 23 per cent molluscicides, eight per cent herbicides and less than one per cent biopesticides ( Figure 17)
  • No sulphur was applied to the Brussels sprouts crop
  • The Brussels sprouts crop received on average 14.2 pesticide applications ( Table 1). These included 5.9 molluscicide, 5.6 fungicide, 5.5 insecticide and 1.6 herbicide applications
  • Fungicides were applied to the Brussels sprouts crop between June and November, insecticides were applied between May and November and molluscicides were applied from April to November ( Figure 18). 69 per cent of herbicides were applied in May and all biopesticide applications were in July
  • Where reasons were given, 28 per cent of fungicide use was for Alternaria, 24 per cent for general disease control and 22 per cent for light leaf spot. The remainder identified a range of other diseases as the target ( Figure 19)
  • 44 per cent of herbicide applications were for general weed control, 27 per cent for annual meadow grass, 28 per cent for annual broad-leaved weeds and one per cent for volunteer potatoes
  • 45 per cent of insecticide use was for aphids and 44 per cent for caterpillars ( Figure 20)
  • The most common varieties encountered were Petrus, Brodie and Doric, accounting for 53, 21 and 15 per cent of the sample area respectively

Summary of pesticide use on Brussels sprouts:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated (ha) Weight of pesticides applied (kg) % of crop area treated Most used formulations (ha)
Fungicides 6,004 1,704 100 Tebuconazole/ trifloxystrobin (1,785)
Herbicides 1,626 1,232 100 Pendimethalin (776)
Insecticides 7,807 529 100 Lambda-cyhalothrin (1,832)
Molluscicides 4,624 741 100 Metaldehyde (2,376)
Biopesticides 1 <0.5 <0.5 Bacillus Thuringiensis var. kurstaki (1)

Figure 17 Use of pesticides on Brussels sprouts (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2015

Figure 17 Use of pesticides on Brussels sprouts (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2015

Figure 18 Timing of pesticide applications on Brussels sprouts - 2015

Figure 18 Timing of pesticide applications on Brussels sprouts - 2015

Figure 19 Reasons for use of fungicides on Brussels sprouts (where specified)

Figure 19 Reasons for use of fungicides on Brussels sprouts (where specified)

Figure 20 Reasons for use of insecticides on Brussels sprouts (where specified)

Figure 20 Reasons for use of insecticides on Brussels sprouts (where specified)

Cabbages

  • An estimated area of 299 hectares of cabbages was grown in Scotland in 2015. This represents an increase of 47 per cent since 2013. 204 hectares were recorded in the 'cabbage and savoys' census category and 95 hectares in the 'other vegetable' census category.
  • 75 per cent of the cabbages crop was grown from transplants
  • 97 per cent of the crop was treated with a pesticide
  • Pesticides were applied to 4,452 treated hectares
  • 791 kilograms of pesticide were applied to the crop
  • 51 per cent of pesticides applied were insecticides, 17 per cent fungicides, 17 per cent herbicides, 10 per cent molluscicides, five per cent seed treatments and less than one per cent were biopesticides ( Figure 21)
  • No sulphur use was recorded on cabbages
  • The 97 per cent of the cabbage crop treated with a pesticide received on average 7.6 pesticide applications ( Table 1). These applications included 4.2 insecticides (applied to 96 per cent of the crop), 2.8 fungicides (applied to 84 per cent) and 1.7 herbicide and molluscicide applications (applied to 91 and 84 per cent respectively)
  • 51 per cent of herbicide applications were in May. ( Figure 22). 70 per cent of molluscicide applications and 62 per cent of fungicide applications were in June and all biopesticide applications were in July. The majority of insecticides were applied in June and July.
  • Where reasons were provided, 38 per cent of fungicide use was for Alternaria, 38 per cent for ring spot, 24 per cent for light leaf spot and less than one per cent for white blister
  • 50 per cent of herbicide use was for general weed control , 25 per cent for annual meadow grass and 25 per cent for annual broad-leaved weeds
  • Where reasons were specified, 70 per cent of insecticide use was for caterpillars and 30 per cent for aphid control

Summary of pesticide use on cabbages:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated (ha) Weight of pesticides applied (kg) % of crop area treated Most used formulations (ha)
Fungicides 780 226 84 Boscalid/ pyraclostrobin (264)
Herbicides 738 387 91 Clomazone (272), metazachlor (272)
Insecticides 2,259 108 96 Indoxacarb (630), lambda-cyhalothrin (619)
Molluscicides 430 69 84 Metaldehyde (340)
Biopesticides 17 <0.5 6 Bacillus Thuringiensis var. kurstaki (17)
Seed treatments 229 0.2 25 Iprodione, metalaxyl-M & thiram (all 76)

