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Publication - Research Publication

Poverty in Perspective: a typology of poverty in Scotland

Published: 27 Mar 2017
Part of:
Equality and rights, Research
ISBN:
9781786528735

Sets out 13 different ‘types’ of poverty across three life stages: families with children, working age households without children, and pensioner households.

70 page PDF

2.4MB

70 page PDF

2.4MB

Contents
Poverty in Perspective: a typology of poverty in Scotland
Annex B - Latent Class Analysis: Detailed methodology

70 page PDF

2.4MB

Annex B - Latent Class Analysis: Detailed methodology

Latent class models (Lazarsfeld and Henry, 1968) are frequently used to explore possible typologies and patterns of clustering in data sets. We theorise that the associations between the poverty indicators are a function of some underlying general variable that characterises experiences of poverty. This variable is a categorical, nominal variable that classifies members of the population in terms of those different experiences. It is not tangible and cannot be observed directly, hence it is termed a latent variable. By contrast, the survey items are termed observed or manifest variables.

The basic latent class model can be specified most simply as follows:

x is a categorical latent variable, with q unordered categories j = 1, … , q; and

y i ( i = 1, ... , p) are p observed or manifest variables, where y i has c i categories s = 1, ... , c i.

We model the probabilities of belonging to class j:

η j = P( x = j), j = 1, … , q

and the conditional response probabilities:

π is ( j) = P( y i = sx = j),

that is, the probability of responding in category s to item i, given membership of latent class j.

As explained in the main report, we study the estimated conditional probabilities π is ( j) to reach an interpretation of a latent class model. Having reached an interpretation for the latent classes, we might then be interested in the proportions of people expected to belong to each of them; this is given in the class probabilities, η j.

The model can equivalently be presented as a regression model, where we regress multiple observed survey items on a single nominal latent variable. Since all of the survey items are categorical, this is a logistic regression model for s - 1 categories for each item:

where x l ( l = 2, … , q) are dummy variables representing the latent classes. It is straightforward to extend this formulation to include covariates on the right hand side of the equation. We include covariates in the models in order to provide socio-demographic profiles for the classes, essentially using covariates as explanatory variables or predictors of class membership, as illustrated figuratively in the diagram below:

In latent variable modelling terminology the part on the left hand side in the diagram is broadly termed the 'structural' part of the model, in contrast to the item response probabilities (on the right hand side) which comprise the 'measurement' part of the model. We chose to model the covariates by treating them as 'active' (in the terminology of LatentGold software used to estimate the models), meaning that we estimate item response probabilities conditional on class, conditional on covariates. This procedure means that including covariates can affect the class compositions and distributions, since it assumes conditional independence between poverty indicators and covariates, given classes.

Overall we considered that it was an appropriate theoretical choice to include variables that are often spoken of as 'drivers' of poverty as active predictors of class membership, but we note that future research would be valuable to investigate whether the conditional independence assumption is reasonable, and if not, for which combinations of variables it might be violated [6] . We carefully compared models that treated the covariates as 'active' and as 'inactive' (where the structural part of the model is estimated separately from the measurement part of the model). Entropy and classification error statistics indicated that the models with active covariates are more successful than their equivalents with inactive covariates. We found that the class solutions were a little different in each approach, and more so for the younger life-stages. Some further scrutiny of modelling choices might therefore be useful in future research.

Our practical modelling strategy

When the researcher has no fixed ideas about the nature of clustering in the data, part of the challenge of latent class modelling is to decide how many classes should be used to best represent a set of data. For each life-stage we ran a series of models, beginning with a two-class solution, up to a seven-class solution, and compared those solutions to each other both in terms of overall fit statistics and in terms of interpretability of the classes. For overall fit statistics we used the standard AIC and BIC measures (where for a given data set, smaller numbers indicate better models). Figure B1 summarises AIC and BIC for these investigations. AIC decreased steadily with number of classes (as we would expect); BIC suggested between 2- and 4-class solutions for families with children, 3- and 5- class solutions for working age adults without children, and 4- and 5-class solutions for older people. Together these suggested to us that we should at least consider 5-, 6- and 7-class models in case they yielded additional insights in terms of substantive interpretation. As we increased the number of classes, the models tended to return solutions with some very small class sizes, for example with classes that were estimated to contain less than 10% the population in that life-stage. We scrutinised these smaller classes very carefully for their utility, paying particular attention to the uncertainty around their estimated parameters. Ultimately we have retained only one model (for the older age life-stage) that involves a notably small class; we chose this solution partly on the grounds of fit, and partly on the grounds of the added insights that the extra class brings to the analysis. So for the older-age group we present a five-class model, while we present four-class models for the other two life-stages. Tables B1- B3 present the logit estimates for these models. Tables B4- B6 present the estimated class and item response probabilities for the models ( ηˆ j and πˆ is ( j) respectively) with estimated standard errors.

Having settled on these models, we re-ran each one on a random sub-sample (of half of the respondents) of its respective life-stage in order to obtain an indicative evaluation of its robustness to sampling variation. For all life stages we found the models fitted on the random sub-sample to be close to their full-sample versions. We would note that the estimate of the class sizes are not very stable across models, so care should be taken not to read too much into those values: we would suggest instead that the utility of our analyses lies in uncovering patterns of clustering in the poverty indicators and naming those common profiles of experiences.

For each model fitted, we assessed the substantive interpretability of the classes it contained by inspecting conditional item response probabilities. Alongside this we scrutinised the utility of each item. We dropped a minimal number of variables from the models after assessing how well they enabled us to discriminate between (i.e. produce clear differentiable definitions of) latent classes. Discrimination power was assessed in terms of inferential statistics for the items' 'slope' coefficients (using the overall Wald statistic for each item, and the individual z-statistic for each estimated parameter, adopting p<0.05 and z>|1.96|as a rough guide). Using these, we decided to remove the items 'live more than 30 mins from a green space' and 'home has condensation problems' from all three life-stage analyses. In addition we dropped from the older age life-stage analysis the items 'overcrowded accommodation' and 'have had difficulties paying rent/mortgage in the last year'; respondents in this life-stage were extremely unlikely to report experiencing either of these. Aside from these differences, we used the same sets of variables for all three life stages - except in the case where individual items were obviously not appropriate for some groups (e.g. 'number of children' would not be a relevant variable to include for the 'working age without children' group). This was in order to be able to draw comparisons about relative risks of different poverty indicators across life stages.

The analyses were carried out in LatentGold (Vermunt and Magidson, 2016) software using Full Information Maximum Likelihood (FIML), allowing us to include a number of items that were not asked of the full sample. FIML handles missing values directly in the likelihood function - analogously estimating the model 'around the gaps' rather than either deleting cases listwise from the analysis, or imputing missing values. For the 22 items analysed, no case in the data set returned a complete set of answers; most contained between two and five missing values, but a few cases contained as many as 17 missing values. Most of the missingness in the data comes from the survey design: the data analysed are pooled from two waves, and include a few questions that were only asked in sub-samples in one of the waves. The analysis notably contains four items [7] that were only asked to a small section of respondents. Given that this missingness is due to survey design based on random allocation of respondents to different versions of the questionnaire, it seems not unreasonable to treat it as random and use FIML to deal with it. The items in question are not pivotal for the interpretation of the classes, but their inclusion adds depth to our substantive understanding of them. LatentGold deals with missingness on covariates in a different way, either deleting cases listwise or using a fairly simple imputation. Since missingness is very limited on covariates, we opted to use listwise deletion for these.

