2. According to the existing definition, a household is in fuel poverty if, in order to maintain a satisfactory heating regime, it would be required to spend more than 10% of its income on all household fuel (Scottish Fuel Poverty Statement). A household is in extreme fuel poverty if it has to spend more than 20% of its income on all household fuel.
3. Household Energy Spending in the
4. Income Fuel Poverty, Additional indicators, 2015 DECC https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/430331/Indicators_.pdf
5. Still addressing the poverty premium, August 2016, Citizens Advice Scotland
6. All domestic and commercial buildings in the UK available to buy or rent must have an Energy Performance Certificate ( EPC). They tell you how energy efficient a building is and give it a rating from A (very efficient) to G (inefficient) ( EST)
7. SHCS Key Findings 2014
9. SHCS 2013
13. derived from Annual Return on the Charter returns for 2015/16
14. Consultation on Child Poverty Bill /publications/consultation-child-poverty-bill-scotland
15. Economic impact of improving the energy efficiency of fuel poor households in Scotland, 2014, Consumer Futures Scotland
19. Curl, A. and Kearns, A. (2015) 'Financial difficulty and mental wellbeing in an age of austerity: the experience of deprived communities', Social Policy Society, 14:2, 217-240.
21. Existing Homes Alliance Scotland Policy Briefing, May 2015 http://existinghomesalliancescotland.co.uk/policy/existing-homes-alliance-calls-for-energy-efficiency-to-be-natioinal-infrastructure-project-in-2016out-policy-asks-for-2016/; based on report: Build the Future:the economic and fiscal impacts of making homes more energy efficient; Verco and Cambridge Econometrics, http://www.energybillrevolution.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/Building-the-Future-The-Economic-and-Fiscal-impacts-of-making-homes-energy-efficient.pdf
23. SHCS Key Findings 2014.
24. Shifting the Curve, January 2016, Scottish Government http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0049/00496621.pdf
25. Trevisan,F., Curl,A., Kearns,A. and Ellaway,A. (2014) The Recession, Austerity Measures and Health. Glasgow: GoWell.
26. At a UK level, 6 out of 10 of those entitled claimed pension credit, 8 out of 10 claimed housing benefit, 5 out of 10 claimed job seekers allowance. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/535362/ir-benefits-take-up-main-report-2014-15.pdf
27. SNP Manifesto 2016.
28. Include consideration of measures such as the Joseph Rowntree minimum income standard https://www.jrf.org.uk/income-benefits/minimum-income-standards and the universal basic income http://www.basicincome.org.uk/current_schemes
29. Baker, K.J., Emmanuel, R., & Phillipson, M., 2014. Review of the Energy Assistance Package. Report for the Scottish Government.
33. Clark,J. and Kearns,A. (2016 online first) 'Going for Gold: A Prospective Assessment of the Economic Impacts of the Commonwealth Games 2014 on the East End of Glasgow', Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy. DOI: 10.1177/0263774X15624923
34. Living Wage Foundation
35. Community and Renewable Energy Scheme ( CARES) - Overview of Support 2014 http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0045/00457861.pdf
38. CMA review on energy market reforms, June 2016: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/cma-publishes-final-energy-market-reforms
39. Dynamically Teleswitched meters and non-E7 time of use meters usually work specifically with electric storage heating systems. They allow your energy provider to provide you with cheaper rates of electricity at certain times, but this is not always beneficial for all consumers, and there is often a very limited choice of tariffs available for those using these meters to switch to.
41. It is interesting to note that the benefit is 'exportable' (e.g. can receive if living in the EEA) as it is a universal payment. If it were a payment which related to a person's income or was targeted at specific groups as a social assistance measure, it would be less likely to be 'exportable'. However, the UK's decision to leave the EU could change this situation.
42. HIDG is chaired by Scottish Government and has members from across Scottish Government, the NHS and the Third Sector.
45. 2015 Autumn Statement gave a value of £320m for 2016-17 rising by inflation in future years
47. Siddiqi,S.N. and Baughman,M.L. (1993) 'Reliability differentiated real-time pricing of electricity', IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, 8(2), 548-554.
50. Smart Meter Advisory Project, 2014, EST
52. An energy service company or energy savings company ( ESCO) is a commercial or non-profit business providing a broad range of energy solutions including energy supply and energy efficiency.