Figure 21 Use of pesticides on cabbages (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2015

Figure 21 Use of pesticides on cabbages (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2015

Figure 22 Timing of pesticide applications on cabbages - 2015

Figure 22 Timing of pesticide applications on cabbages - 2015

Calabrese

  • An estimated 1688 hectares of calabrese was grown in Scotland in 2015, an increase of 19 per cent since 2013. This included 1,513 hectares recorded in the 'calabrese' census category and 175 hectares recorded in the 'other vegetable' census category.
  • Over 99 per cent of the calabrese crop was grown from transplants
  • 100 per cent of the crop was treated with a pesticide
  • Pesticides were applied to 15,938 treated hectares
  • 8,036 kilograms of pesticide were applied in total
  • 41 per cent of pesticides applied were fungicides, 31 per cent herbicides, 20 per cent insecticides, eight per cent sulphur, under one per cent molluscicides and seed treatments ( Figure 23)
  • No biopesticides were recorded on the calabrese crop
  • The calabrese crop received on average 7.7 pesticide applications ( Table 1). These sprays included 3.9 fungicide applications (applied to 99 per cent of the crop area), 1.9 sulphur applications (applied to 40 per cent), 2.5 herbicide applications and 1.5 insecticide applications (applied to 99 per cent)
  • 81 per cent of sulphur applications were in September ( Figure 24). Fungicides were applied from June to October, herbicides from April to August, insecticides were mostly applied in July and August and molluscicides were applied from May to July
  • Where reasons were given, over 99 per cent of fungicide use (including sulphur) was for general disease control and under one per cent was for white blister
  • 87 per cent of herbicide use was for general weed control and nine per cent for crop destruction ( Figure 25)
  • Where reasons were specified, 98 per cent of insecticide use was for general pests, one per cent for aphids and one per cent for caterpillars
  • The most common varieties encountered were Parthenon and Monrello, accounting for 25 and 10 per cent of the sample area respectively

Summary of pesticide use on calabrese:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated (ha) Weight of pesticides applied (kg) % of crop area treated Most used formulations (ha)
Fungicides 6,555 2,624 99 Copper oxychloride (5,258)
Herbicides 4,914 4,097 100 Glyphosate (2,060)
Insecticides 3,183 100 99 Lambda-cyhalothrin (2,412)
Molluscicides 6 <0.5 0.4 Metaldehyde (6)
Sulphur 1,276 1,215 40 N/A
Seed treatment 4 0.003 <0.5 Iprodione, metalaxyl-M & thiram (all 1)

N/A = not applicable

Figure 23 Use of pesticides on calabrese (percentage of total area treated with formulations) - 2015

Figure 23 Use of pesticides on calabrese (percentage of total area treated with formulations) - 2015

Figure 24 Timing of pesticide applications on calabrese – 2015

Figure 24 Timing of pesticide applications on calabrese – 2015

Figure 25 Reasons for use of herbicides on calabrese (where specified)

Figure 25 Reasons for use of herbicides on calabrese (where specified)

Other brassicas

  • Other brassicas encountered in the 2015 survey were sprouting broccoli, cauliflower and kale
  • The total estimated area of other brassicas was 260 hectares
  • 94 per cent of other brassicas were grown from transplants
  • 95 per cent of the other brassica crop was treated with a pesticide
  • Pesticides were applied to 3,093 treated hectares
  • 750 kilograms of pesticide were applied in total
  • 43 per cent of pesticides applied were insecticides, 22 per cent molluscicides, 21 per cent herbicides, 14 per cent fungicides and less than one per cent seed treatments ( Figure 26)
  • No biopesticides or sulphur were recorded on the other brassica crop
  • The 95 per cent of the other brassicas crop area treated with a pesticide received on average nine pesticide applications ( Table 1). These included 3 herbicide and insecticide applications (applied to 85 and 84 per cent of the crop respectively), 2.8 molluscicide applications (applied to 94 per cent) and two fungicide applications (84 per cent)
  • In terms of timing of applications, all fungicides were applied in August, 67 per cent of herbicides were applied in June, 67 per cent of insecticides and 68 per cent of molluscicides were applied in July ( Figure 27)
  • Where reasons were given, all fungicide use was for general disease control, all herbicide use was for general weed control and all insecticide use was for general pest control