Figure B.1 AIC and BIC statistics for series of models within each life stage

Table B.1 Parameter estimates for 4-class latent class model, families with children

Measurement model Intercepts Coefficients
Struggling to get by Working home owners Workless families Part-time workers with low assets  
Item Category Estimate z Wald p-value (Ref.) Estimate z Estimate z Estimate z Wald p-value
Income decile Poorest decile 0 . 13.64 0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 32.14 <0.001
2nd poorest decile 0.601 3.40     0 -0.594 -1.97 -0.764 -2.66 -0.141 -0.43    
3rd poorest decile 0.236 1.24     0 -0.040 -0.14 -2.505 -4.56 -0.239 -0.71    
Financial difficulties None 0 . 64.46 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 18.44 <0.001
Some or deep financial difficulties -1.549 -8.03     0 -0.419 -1.25 0.731 2.20 -0.573 -1.55    
Savings Some savings 0 . 19.63 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 40.20 <0.001
No savings 1.022 4.43     0 -1.846 -4.61 1.684 2.57 -0.585 -1.37    
Rent/mortage difficulties No difficulties paying rent/mortgage in last year 0 . 30.50 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 4.91 0.180
Difficulties paying rent/mortgage in last year -1.361 -5.52     0 -1.481 -2.15 -0.529 -0.99 -0.369 -0.81    
Car ownership At least one car in household 0 . 3.22 0.073 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 88.34 <0.001
No car 0.273 1.79     0 -3.041 -7.43 2.011 3.30 -2.174 -4.38    
Friends/neighbours Can rely on friends/neighbours for help 0 . 94.29 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 14.20 0.003
Cannot rely on friends/neighbours for help -2.199 -9.71     0 -0.328 -0.80 0.743 2.06 -0.519 -1.13    
Unpaid care Does not provide regular unpaid car 0 . 36.63 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 4.01 0.260
Provides regular unpaid care -1.648 -6.05     0 0.152 0.42 -0.341 -0.46 -0.663 -1.51    
Free cultural activities Has done some free cultural activities in past year 0 . 16.87 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 61.70 <0.001
Has not done many free cultural activities in past year -0.544 -4.11     0 -0.966 -3.28 1.104 4.34 1.341 5.48    
Paid cultural activities Has done some paid cultural activities in past year 0 . 60.25 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 59.98 <0.001
Has not done many paid cultural activities in past year -1.420 -7.76     0 -1.396 -3.08 1.915 5.05 1.435 5.19    
Internet access Has internet access at home 0 . 28.03 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 151.17 <0.001
No internet access at home -1.818 -5.29     0 -1.898 -1.62 0.566 1.02 -5.909 -10.00    
Local area empowerment Yes, can influence decisions 0 . 37.76 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 7.71 0.052
No, cannot influence decisions -1.053 -6.15     0 -0.184 -0.69 0.538 1.77 0.053 0.17    
Overcrowding Home is not overcrowded 0 . 66.02 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 9.42 0.024
Home is overcrowded -2.077 -8.13     0 -0.789 -1.79 0.556 1.16 0.089 0.24    
Heating No heating problems 0 . 41.47 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 19.48 <0.001
Home never warm or heating serious problem -2.165 -6.44     0 -1.312 -1.62 1.537 3.15 -0.033 -0.05    
Homelessness Has not been homeless 0 . 39.84 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 38.04 <0.001
Has been homeless -1.163 -6.31     0 -2.101 -4.87 0.227 0.66 -2.202 -2.29    
Neighbourhood problems None or not many neighbourhood problems 0 . 34.79 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 43.43 <0.001
High no. of neighbourhood problems -1.111 -5.90     0 -1.435 -3.99 0.475 1.30 -1.610 -3.41    
Personal safety Does not feel unsafe walking alone in neighbourhood or alone at home 0 . 34.11 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 43.36 <0.001
Feel unsafe walking alone in neighbourhood or alone at home -0.957 -5.84     0 -0.823 -2.95 0.634 2.26 -1.119 -2.80    
Multiple deprivation level of neighbourhood Not a 20% most deprived area 0 . 1.38 0.240 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 62.35 <0.001
20% most deprived area (IMD) 0.161 1.17     0 -2.466 -6.56 0.520 1.94 -1.354 -3.86    
Local services Not dissatisfied with local council 0 . 67.61 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 8.50 0.037
Dissatisfied with local council -1.667 -8.22     0 -1.048 -2.22 0.180 0.46 -0.059 -0.15    
Green space Has visited countryside/open space in last 12 months 0 . 90.94 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 36.29 <0.001
Not visited countryside/open space in last 12 months -2.384 -9.54     0 -0.538 -1.17 1.696 4.30 1.010 2.91    
Discrimination Has not experienced discrimination 0 . 63.41 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 2.56 0.460
Experienced discrimination -2.366 -7.96     0 -0.094 -0.22 0.464 0.83 -0.123 -0.28    
Structural model
Intercept         0 -16.089 -3.59 -2.445 -0.87 4.481 1.44 13.88 0.003
Covariates:
Household type Single parent         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 7.38 0.290
Small family         0 -1.758 -1.10 0.234 0.14 0.489 0.42    
Large family         0 2.254 0.83 -1.064 -0.55 -1.011 -0.53    
Sex of household head Male         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 4.05 0.260
Female         0 -1.222 -0.59 -1.552 -1.86 -2.374 -1.40    
Age group of household head 16-24         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 35.60 0.008
25-34         0 11.900 3.14 -1.503 -1.57 -3.589 -1.39    
35-44         0 14.330 3.26 -2.414 -1.67 3.479 1.47    
45-59         0 17.177 2.37 -1.787 -0.83 4.300 0.88    
60-69         0 16.395 3.08 -4.483 -1.11 14.809 2.02    
70-79         0 24.518 3.34 -5.571 -1.64 -0.397 -0.08    
80+         0 8.326 0.72 12.674 1.21 -12.529 -1.01    
Ethnicity of household head White         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 1.90 0.590
Minority ethnic groups         0 2.068 0.69 -0.954 -0.53 6.000 1.33    
Number of children 1         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 6.24 0.400
2         0 2.046 1.52 -0.843 -0.93 1.257 0.86    
3 or more         0 -1.548 -0.75 0.312 0.22 4.509 1.94    
Age of youngest child 0 to 4         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 9.18 0.160
5 to 11         0 -2.665 -1.88 -1.902 -1.33 -6.170 -1.95    
12 to 15         0 1.317 0.65 -0.083 -0.09 0.485 0.31    
Income source More than 80% of income from benefits         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 34.27 <0.001
More than 80% of income from miscellaneous sources         0 1.752 0.47 11.310 4.48 -1.279 -0.28    
More than 80% of income from earnings         0 2.494 1.29 -0.630 -0.49 2.046 0.94    
Mixture         0 2.357 1.11 -1.880 -1.57 2.797 1.00    
Household work status Workless         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 38.08 <0.001
Low part time         0 1.111 0.73 -1.591 -0.87 6.906 2.17    
High part-time         0 4.135 2.11 -7.128 -2.68 3.942 1.60    
Full time         0 0.720 0.30 -11.236 -4.22 3.656 1.33    
Adult health No adult/s have long-term illness or disability         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 1.00 0.800
Adult/s have long-term illness or disability         0 -1.453 -0.82 0.137 0.12 -0.393 -0.19    
Child health No child/ren have long-term illness or disability         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 3.95 0.270
Child/ren have long-term illness or disability         0 -2.100 -1.11 -0.160 -0.10 -10.669 -1.93    
Highest qualification of household head No qualifications         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 32.21 0.006
Other qualification         0 4.723 1.65 -4.713 -0.97 -6.546 -1.77    
Level 1 - 'O' Grade, Standard grade or equiv (SVQ level 1 or 2)         0 1.628 0.73 -5.443 -2.62 -4.628 -1.66    
Level 2 - Higher, A level or equivalent (SVQ Level 3)         0 6.815 1.87 -6.156 -2.94 -8.022 -1.89    
Level 3 - HNC/HND or equivalent (SVQ Level 4)         0 10.681 2.02 -7.024 -3.34 -3.499 -1.16    
Level 4 - Degree, Professional qualification (Above SVQ Level 4)         0 11.400 1.76 -10.489 -2.38 -6.294 -1.19    
Housing Own outright         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 21.02 0.050
Buying with mortgage         0 -1.597 -0.59 10.174 2.60 -7.257 -1.91    
Social renting         0 -13.720 -2.04 11.106 2.58 -13.967 -2.31    
Private renting         0 -5.749 -1.41 9.877 2.49 -4.791 -1.90    
Other         0 -9.287 -1.84 14.163 3.39 -12.953 -2.08    
Rurality Urban         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 9.45 0.024
Rural         0 8.606 2.59 -2.328 -0.76 12.109 2.05    