59. SHCS Key Findings 2014
60. Programme for Government 2016/17
61. The National Institute for Clinical Excellence ( NICE) guideline on excess winter deaths and illness and the health risks associated with cold homes has recommended that the energy performance of properties where fuel poor households live should be improved to a minimum acceptable rating - EPC Band C and ideally Band B
62. Figures extracted from page 74 Main report SHCS http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0049/00490947.pdf
63. Reduced Data SAP - Standard Assessment Procedure - was introduced in 2005 as a lower cost method of assessing the energy performance of existing dwellings
64. The report, Developing Regulation on Energy Efficiency of Private Sector Housing: Modelling Improvements to the target stock, 2015, Scottish Government, provides a useful summary of concerns related to SAP and RdSAP.
67. The Passivhaus energy performance standard dramatically reduces the need for space heating/cooling, while providing excellent air quality and comfort. http://www.passivhaus.org.uk/
71. Programme for Government 2016/17
73. Taking the temperature, 2016, Citizens Advice Scotland http://www.cas.org.uk/system/files/publications/taking_the_temperature_-_a_review_of_energy_efficiency_and_fuel_poverty_schemes_in_scotland.pdf
74. It is worth noting that CERT (Carbon Emission Reduction Target), the previous supplier obligation scheme, initially focused on the central belt too, but the Scottish Government area based programmes were able to compensate to ensure that altogether measures were more evenly distributed across Scotland.
75. Citizens Advice consultation response to the Help to Heat consultation, 2016
76. Influencing behaviours: moving beyond the individual, 2013, Scottish Government.
77. Gilchrist and Craig (2014) Climate Exchange; "Home Energy Efficiency - A review of evidence on attitudes and behaviours".
79. Hot off the Grid, 2016, Citizens Advice Scotland
80. Using Solar PV to tackle fuel poverty, 2014, Changeworks
81. Curl,A. and Kearns,A. (forthcoming) 'Housing improvements, fuel payment difficulties and mental health in deprived communities', The International Journal of Housing Policy.
82. The Scottish Government (2013), A User Guide to the ISM Tool
84. See, for example: Scottish Government (2015), Review of Climate Challenge Fund; Ofgem (2014) Warm Home Discount: Review of Consumer Experiences.
85. Lader,D., Short,S. and Gershuny,J. (2006) The Time Use Survey 2006. London: ONS.
86. Kearns,A., Whitley,E., Tannahill,C. and Ellaway,A. (2015) 'Loneliness, Social Relations and Health and Wellbeing in Deprived Communities', Psychology, Health and Medicine, 20:3, 332-344 .
90. C. Liddle, 2008; and Cutting the Cost of keeping warm: a fuel poverty strategy for England, 2015, DECC
93. Programme for Government 2016/17
95. SHCS Key Findings 2014
96. Sifting the Curve, Scottish Government, 2016 p 25. /publications/independent-advisor-poverty-inequality-shifting-curve-report-first-minister
97. With input from discussion paper to the Fuel Poverty Forum by Phil Mackie, NHS.
98. Heating zone controls allows you to set different temperatures for different rooms.
99. Household Energy Spending in the UK, 2002-2012, ONS,
100. The Quality of Life Indicators from Eurostat may provide a useful reference: http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Quality_of_life_indicators
102. A new definition of fuel poverty was adopted in England in 2013 following a review by Professor John Hills. This uses an indicator of Low Income-High Costs ( LIHC). Observations on the pros and cons of this indicator of fuel poverty are given in appendix 7.
105. See trust chapter in The Lost Decade: consumer experience of energy billing issues 2005-2015, June 2015, Citizens Advice
107. The Lost Decade, Citizens Advice, June 2015
114. See, for example http://www.cas.org.uk/publications/hot-grid
116. The need for regulation of off gas fuels is being discussed by the Scottish Rural Fuel Poverty Task Force
117. Off-grid energy: an OFT market study, October 2011.
118. http://www.cas.org.uk/system/files/publications/off_gas_evidence_to_upload.pdf and forthcoming research from Citizens Advice Wales.
123. Energy Agency (2016) Area Based Schemes: Wall Insulation Evaluation 2015-17. Interim Report. Energy Agency & NHS Ayrshire & Arran.
124. Existing Homes Alliance Policy Briefing 2015
125. The Scottish Government accepted the Fuel Poverty Forum's recommendation that the Hills definition should not be adopted in Scotland
126. Moore,R. (2012) 'Definitions of fuel poverty: implications for policy', Energy Policy, doi.10.1016/j.enpol.2012.01.057.
127. Moore,R. (2012) Improving the Hills approach to measuring fuel poverty. London: ACE/ CSE.
128. The 13/14 review of HEEPS Schemes: http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0046/00466702.pdf
131. The weaknesses of existing evaluations are summarised in: Curl,A., Kearns,A., Mason,P., Egan,M., Tannahill,C. and Ellaway,A. (2015) 'Physical and Mental Health Outcomes following Housing Improvements: Evidence from the GoWell Study', Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 69:12-19.