Summary of pesticide use on other brassicas:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated (ha) Weight of pesticides applied (kg) % of crop area treated Most used formulations (ha)
Fungicides 437 109 84 Azoxystrobin (437)
Herbicides 660 454 85 Glyphosate (437)
Insecticides 1,311 104 84 Lambda-Cyhalothrin (655)
Molluscicides 681 83 94 Metaldehyde (681)
Seed treatment 4 0.003 0.5 Iprodione (1), Metalaxyl-M (1), Thiram (1)

Figure 26 Use of pesticides on other brassicas (percentage of total area treated with formulations) - 2015

Figure 26 Use of pesticides on other brassicas (percentage of total area treated with formulations) - 2015

Figure 27 Timing of pesticide applications on other brassicas - 2015

Figure 27 Timing of pesticide applications on other brassicas - 2015

Carrots

  • An estimated 2,908 hectares of carrots were grown in Scotland in 2015, very similar to the area grown in 2013. This consists of 2,877 hectares recorded in the 'carrot' census category and 31 hectares recorded in the 'other vegetable' census category.
  • 93 per cent of the crop was treated with a pesticide
  • Pesticides were applied to 58,990 treated hectares
  • 20,475 kilograms of pesticide were applied to the crop
  • 36 per cent of pesticides applied were herbicides, 35 per cent fungicides, 21 per cent insecticides and eight per cent seed treatments ( Figure 28)
  • No molluscicides, biopesticides or sulphur were used on the carrot crop
  • The 93 per cent of the carrot crop treated with a pesticide received on average 10.6 pesticide applications ( Table 1). These applications included 7.2 fungicide applications (applied to 81 per cent of the crop), 4.6 insecticide applications (applied to 92 per cent) and 3.8 herbicide sprays (applied to 93 per cent)
  • Fungicides were applied to the carrot crop from May to October, herbicides were applied from March to August and insecticides were applied from March to October ( Figure 29)
  • Where reasons were given, 52 per cent of fungicide use was for Sclerotinia and 20 per cent was for general disease control Figure 30)
  • 66 per cent of herbicide use was for general weed control and 19 per cent was for annual broad-leaved weeds ( Figure 31)
  • 79 per cent of insecticide use was for carrot fly, 12 per cent for nematodes and nine per cent for aphids
  • The most common variety encountered was Nairobi, accounting for 58 per cent of the sample area surveyed

Summary of pesticide use on carrots:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated (ha) Weight of pesticides applied (kg) % of crop area treated Most used formulations (ha)
Fungicides 20,706 7,705 81 Prothioconazole (3,211), fenpropimorph (3,140)
Herbicides 21,114 10,939 93 Linuron (7,542)
Insecticides 12,441 1,718 92 Lambda-cyhalothrin (8,207)
Seed treatment 4,729 113 93 Cymoxanil/fludioxonil/ metalaxyl-M (2,312)

Figure 28 Use of pesticides on carrots (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2015

Figure 28 Use of pesticides on carrots (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2015

Figure 29 Timing of pesticide applications on carrots - 2015

Figure 29 Timing of pesticide applications on carrots - 2015

Figure 30 Reasons for use of fungicides on carrots (where specified)

Figure 30 Reasons for use of fungicides on carrots (where specified)

Figure 31 Reasons for use of herbicides on carrots (where specified)

Figure 31 Reasons for use of herbicides on carrots (where specified)

Turnips and swedes

  • The total estimated area of turnips and swedes grown in 2015 was 1,503 hectares, representing a 21 per cent decrease from 2013. 1,479 hectares were recorded in the 'turnips & swedes' census category and 24 hectares were recorded in the 'other vegetable' census category.
  • 100 per cent of the turnip and swede crop was treated with a pesticide
  • Pesticides were applied to 14,203 treated hectares
  • 3,291 kilograms of pesticide were applied to the crop
  • 32 per cent of pesticides applied were fungicides, 29 per cent herbicides, 22 per cent insecticides, 12 per cent seed treatments and five per cent molluscicides ( Figure 32)
  • No biopesticides or sulphur were applied to the turnips and swedes crop
  • The turnips and swedes crop received on average 4.5 pesticide applications ( Table 1). These included 2 fungicide applications (applied to 98 per cent of the crop area), 1.9 insecticide applications (applied to 88 per cent) and 1.6 herbicide applications. In addition, 44 per cent of the crop received on average of 1.1 applications of molluscicide
  • 49 per cent of fungicides and 43 per cent of insecticides were applied to the turnips and swedes crop in July, 72 per cent of molluscicides and 56 per cent of herbicides were applied in May ( Figure 33)
  • Where reasons were given, 68 per cent of fungicide use was for general disease control, 11 per cent was for Alternaria, 11 per cent was for light leaf spot and 10 per cent for phoma leaf spot
  • 63 per cent of herbicide use was for general weed control and 15 per cent was for annual broad-leaved weeds ( Figure 34)
  • 50 per cent of insecticide use was for aphids, 30 per cent for general pests and 20 per cent for caterpillars
  • The most common variety encountered was Magres, accounting for 88 per cent of the sample area surveyed