Table B.2 Parameter estimates for 4-class latent class model, working age adults without children

Measurement model Intercepts Coefficients
Detached singles Generation rent Insecure singles New poor  
Item Category Estimate z Wald p-value (Ref.) Estimate z Estimate z Estimate z Wald p-value
Income decile Poorest decile 0 . 7.06 0.029 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 8.24 0.220
2nd poorest decile -0.373 -2.24     0 0.114 0.39 0.089 0.31 0.412 1.48    
3rd poorest decile -0.391 -2.03     0 -0.199 -0.61 -1.060 -2.02 -0.206 -0.55    
Financial difficulties None 0 . 15.83 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 76.39 <0.001
Some or deep financial difficulties -1.062 -3.98     0 -0.893 -1.85 1.029 2.66 -1.419 -3.81    
Savings Some savings 0 . 9.53 0.002 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 28.42 <0.001
No savings 1.464 3.09     0 -1.822 -2.70 1.553 1.12 -3.293 -4.67    
Rent/mortage difficulties No difficulties paying rent/mortgage in last year 0 . 19.74 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 8.67 0.034
Difficulties paying rent/mortgage in last year -1.923 -4.44     0 -0.261 -0.43 0.955 1.47 -2.086 -1.16    
Car ownership At least one car in household 0 . 8.99 0.003 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 70.49 <0.001
No car 1.506 3.00     0 -0.591 -0.78 0.865 0.92 -3.958 -6.04    
Friends/neighbours Can rely on friends/neighbours for help 0 . 39.71 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 13.48 0.004
Cannot rely on friends/neighbours for help -2.186 -6.30     0 0.261 0.59 1.171 2.72 -1.070 -0.64    
Unpaid care Does not provide regular unpaid car 0 . 32.84 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 1.59 0.660
Provides regular unpaid care -1.865 -5.73     0 -0.608 -0.68 -0.187 -0.31 0.281 0.38    
Free cultural activities Has done some free cultural activities in past year 0 . 29.75 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 87.31 <0.001
Has not done many free cultural activities in past year 1.275 5.45     0 -2.741 -8.44 -1.549 -3.06 -1.406 -2.97    
Paid cultural activities Has done some paid cultural activities in past year 0 . 28.82 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 54.96 <0.001
Has not done many paid cultural activities in past year 1.645 5.37     0 -4.937 -7.30 -1.726 -2.38 -2.334 -3.97    
Internet access Has internet access at home 0 . 3.43 0.064 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 61.61 <0.001
No internet access at home 0.545 1.85     0 -2.666 -4.18 -0.326 -0.63 -2.837 -5.59    
Local area empowerment Yes, can influence decisions 0 . 17.67 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 19.03 <0.001
No, cannot influence decisions -0.821 -4.20     0 -1.194 -3.73 0.025 0.06 -0.207 -0.72    
Overcrowding Home is not overcrowded 0 . 48.47 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 76.01 <0.001
Home is overcrowded -4.663 -6.96     0 0.838 0.83 -7.098 -6.21 -6.792 -4.65    
Heating No heating problems 0 . 19.31 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 12.77 0.005
Home never warm or heating serious problem -1.625 -4.39     0 -1.137 -1.41 0.693 1.23 -0.975 -1.58    
Homelessness Has not been homeless 0 . 11.35 0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 44.88 <0.001
Has been homeless -1.401 -3.37     0 -1.425 -1.61 1.773 2.79 -2.610 -3.59    
Neighbourhood problems None or not many neighbourhood problems 0 . 17.33 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 42.21 <0.001
High no. of neighbourhood problems -2.455 -4.16     0 0.314 0.49 2.040 2.98 -0.587 -0.29    
Personal safety Does not feel unsafe walking alone in neighbourhood or alone at home 0 . 18.23 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 28.09 <0.001
Feel unsafe walking alone in neighbourhood or alone at home -1.416 -4.27     0 -0.423 -0.88 0.919 1.85 -0.968 -1.51    
Multiple deprivation level of neighbourhood Not a 20% most deprived area 0 . 0.04 0.850 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 74.64 <0.001
20% most deprived area (IMD) -0.032 -0.19     0 -1.319 -2.42 0.483 1.40 -1.695 -1.80    
Local services Not dissatisfied with local council 0 . 28.56 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 3.71 0.290
Dissatisfied with local council -1.744 -5.34     0 -1.256 -1.80 -0.055 -0.08 -0.050 -0.12    
Green space Has visited countryside/open space in last 12 months 0 . 0.09 0.770 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 71.69 <0.001
Not visited countryside/open space in last 12 months 0.053 0.30     0 -2.837 -7.40 -1.390 -2.18 -1.879 -4.03    
Discrimination Has not experienced discrimination 0 . 69.62 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 25.02 <0.001
Experienced discrimination -2.456 -8.34     0 0.271 0.62 1.456 3.66 -0.851 -1.12    
Structural model
Intercept         0 -1.725 -1.02 -0.137 -0.12 -6.620 -4.38 21.99 <0.001
Covariates:
Household type Single adult         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 10.85 0.093
Small adult         0 0.195 0.32 -0.305 -0.55 2.601 1.59    
Large adult         0 0.688 0.61 -1.352 -0.85 2.555 1.82    
Sex of household head Male         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 3.11 0.380
Female         0 0.064 0.17 -0.172 -0.53 -1.088 -1.62    
Age group of household head 16-24         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 94.91 <0.001
25-34         0 -1.086 -1.84 0.276 0.43 4.927 3.95    
35-44         0 -0.979 -1.54 -0.270 -0.41 4.863 4.08    
45-59         0 -1.538 -1.91 -1.334 -1.79 5.797 3.60    
60-69         0 -1.608 -0.46 -3.252 -2.44 6.864 4.50    
70-79         0 -3.271 -0.57 -4.825 -0.76 -1.073 -0.12    
Ethnicity of household head White         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 9.65 0.022
Minority ethnic groups         0 -1.616 -1.99 -1.339 -1.66 -3.261 -1.07    
Income source More than 80% of income from benefits         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 21.13 0.012
More than 80% of income from miscellaneous sources         0 1.627 1.82 -0.338 -0.29 2.437 1.36    
More than 80% of income from earnings         0 1.398 1.08 -0.876 -0.77 0.150 0.05    
Mixture         0 0.941 0.59 -1.150 -0.96 -0.378 -0.11    
Household work status Workless         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 11.90 0.220
Low part time         0 -0.700 -0.48 0.831 0.77 1.991 0.73    
High part-time         0 0.369 0.07 0.894 0.35 2.747 0.63    
Full time         0 -0.795 -0.58 -1.318 -1.00 2.531 0.99    
Adult health No adult/s have long-term illness or disability         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 7.04 0.071
Adult/s have long-term illness or disability         0 -1.007 -2.30 -0.607 -1.47 -0.437 -0.61    
Highest qualification of household head No qualifications         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 40.62 <0.001
Other qualification         0 1.164 0.65 0.565 0.63 1.314 1.08    
Level 1 - 'O' Grade, Standard grade or equiv (SVQ level 1 or 2)         0 2.576 2.60 0.878 1.84 1.674 3.30    
Level 2 - Higher, A level or equivalent (SVQ Level 3)         0 3.784 3.24 0.806 0.84 1.180 1.06    
Level 3 - HNC/HND or equivalent (SVQ Level 4)         0 3.217 2.99 0.544 0.81 1.455 1.62    
Level 4 - Degree, Professional qualification (Above SVQ Level 4)         0 5.108 3.40 2.560 1.92 2.664 0.97    
Housing Own outright         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 77.55 <0.001
Buying with mortgage         0 1.077 0.70 0.375 0.31 -1.114 -0.59    
Social renting         0 -0.719 -0.37 0.846 0.80 -3.798 -1.31    
Private renting         0 0.650 0.45 0.503 0.41 -2.803 -2.58    
Other         0 0.013 0.01 1.851 1.32 -3.034 -1.29    
Rurality Urban         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 2.21 0.530
Rural         0 -0.286 -0.40 -0.446 -0.61 2.789 1.25    

