1 Scotland did not participate in the innovative domain in 2012.
2 These are confidence intervals where we can be 95 per cent certain the “true” value lies. Where the intervals around two values overlap, we cannot be sure that the true values are different.
3 Those OECD member states other than Ireland, Poland and Switzerland, for which there is no data, and the United Kingdom itself.
4 All references to the “United Kingdom” include Scotland
5 Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Guangdong
6 Statistically this is the R-squared measure multiplied by 100.