PAN 64: Reclamation of Surface Mineral Workings
Amendments: the addition to soil of materials, usually with the aim of improving soil quality. For example fertilisers, lime or organic waste materials.
Biosolids: treated sewage sludge.
Controlled waters: defined in section 78A(9) by reference to section 30A of the Control of Pollution Act 1974; this embraces territorial and coastal waters, inland fresh waters, and ground waters.
Humified: organic matter transformed into humus.
Humus: the well-decomposed, relatively stable part of the organic matter found in aerobic soils.
Hydroseeding: seed, fertiliser, amendment and mulch is mixed with water and sprayed onto the surface. Suitable for inaccessible areas such as rock faces.
Microbial biomass: the total mass of living micro-organisms in a given volume of soil.
Overburden: any material overlying the mineral deposit, which must be stripped prior to extraction and can be unutilised in the restoration.
Poaching: when land becomes muddy from being trampled.
Pouring: a variation on hydroseeding, where slurry with seeds is poured over a steep slope from the top and runs down over the slope and onto ledges and crevices.
Ripping: deep cultivation to loosen compacted soil.
Scaling: the loosening of a material normally attached to another by surface adherence, which then peels and breaks away.
Smearing: mechanical action or wet soil resulting in the formation of a thin compacted layer possessing low permeability.
Soil-forming material: parent material for a new soil used as a substitute for, or supplement to, natural soils in the course of land reclamation.
Spot seeding: seeds are sown (manually) in groups at various spots with slow release fertiliser placed at lower level. Used to sow trees and shrubs on slopes.
Subsoil: the soil material beneath the topsoil and overlying the bedrock; composed of weathered parent material, low in organic matter.
Topsoil: the biologically active, organically rich surface layers of a soil, which provide the principle medium for growth.