Table B.3 Parameter estimates for 5-class latent class model, older people

Measurement model Intercepts Coefficients
Disengaged couples Left alone Younger active singles Younger engaged couples Ill health  
Item Category Estimate z Wald p-value (Ref.) Estimate z Estimate z Estimate z Estimate z Wald p-value
Income decile Poorest decile 0 . 20.72 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 24.39 0.002
2nd poorest decile 0.039 0.31     0 -0.315 -1.62 -0.094 -0.40 -0.015 -0.07 0.244 0.84    
3rd poorest decile -0.652 -3.89     0 0.313 1.34 0.549 2.09 0.029 0.10 0.956 3.08    
Financial difficulties None 0 . 83.14 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 332.08 <0.001
Some or deep financial difficulties -4.080 -9.12     0 -7.732 -13.10 -0.009 -0.01 0.026 0.03 1.605 2.44    
Savings Some savings 0 . 30.28 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 57.87 <0.001
No savings -2.749 -5.50     0 -0.054 -0.06 1.009 1.63 -0.728 -0.60 3.403 5.00    
Car ownership At least one car in household 0 . 43.47 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 125.27 <0.001
No car -2.175 -6.59     0 4.989 10.18 2.640 5.67 -2.385 -2.13 3.112 5.43    
Friends/neighbours Can rely on friends/neighbours for help 0 . 54.61 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 9.55 0.049
Cannot rely on friends/neighbours for help -3.977 -7.39     0 0.347 0.57 1.138 1.75 -0.105 -0.10 1.664 2.18    
Unpaid care Does not provide regular unpaid car 0 . 90.11 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 17.98 0.001
Provides regular unpaid care -2.321 -9.49     0 -1.201 -2.74 0.489 1.46 0.627 1.65 0.786 1.32    
Free cultural activities Has done some free cultural activities in past year 0 . 56.22 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 137.96 <0.001
Has not done many free cultural activities in past year 1.411 7.50     0 0.133 0.47 -2.200 -6.99 -2.682 -7.58 -0.078 -0.22    
Paid cultural activities Has done some paid cultural activities in past year 0 . 9.09 0.003 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 187.88 <0.001
Has not done many paid cultural activities in past year 0.805 3.01     0 0.820 2.09 -2.095 -5.48 -3.113 -7.86 0.784 1.52    
Internet access Has internet access at home 0 . 3.64 0.056 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 28.96 <0.001
No internet access at home -0.415 -1.91     0 6.213 2.34 0.265 0.62 -2.174 -3.37 1.415 2.22    
  InfluenceLocalArea                              
Local area empowerment Yes, can influence decisions 0 . 36.24 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 13.25 0.010
No, cannot influence decisions -0.792 -6.02     0 0.020 0.11 -0.355 -1.51 -0.545 -2.06 0.273 1.02    
Heating No heating problems 0 . 22.71 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 8.33 0.080
Home never warm or heating serious problem -3.846 -4.77     0 0.404 0.42 1.338 1.47 0.872 0.77 2.177 2.18    
Homelessness Has not been homeless 0 . 25.91 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 20.87 <0.001
Has been homeless -5.881 -5.09     0 0.432 0.23 3.307 2.66 -1.365 -0.67 3.287 2.66    
Neighbourhood problems None or not many neighbourhood problems 0 . 87.84 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 32.18 <0.001
High no. of neighbourhood problems -3.520 -9.37     0 -1.650 -0.65 1.309 2.68 -0.758 -0.75 1.879 4.26    
Personal safety Does not feel unsafe walking alone in neighbourhood or alone at home 0 . 71.15 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 59.72 <0.001
Feel unsafe walking alone in neighbourhood or alone at home -2.101 -8.44     0 1.514 4.81 1.482 4.51 -0.108 -0.22 1.490 3.80    
Multiple deprivation level of neighbourhood Not a 20% most deprived area 0 . 57.06 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 75.65 0.000
20% most deprived area (IMD) -2.137 -7.55     0 0.845 2.18 1.171 3.05 -1.615 -1.44 2.585 7.01    
Local services Not dissatisfied with local council 0 . 96.69 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 11.11 0.025
Dissatisfied with local council -1.992 -9.83     0 -0.647 -1.80 -0.548 -1.46 -0.397 -1.06 0.459 1.04    
Green space Has visited countryside/open space in last 12 months 0 . 18.52 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 121.48 <0.001
Not visited countryside/open space in last 12 months -0.674 -4.30     0 0.882 3.92 -1.425 -4.49 -1.863 -5.35 0.713 2.29    
Discrimination Has not experienced discrimination 0 . 30.50 <0.001 0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 7.99 0.092
Experienced discrimination -4.780 -5.52     0 -0.945 -0.66 1.761 1.85 1.701 1.74 1.950 1.70    
Structural model
Intercept         0 -12.710 -7.91 -7.451 -3.15 -0.553 -0.35 1.798 0.38 87.48 <0.001
Covariates:
Household type Large adult         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 102.37 <0.001
Older smaller         0 4.891 4.84 0.135 0.09 -0.428 -0.42 -1.319 -0.43    
Single pensioner         0 7.202 7.26 1.456 0.98 -1.130 -0.93 -0.204 -0.06    
Sex of household head Male         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 49.05 <0.001
Female         0 2.058 5.01 2.331 5.50 0.838 2.07 0.900 1.00    
Age group of household head 45-59         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 156.03 <0.001
60-69         0 4.144 3.75 5.331 3.79 -0.533 -0.53 -3.884 -1.80    
70-79         0 4.731 4.22 4.697 3.19 -0.884 -0.84 -5.136 -2.14    
80+         0 6.792 5.88 4.607 2.99 -2.107 -1.86 -5.339 -2.27    
Ethnicity of household head White         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 47.97 <0.001
Minority ethnic groups         0 -4.806 -3.92 -6.835 -5.82 0.254 0.26 2.287 1.53    
Income source More than 80% of income from benefits         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 37.97 <0.001
More than 80% of income from miscellaneous sources         0 -2.332 -2.14 -0.291 -0.28 1.243 1.05 -1.731 -0.92    
More than 80% of income from earnings         0 -0.981 -0.55 -0.383 -0.32 1.850 1.65 0.721 0.57    
Mixture         0 -0.413 -1.16 0.333 0.92 1.180 3.41 -2.333 -2.97    
Household work status Workless         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 55.54 <0.001
Low part time         0 0.675 0.95 -0.538 -0.63 -1.961 -2.19 -3.786 -2.07    
High part-time         0 -3.825 -1.38 -4.358 -1.82 -9.083 -4.16 -3.160 -1.24    
Full time         0 -3.374 -2.52 2.584 2.42 -1.372 -1.17 2.627 0.84    
Adult health No adult/s have long-term illness or disability         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 31.64 <0.001
Adult/s have long-term illness or disability         0 0.694 2.06 -0.389 -0.98 -0.959 -3.06 2.146 1.79    
Highest qualification of household head No qualifications         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 121.95 <0.001
Other qualification         0 -0.905 -2.31 -0.009 -0.02 0.742 1.55 -1.369 -1.75    
Level 1 - 'O' Grade, Standard grade or equiv (SVQ level 1 or 2)         0 -3.114 -3.70 0.274 0.38 1.421 2.40 -3.460 -3.01    
Level 2 - Higher, A level or equivalent (SVQ Level 3)         0 -1.940 -2.95 0.648 1.10 2.511 4.61 -2.627 -1.65    
Level 3 - HNC/HND or equivalent (SVQ Level 4)         0 -1.836 -2.37 0.578 0.80 2.408 4.03 -3.035 -2.25    
Level 4 - Degree, Professional qualification (Above SVQ Level 4)         0 -2.012 -2.76 0.534 0.85 3.235 5.94 -2.930 -2.64    
Housing Own outright         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 53.51 <0.001
Buying with mortgage         0 1.249 1.36 0.967 1.33 -0.033 -0.07 2.773 1.58    
Social renting         0 2.141 3.47 2.237 3.66 -4.365 -1.57 4.927 3.33    
Private renting         0 0.340 0.30 1.541 1.50 -2.483 -2.43 3.434 2.08    
Other         0 -1.224 -0.79 -1.366 -0.80 -1.328 -1.45 2.827 1.58    
Rurality Urban         0 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 . 40.94 <0.001
Rural         0 -1.963 -4.26 -2.847 -4.78 0.342 0.74 -4.881 -3.80    