Summary of pesticide use on turnips and swedes:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated (ha) Weight of pesticides applied (kg) % of crop area treated Most used formulations (ha)
Fungicides 4,566 1,088 98 Prothioconazole (2,063)
Herbicides 4,159 1,789 100 Metazachlor (1,352), Clomazone (1,346)
Insecticides 3,104 208 88 Deltamethrin (1,059)
Molluscicides 728 173 44 Metaldehyde (728)
Seed treatment 1,645 33 (1) 100 Thiram (979)

(1) The total weight of seed treatment is underestimated as some seed treatments were unspecified.

Figure 32 Use of pesticides on turnips and swedes (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2015

Figure 32 Use of pesticides on turnips and swedes (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2015

Figure 33 Timing of pesticide applications on turnips and swedes – 2015

Figure 33 Timing of pesticide applications on turnips and swedes – 2015

Figure 34 Reasons for use of herbicides on turnips and swedes (where specified)

Figure 34 Reasons for use of herbicides on turnips and swedes (where specified)

Other vegetable crops

  • Other vegetable crops encountered in the 2015 survey were beetroot, curly parsley, garlic, leeks, lettuce, onions, parsnips, podded peas, radish, rocket and runner beans. The data from the 'rhubarb' census category has also been included with other vegetable crops as too few holdings were encountered to report this crop separately.
  • The total estimated area of other vegetable crops was 730 hectares
  • 19 per cent of other vegetable crops were grown from transplants
  • 94 per cent of other vegetable crops were treated with a pesticide
  • Pesticides were applied to 9,316 treated hectares
  • 6,056 kilograms of pesticides were applied to the crop
  • 37 per cent of pesticides applied were herbicides, 32 per cent fungicides, 20 per cent insecticides, six per cent seed treatments, two per cent sulphur and one per cent molluscicides, biopesticides and growth regulators ( Figure 35)
  • The 94 per cent of the other vegetable crop category treated with a pesticide received on average 7.6 pesticide applications ( Table 1). These included 4.6 fungicide applications (applied to 83 per cent of the crop area), 3.2 insecticide applications (applied to 82 per cent) and 3.1 herbicide applications (applied to 84 per cent). In addition, 16 and 29 per cent of the crop received on average one molluscicide and one sulphur application respectively.
  • Fungicides were applied to other vegetable crops between May and October, herbicides were applied between March and July and insecticides were applied between March and October ( Figure 36). All sulphur was applied in July and all growth regulators were applied in September. 51 per cent of molluscicides were applied in May and the majority of biopesticide applications were in July and August
  • Where reasons were given, 48 per cent of fungicide use was for mildew and 26 per cent was for Alternaria ( Figure 37)
  • 66 per cent of herbicide use was for general weed control and 19 per cent was for annual broad-leaved weeds ( Figure 38)
  • 54 per cent of insecticide use was for aphids, 33 per cent was for carrot fly, eight per cent for nematodes and five per cent for caterpillars

Summary of pesticide use on other vegetable crops:

Pesticide group Formulation area treated (ha) Weight of pesticides applied (kg) % of crop area treated Most used formulations (ha)
Fungicides 2,943 1,455 83 Prothioconazole (743)
Herbicides 3,473 2,858 84 Linuron (1,229)
Insecticides 1,900 392 82 Lambda-cyhalothrin (974)
Growth regulator 104 500 14 Maleic hydrazide (104)
Biopesticides 63 2 8 Bacillus subtilis (63)
Molluscicides 119 15 16 Metaldehyde (119)
Sulphur 211 842 29 N/A
Seed treatment 504 1 65 Cymoxanil/fludioxonil/ metalaxyl-M (433)

N/A = not applicable

Figure 35 Use of pesticides on other vegetable crops (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2015

Figure 35 Use of pesticides on other vegetable crops (percentage of total area treated with formulations) – 2015

Figure 36 Timing of pesticide applications on other vegetables – 2015

Figure 36 Timing of pesticide applications on other vegetables – 2015

Figure 37 Reasons for use of fungicides on other vegetables (where specified)

Figure 37 Reasons for use of fungicides on other vegetables (where specified)

Figure 38 Reasons for use of herbicides on other vegetables (where specified)

Figure 38 Reasons for use of herbicides on other vegetables (where specified)


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