Table B.4 Estimated class and item response probabilities with estimated standard errors, 4-class latent class model, families with children

  Workless families Struggling to get by Working home owners Part-time workers with low assets
Prob. s.e. Prob. s.e. Prob. s.e. Prob. s.e.
Estimated class size: 0.215 0.027 0.383 0.030 0.220 0.014 0.182 0.016
Estimated item response probabilities
Poorest income decile 0.512 0.045 0.245 0.031 0.310 0.042 0.279 0.048
2nd poorest income decile 0.435 0.045 0.446 0.032 0.313 0.042 0.442 0.049
3rd poorest income decile 0.053 0.026 0.310 0.030 0.377 0.037 0.278 0.041
Some or deep financial difficulties 0.306 0.045 0.175 0.028 0.123 0.027 0.107 0.030
No savings 0.937 0.034 0.735 0.045 0.305 0.066 0.607 0.083
Difficulties paying rent/mortgage in last year 0.131 0.048 0.204 0.040 0.055 0.033 0.151 0.047
No car 0.908 0.047 0.568 0.037 0.059 0.021 0.130 0.052
Not rely on friends/neighbours for help 0.189 0.034 0.100 0.020 0.074 0.022 0.062 0.022
Provides regular unpaid care 0.120 0.056 0.162 0.037 0.183 0.032 0.090 0.027
Has not done many free cultural activities in past year 0.637 0.047 0.367 0.031 0.181 0.037 0.689 0.045
Has not done many paid cultural activities in past year 0.621 0.068 0.195 0.029 0.057 0.021 0.504 0.050
No internet access at home 0.222 0.059 0.140 0.041 0.024 0.025 0.000 0.000
No, cannot influence decisions 0.374 0.047 0.259 0.033 0.225 0.032 0.269 0.043
Overcrowded 0.179 0.042 0.111 0.025 0.054 0.018 0.121 0.027
Home never warm or heating serious problem 0.348 0.072 0.103 0.031 0.030 0.021 0.100 0.047
Been homeless 0.282 0.044 0.238 0.033 0.037 0.014 0.033 0.029
High no. of neighbourhood problems 0.346 0.051 0.248 0.035 0.073 0.020 0.062 0.026
Feel unsafe walking alone in neighbourhood or alone at home 0.420 0.046 0.277 0.033 0.144 0.029 0.111 0.034
20% most deprived area (IMD) 0.664 0.044 0.540 0.034 0.091 0.028 0.233 0.056
Dissatisfied with local council 0.184 0.038 0.159 0.027 0.062 0.025 0.151 0.040
Not visited countryside/open space in last 12 months 0.334 0.055 0.084 0.019 0.051 0.017 0.202 0.035
Experienced discrimination 0.130 0.037 0.086 0.023 0.079 0.020 0.077 0.021

Table B.5 Estimated class and item response probabilities with estimated standard errors, 4-class latent class model, working age adults without children

  Insecure singles Detached singles New poor Generation rent
Prob. s.e. Prob. s.e. Prob. s.e. Prob. s.e.
Estimated class size: 0.231 0.044 0.314 0.041 0.209 0.083 0.246 0.087
Estimated item response probabilities
Poorest income decile 0.503 0.050 0.423 0.035 0.386 0.045 0.430 0.058
2nd poorest income decile 0.379 0.039 0.291 0.033 0.401 0.039 0.332 0.040
3rd poorest income decile 0.118 0.041 0.286 0.038 0.213 0.044 0.238 0.039
Some or deep financial difficulties 0.492 0.051 0.257 0.051 0.077 0.021 0.124 0.035
No savings 0.953 0.048 0.812 0.072 0.138 0.080 0.412 0.088
Difficulties paying rent/mortgage in last year 0.275 0.069 0.128 0.048 0.018 0.031 0.101 0.035
No car 0.915 0.041 0.819 0.075 0.079 0.047 0.714 0.172
Not rely on friends/neighbours for help 0.266 0.039 0.101 0.032 0.037 0.057 0.127 0.031
Provides regular unpaid care 0.114 0.035 0.134 0.038 0.170 0.068 0.078 0.073
Has not done many free cultural activities in past year 0.432 0.104 0.782 0.040 0.467 0.084 0.188 0.031
Has not done many paid cultural activities in past year 0.480 0.129 0.838 0.042 0.334 0.096 0.036 0.020
No internet access at home 0.554 0.078 0.633 0.068 0.092 0.037 0.107 0.051
No, cannot influence decisions 0.311 0.059 0.306 0.041 0.263 0.044 0.118 0.027
Overcrowded 0.000 0.000 0.009 0.006 0.000 0.000 0.021 0.013
Home never warm or heating serious problem 0.283 0.064 0.165 0.051 0.069 0.030 0.059 0.038
Been homeless 0.592 0.085 0.198 0.066 0.018 0.013 0.056 0.031
High no. of neighbourhood problems 0.398 0.058 0.079 0.043 0.046 0.071 0.105 0.054
Feel unsafe walking alone in neighbourhood or alone at home 0.378 0.056 0.195 0.052 0.084 0.036 0.137 0.038
20% most deprived area (IMD) 0.611 0.055 0.492 0.042 0.151 0.115 0.206 0.088
Dissatisfied with local council 0.142 0.054 0.149 0.041 0.143 0.026 0.047 0.030
Not visited countryside/open space in last 12 months 0.208 0.089 0.513 0.045 0.139 0.047 0.058 0.021
Experienced discrimination 0.269 0.050 0.079 0.021 0.035 0.022 0.101 0.029

Table B.6 Estimated class and item response probabilities with estimated standard errors, 5-class latent class model, older people

  Ill health Left alone Disengaged couples Younger active singles Younger engaged couples
Prob. s.e. Prob. s.e. Prob. s.e. Prob. s.e. Prob. s.e.
Estimated class size: 0.107 0.027 0.246 0.027 0.268 0.023 0.207 0.024 0.174 0.024
Estimated item response probabilities
Poorest income decile 0.272 0.045 0.405 0.030 0.391 0.029 0.351 0.034 0.390 0.035
2nd poorest income decile 0.360 0.049 0.307 0.027 0.406 0.027 0.332 0.035 0.400 0.033
3rd poorest income decile 0.368 0.052 0.288 0.027 0.204 0.024 0.317 0.034 0.209 0.030
Some or deep financial difficulties 0.078 0.032 0.000 0.000 0.017 0.007 0.017 0.010 0.017 0.010
No savings 0.658 0.096 0.057 0.037 0.060 0.028 0.149 0.046 0.030 0.028
No car 0.719 0.097 0.943 0.022 0.102 0.030 0.614 0.066 0.010 0.011
Not rely on friends/neighbours for help 0.090 0.033 0.026 0.008 0.018 0.010 0.055 0.017 0.017 0.013
Provides regular unpaid care 0.177 0.069 0.029 0.011 0.089 0.020 0.138 0.026 0.155 0.029
Has not done many free cultural activities in past year 0.791 0.045 0.824 0.029 0.804 0.030 0.312 0.053 0.219 0.063
Has not done many paid cultural activities in past year 0.830 0.063 0.835 0.038 0.691 0.057 0.216 0.044 0.090 0.031
No internet access at home 0.731 0.113 0.997 0.008 0.398 0.052 0.462 0.084 0.070 0.039
No, cannot influence decisions 0.373 0.050 0.316 0.028 0.312 0.028 0.241 0.035 0.208 0.033
Home never warm or heating serious problem 0.159 0.066 0.031 0.016 0.021 0.017 0.075 0.030 0.049 0.027
Been homeless 0.070 0.026 0.004 0.006 0.003 0.003 0.071 0.018 0.001 0.001
High no. of neighbourhood problems 0.162 0.035 0.006 0.014 0.029 0.011 0.099 0.023 0.014 0.011
Feel unsafe walking alone in neighbourhood or alone at home 0.352 0.068 0.357 0.043 0.109 0.024 0.350 0.038 0.099 0.031
20% most deprived area (IMD) 0.610 0.059 0.216 0.046 0.106 0.027 0.276 0.041 0.023 0.023
Dissatisfied with local council 0.178 0.048 0.067 0.017 0.120 0.021 0.073 0.022 0.084 0.020
Not visited countryside/open space in last 12 months 0.510 0.062 0.552 0.039 0.338 0.035 0.109 0.027 0.073 0.023
Experienced discrimination 0.056 0.029 0.003 0.004 0.008 0.007 0.047 0.015 0.044 0.014

Item probabilities and relative risks

The following tables present the item probabilities and the relative risks for each of the Latent Class Analysis solutions.

The item probability is the likelihood that a household in the poverty type has a particular poverty indicator (or risk factor / background characteristic). For example, using the families with children life stage as an example, the probability of a household in the 'workless families' poverty type being in the lowest income decile is 51% (or 0.51). This means that, on average, about half the households in that poverty type are in the lowest income decile (the item probabilities for the second decile are 44% and the third decile 5%, meaning that all households in this poverty type are in the bottom three income deciles, as 51% + 44% + 5% = 100%). The probability of a household in the Struggling to get by poverty type being in the lowest income decile is 24% (or 0.24). This shows that households in the 'workless families' poverty type are more likely to be in the lowest income decile than households in the 'struggling to get by' poverty type.

To help illustrate the kinds of households in each poverty type, we focus on item probabilities over 50% and over 75%. An item probability over 75% would imply that a large majority of households in that poverty type have that particular poverty indicator (or risk factor / background characteristic). We also note where households are particularly likely not to have a particular poverty indicator (or risk factor / background characteristic) by highlighting item probabilities less than 50% and less than 25%. In the tables below, high item probabilities have darker green shading, whereas low item probabilities have lighter green/white shading.

It may be the case that none of the poverty types have a high likelihood of having a particular poverty indicator (or risk factor / background characteristic), simply because it is not especially prevalent amongst the low income population. For example, relatively few households have no friends or relatives in the neighbourhood that they could rely on if they needed help. However, it is still possible for a poverty type to be more likely than another poverty type to have no-one in their neighbourhood they can rely on, despite it being relatively uncommon. This is important to note, as it suggests that households in this poverty type are most at risk of this poverty indicator (or risk factor / background characteristic). To

    % of households in poverty type i with indicator j
Relative risk =  
    % of households in poverty with indicator j

 

help with this we have produced a table showing the relative risk.

Hence:

A relative risk of 1 means there is no difference in risk between households in the poverty type and all households in poverty in that life stage

A relative risk <1 means the indicator is less likely to occur in the poverty type than amongst all households in poverty in that life stage

A relative risk >1 means the indicator is more likely to occur in the type than amongst all households in poverty in that life stage

Again, the tables are shaded to help denote high (darker brown shading) and low (lighter brown/white shading) risk.

Table B.7 Families with children: Item probabilities and relative risks

Class ITEM PROBABILITIES RELATIVE RISK
Workless families Struggling to get by Working home owners Part-time workers with low assets Workless families Struggling to get by Working home owners Working families with young children
Poverty indicators
Resources
Poorest income decile 0.51 0.24 0.31 0.28 1.59 0.76 0.96 0.86
2nd poorest income decile 0.44 0.45 0.31 0.44 1.05 1.08 0.76 1.07
3rd poorest income decile 0.05 0.31 0.38 0.28 0.20 1.17 1.43 1.06
Some or deep financial difficulties 0.31 0.18 0.12 0.11 1.71 0.98 0.68 0.60
No savings 0.94 0.74 0.30 0.61 1.38 1.08 0.45 0.89
Difficulties paying rent/mortgage in last year 0.13 0.20 0.06 0.15 0.90 1.41 0.38 1.04
No car 0.91 0.57 0.06 0.13 2.02 1.26 0.13 0.29
Not rely on friends/neighbours for help 0.19 0.10 0.07 0.06 1.78 0.94 0.70 0.58
Participation
Provides regular unpaid care 0.12 0.16 0.18 0.09 0.83 1.11 1.26 0.62
Has not done any free cultural activities in past year 0.64 0.37 0.18 0.69 1.44 0.83 0.41 1.56
Has not done any paid cultural activities in past year 0.62 0.19 0.06 0.50 1.99 0.62 0.18 1.61
No internet access at home 0.22 0.14 0.02 0.00 2.04 1.28 0.22 0.00
No, cannot influence decisions 0.37 0.26 0.22 0.27 1.35 0.93 0.81 0.97
Quality of Life
Overcrowded 0.18 0.11 0.05 0.12 1.56 0.97 0.47 1.05
Home never warm or heating serious problem 0.35 0.10 0.03 0.10 2.64 0.78 0.23 0.76
Been homeless 0.28 0.24 0.04 0.03 1.70 1.44 0.22 0.20
High no. of neighbourhood problems 0.35 0.25 0.07 0.06 1.76 1.26 0.37 0.31
Feel unsafe walking alone in neighbourhood or alone at home 0.42 0.28 0.14 0.11 1.69 1.12 0.58 0.45
20% most deprived area (IMD) 0.66 0.54 0.09 0.23 1.61 1.31 0.22 0.56
Dissatisfied with local council 0.18 0.16 0.06 0.15 1.30 1.12 0.44 1.07
Not visited countryside/open space in last 12 months 0.33 0.08 0.05 0.20 2.20 0.55 0.34 1.33
Experienced discrimination 0.13 0.09 0.08 0.08 1.41 0.93 0.85 0.83
Poverty risk factors and background characteristics of households
Hhold type
Single parent 0.58 0.50 0.25 0.19 1.43 1.24 0.60 0.47
Small family 0.25 0.35 0.48 0.49 0.67 0.91 1.25 1.28
Large family 0.16 0.15 0.28 0.32 0.77 0.71 1.31 1.50
Sex of HH head
Male 0.27 0.25 0.59 0.64 0.67 0.62 1.49 1.60
Female 0.73 0.75 0.41 0.36 1.22 1.25 0.68 0.60
Age group of HH head
16-24 0.30 0.10 0.00 0.05 2.68 0.89 0.00 0.45
25-34 0.34 0.46 0.22 0.16 1.04 1.41 0.67 0.50
35-44 0.24 0.33 0.40 0.53 0.66 0.92 1.09 1.46
45-59 0.11 0.09 0.36 0.19 0.62 0.54 2.08 1.11
60-69 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.06 0.55 0.51 0.26 3.47
70-79 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.90 0.08 3.34 0.22
80+ 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Ethnic group of HH head
White 0.96 0.97 0.91 0.82 1.04 1.04 0.98 0.88
Minority ethnic groups 0.04 0.03 0.09 0.18 0.53 0.42 1.20 2.53
Number of children
1 0.57 0.48 0.37 0.41 1.23 1.04 0.80 0.88
2 0.22 0.36 0.49 0.32 0.63 1.03 1.38 0.92
3 or more 0.21 0.16 0.14 0.27 1.12 0.84 0.77 1.47
Age of youngest child
0 to 4 0.70 0.46 0.39 0.49 1.39 0.92 0.78 0.97
5 to 11 0.19 0.42 0.40 0.28 0.55 1.24 1.18 0.81
12 to 15 0.12 0.11 0.21 0.23 0.73 0.73 1.33 1.49
HH income source
More than 80% of income from benefits 0.86 0.50 0.15 0.12 1.98 1.16 0.35 0.28
More than 80% of income from miscellaneous sources 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 2.35 0.00 1.86 0.49
More than 80% of income from earnings 0.04 0.14 0.43 0.32 0.18 0.64 2.02 1.49
Mixture 0.09 0.36 0.41 0.56 0.27 1.03 1.17 1.60
Household work status
Workless 0.86 0.49 0.16 0.09 2.02 1.16 0.37 0.22
Low part time 0.14 0.41 0.56 0.80 0.31 0.91 1.22 1.74
High part-time 0.00 0.03 0.17 0.05 0.00 0.51 2.89 0.92
Full time 0.00 0.06 0.12 0.05 0.00 1.05 1.97 0.89
Health
Adult/s have long-term illness or disability 0.35 0.25 0.16 0.24 1.43 0.99 0.63 0.96
Child/ren have long-term illness or disability 0.14 0.17 0.12 0.01 1.13 1.36 0.97 0.11
Highest qualification of HH head
No qualifications 0.50 0.05 0.01 0.30 2.70 0.28 0.07 1.63
Other qualification 0.02 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.83 1.22 0.70 1.09
Level 1 - 'O' Grade, Standard grade or equiv (SVQ level 1 or 2) 0.38 0.54 0.11 0.44 0.97 1.38 0.27 1.11
Level 2 - Higher, A level or equivalent (SVQ Level 3) 0.07 0.18 0.28 0.08 0.44 1.13 1.75 0.49
Level 3 - HNC/HND or equivalent (SVQ Level 4) 0.02 0.12 0.22 0.08 0.21 1.06 1.89 0.73
Level 4 - Degree, Professional qualification (Above SVQ Level 4) 0.01 0.08 0.37 0.07 0.04 0.62 2.94 0.59
Housing
Own outright 0.00 0.01 0.11 0.15 0.01 0.11 2.01 2.81
Buying with mortgage 0.03 0.07 0.63 0.29 0.11 0.32 2.81 1.30
Social renting 0.76 0.75 0.06 0.28 1.47 1.46 0.11 0.54
Private renting 0.13 0.16 0.19 0.27 0.72 0.88 1.04 1.52
Other 0.09 0.01 0.02 0.00 3.06 0.48 0.60 0.15
Rurality
Urban 0.97 0.95 0.79 0.73 1.10 1.08 0.90 0.83
Rural 0.03 0.05 0.21 0.27 0.28 0.40 1.74 2.22

Table B.8 Families without children: Item probabilities and relative risks

Class ITEM PROBABILITIES RELATIVE RISK
Insecure singles Detached singles New poor Generation rent Insecure singles Detached singles New poor Generation rent
Poverty indicators
Resources
Poorest income decile 0.50 0.42 0.39 0.43 1.16 0.97 0.89 0.99
2nd poorest income decile 0.38 0.29 0.40 0.33 1.10 0.85 1.17 0.96
3rd poorest income decile 0.12 0.29 0.21 0.24 0.54 1.30 0.97 1.08
Some or deep financial difficulties 0.49 0.26 0.08 0.12 2.04 1.07 0.32 0.52
No savings 0.95 0.81 0.14 0.41 1.57 1.34 0.23 0.68
Difficulties paying rent/mortgage in last year 0.28 0.13 0.02 0.10 2.15 1.00 0.14 0.79
No car 0.91 0.82 0.08 0.71 1.38 1.24 0.12 1.08
Not rely on friends/neighbours for help 0.27 0.10 0.04 0.13 2.01 0.76 0.28 0.96
Participation
Provides regular unpaid care 0.11 0.13 0.17 0.08 0.93 1.09 1.39 0.63
Has not done any free cultural activities in past year 0.43 0.78 0.47 0.19 0.88 1.60 0.96 0.38
Has not done any paid cultural activities in past year 0.48 0.84 0.33 0.04 1.06 1.85 0.74 0.08
No internet access at home 0.55 0.63 0.09 0.11 1.53 1.75 0.25 0.30
No, cannot influence decisions 0.31 0.31 0.26 0.12 1.24 1.21 1.05 0.47
Quality of Life
Overcrowded 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.02 0.00 1.15 0.00 2.61
Home never warm or heating serious problem 0.28 0.16 0.07 0.06 1.95 1.13 0.48 0.41
Been homeless 0.59 0.20 0.02 0.06 2.74 0.91 0.08 0.26
High no. of neighbourhood problems 0.40 0.08 0.05 0.11 2.62 0.52 0.30 0.69
Feel unsafe walking alone in neighbourhood or alone at home 0.38 0.20 0.08 0.14 1.89 0.98 0.42 0.68
20% most deprived area (IMD) 0.61 0.49 0.15 0.21 1.62 1.30 0.40 0.54
Dissatisfied with local council 0.14 0.15 0.14 0.05 1.17 1.23 1.18 0.39
Not visited countryside/open space in last 12 months 0.21 0.51 0.14 0.06 0.82 2.03 0.55 0.23
Experienced discrimination 0.27 0.08 0.04 0.10 2.26 0.66 0.30 0.85
Poverty risk factors and background characteristics of households
Hhold type
Single adult 0.83 0.77 0.42 0.66 1.21 1.13 0.62 0.97
Small adult 0.15 0.16 0.45 0.24 0.63 0.66 1.91 1.02
Large adult 0.02 0.07 0.12 0.10 0.24 0.93 1.63 1.27
Sex of HH head
Male 0.65 0.60 0.68 0.52 1.07 0.99 1.11 0.86
Female 0.35 0.40 0.32 0.48 0.89 1.02 0.83 1.22
Age group of HH head
16-24 0.14 0.06 0.00 0.39 0.97 0.38 0.00 2.66
25-34 0.27 0.11 0.07 0.19 1.70 0.68 0.46 1.22
35-44 0.24 0.15 0.08 0.13 1.61 0.97 0.53 0.86
45-59 0.34 0.59 0.62 0.26 0.74 1.29 1.36 0.57
60-69 0.01 0.10 0.23 0.03 0.11 1.14 2.59 0.31
70-79 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.00 0.00 0.00
Ethnic group of HH head
White 0.96 0.93 0.98 0.91 1.02 0.99 1.04 0.96
Minority ethnic groups 0.04 0.07 0.02 0.09 0.68 1.22 0.28 1.62
HH income source
More than 80% of income from benefits 0.82 0.74 0.20 0.25 1.56 1.41 0.38 0.48
More than 80% of income from miscellaneous sources 0.02 0.02 0.16 0.27 0.21 0.15 1.44 2.45
More than 80% of income from earnings 0.10 0.15 0.50 0.35 0.37 0.57 1.92 1.36
Mixture 0.06 0.09 0.15 0.13 0.61 0.89 1.38 1.18
Household work status
Workless 0.85 0.78 0.32 0.62 1.28 1.18 0.48 0.95
Low part time 0.13 0.13 0.42 0.19 0.64 0.63 2.06 0.91
High part-time 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.02 0.30 0.24 2.79 1.12
Full time 0.02 0.09 0.23 0.18 0.16 0.72 1.85 1.42
Health
Adult/s have long-term illness or disability 0.50 0.66 0.37 0.22 1.11 1.44 0.82 0.49
Highest qualification of HH head
No qualifications 0.32 0.57 0.19 0.03 1.07 1.91 0.63 0.09
Other qualification 0.03 0.03 0.02 0.01 1.32 1.43 0.88 0.26
Level 1 - 'O' Grade, Standard grade or equiv (SVQ level 1 or 2) 0.36 0.22 0.28 0.16 1.44 0.89 1.12 0.63
Level 2 - Higher, A level or equivalent (SVQ Level 3) 0.10 0.08 0.14 0.37 0.59 0.50 0.84 2.16
Level 3 - HNC/HND or equivalent (SVQ Level 4) 0.07 0.07 0.14 0.16 0.66 0.65 1.34 1.48
Level 4 - Degree, Professional qualification (Above SVQ Level 4) 0.12 0.03 0.23 0.29 0.78 0.17 1.48 1.86
Housing
Own outright 0.02 0.04 0.45 0.05 0.16 0.35 3.60 0.41
Buying with mortgage 0.03 0.06 0.24 0.16 0.28 0.48 2.14 1.38
Social renting 0.72 0.73 0.17 0.22 1.48 1.51 0.36 0.45
Private renting 0.15 0.13 0.11 0.54 0.64 0.56 0.49 2.34
Other 0.08 0.04 0.02 0.03 1.90 0.89 0.42 0.79
Rurality
Urban 0.96 0.93 0.70 0.95 1.07 1.05 0.78 1.06
Rural 0.04 0.07 0.30 0.05 0.42 0.61 2.85 0.47

Table B.9 Older age: Item probabilities and relative risks

Class ITEM PROBABILITY RELATIVE RISK
Ill health Left alone Disengaged couples Younger active singles Younger engaged couples Ill health Left alone Disengaged couples Younger active singles Younger engaged couples
Poverty indicators
Resources
Poorest income decile 0.27 0.40 0.39 0.35 0.39 0.73 1.08 1.05 0.94 1.05
2nd poorest income decile 0.36 0.31 0.41 0.33 0.40 1.00 0.85 1.13 0.92 1.11
3rd poorest income decile 0.37 0.29 0.20 0.32 0.21 1.38 1.08 0.76 1.19 0.79
Some or deep financial difficulties 0.08 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.02 4.06 0.00 0.87 0.86 0.90
No savings 0.66 0.06 0.06 0.15 0.03 4.54 0.39 0.41 1.03 0.21
No car 0.72 0.94 0.10 0.61 0.01 1.55 2.03 0.22 1.32 0.02
Not rely on friends/neighbours for help 0.09 0.03 0.02 0.06 0.02 2.56 0.74 0.52 1.58 0.47
Participation
Provides regular unpaid care 0.18 0.03 0.09 0.14 0.16 1.68 0.27 0.85 1.31 1.47
Has not done any free cultural activities in past year 0.79 0.82 0.80 0.31 0.22 1.31 1.36 1.33 0.52 0.36
Has not done any paid cultural activities in past year 0.83 0.84 0.69 0.22 0.09 1.54 1.55 1.28 0.40 0.17
No internet access at home 0.73 1.00 0.40 0.46 0.07 1.33 1.82 0.73 0.84 0.13
No, cannot influence decisions 0.37 0.32 0.31 0.24 0.21 1.30 1.10 1.09 0.84 0.73
Quality of life
Home never warm or heating serious problem 0.16 0.03 0.02 0.08 0.05 2.94 0.57 0.39 1.39 0.90
Been homeless 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.00 2.90 0.18 0.12 2.95 0.03
High no. of neighbourhood problems 0.16 0.01 0.03 0.10 0.01 3.31 0.12 0.58 2.01 0.28
Feel unsafe walking alone in neighbourhood or alone at home 0.35 0.36 0.11 0.35 0.10 1.49 1.51 0.46 1.48 0.42
20% most deprived area (IMD) 0.61 0.22 0.11 0.28 0.02 2.95 1.04 0.51 1.33 0.11
Dissatisfied with local council 0.18 0.07 0.12 0.07 0.08 1.83 0.69 1.24 0.75 0.87
Not visited countryside/open space in last 12 months 0.51 0.55 0.34 0.11 0.07 1.62 1.75 1.07 0.35 0.23
Experienced discrimination 0.06 0.00 0.01 0.05 0.04 2.13 0.13 0.32 1.78 1.68
Poverty risk factors and background characteristics of households
Household type
Large adult 0.06 0.00 0.02 0.01 0.02 3.16 0.00 1.27 0.58 1.20
Older smaller 0.33 0.09 0.63 0.19 0.67 0.86 0.25 1.65 0.49 1.76
Single pensioner 0.61 0.91 0.35 0.80 0.31 1.02 1.51 0.58 1.34 0.51
Sex of HH head
Male 0.49 0.21 0.75 0.20 0.62 1.07 0.47 1.65 0.45 1.37
Female 0.51 0.79 0.25 0.80 0.38 0.94 1.44 0.46 1.46 0.69
Age group of HH head
45-59 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.02 3.08 0.00 1.02 0.00 2.28
60-69 0.47 0.08 0.28 0.47 0.45 1.48 0.24 0.88 1.47 1.41
70-79 0.41 0.29 0.49 0.39 0.44 1.01 0.72 1.22 0.96 1.09
80+ 0.09 0.63 0.22 0.14 0.08 0.34 2.38 0.81 0.52 0.31
Ethnic group of HH head
White 0.97 1.00 0.99 1.00 0.99 0.98 1.01 1.00 1.01 1.00
Minority ethnic groups 0.03 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01 4.78 0.00 1.19 0.00 1.02
Income source
More than 80% of income from benefits 0.92 0.78 0.65 0.66 0.38 1.38 1.17 0.97 0.99 0.57
More than 80% of income from miscellaneous sources 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.03 0.12 0.19 0.20 1.07 0.71 2.86
More than 80% of income from earnings 0.03 0.00 0.04 0.04 0.04 0.89 0.16 1.21 1.47 1.37
Mixture 0.05 0.21 0.28 0.27 0.46 0.17 0.79 1.04 1.01 1.74
Household work status
Workless 0.97 0.98 0.89 0.91 0.92 1.05 1.05 0.96 0.98 0.99
Low part time 0.01 0.02 0.10 0.06 0.07 0.18 0.30 1.77 0.99 1.32
High part-time 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.82 0.00 0.00
Full time 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.01 1.49 0.00 0.36 3.10 0.64
Health
Adult/s have long-term illness or disability 0.85 0.65 0.55 0.41 0.35 1.57 1.20 1.01 0.76 0.64
Highest qualification of HH head
No qualifications 0.81 0.72 0.48 0.33 0.13 1.67 1.50 1.00 0.68 0.27
Other qualification 0.10 0.18 0.19 0.17 0.09 0.64 1.15 1.20 1.10 0.60
Level 1 - 'O' Grade, Standard grade or equiv (SVQ level 1 or 0.04 0.02 0.14 0.19 0.12 0.38 0.15 1.33 1.76 1.18
Level 2 - Higher, A level or equivalent (SVQ Level 3) 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.13 0.14 0.31 0.34 0.76 1.74 1.84
Level 3 - HNC/HND or equivalent (SVQ Level 4) 0.01 0.02 0.05 0.05 0.10 0.29 0.40 1.00 1.17 2.08
Level 4 - Degree, Professional qualification (Above SVQ Leve 0.01 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.42 0.11 0.27 0.62 0.96 3.21
Housing
Own outright 0.08 0.59 0.79 0.54 0.92 0.13 0.93 1.25 0.84 1.44
Buying with mortgage 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.08 0.07 1.15 0.94 0.87 1.16 1.00
Social renting 0.74 0.31 0.08 0.33 0.00 3.01 1.28 0.32 1.35 0.00
Private renting 0.05 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.01 1.68 0.58 1.13 1.60 0.27
Other 0.06 0.02 0.04 0.01 0.01 2.45 0.77 1.61 0.29 0.35
Rurality
Urban 0.99 0.87 0.67 0.95 0.66 1.22 1.07 0.83 1.17 0.82
Rural 0.01 0.13 0.33 0.05 0.34 0.08 0.71 1.70 0.28 1.75

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