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12 Culture and Heritage

Main Findings

There are high and increasing levels of cultural participation in Scotland.

Around nine in ten (92 per cent) adults were culturally engaged in 2016, either by attending or visiting a cultural event or place or by participating in a cultural activity. The level of cultural engagement has increased by around five percentage points since first recorded in 2007.

Cultural attendance

Women, younger people, those with degrees or professional qualifications, those with good physical and mental health and those living in less deprived areas are more likely to attend cultural events.

This profile has remained the same over time.

Cultural participation

The most popular form of cultural participation was reading for pleasure.

Overall participation in cultural activities was higher among women, those with degrees or professional qualifications, those with good physical and mental health and those living in less deprived areas.

The overall level of cultural attendance doesn’t change with age. However, the types of cultural activities people participate in changes with age for most activities. This picture of cultural participation has not changed over time.

Cultural services provided by local authorities

In 2016, around nine in ten adults who had used local authority cultural services were very or fairly satisfied with their provision.

Satisfaction with local authority services provision in 2016 was similar to 2007. Library

services satisfaction declined during this period.

12.1 Introduction and Context

The Scottish Government is currently developing a new Culture Strategy for Scotland which will set out culture’s importance to Scotland’s future as well as what is working well and ways to address challenges. Through the strategy the Scottish Government is committed to ensuring that everyone in Scotland has an opportunity to access, enjoy and participate in cultural activity and can experience and enjoy our heritage. Culture, creativity and a rich, dynamic heritage sit at the heart of Scotland's communities.

The Scottish Government is committed to ensuring that everyone in Scotland has an opportunity to access, enjoy and participate in cultural activity and can experience and enjoy our heritage. Culture, creativity and a rich, dynamic heritage sit at the heart of Scotland's communities. The Scottish Government aims to:

  • Promote and develop the crucial role of culture and creativity in making the strongest contribution that we can to sustainable economic development;
  • Focus on the contribution that culture can make to improving the health, wellbeing, confidence and quality of life for our communities;
  • Encourage the understanding, value and enjoyment of the historic environment, and to promote the care and protection of this precious and dynamic resource to ensure a rich legacy for future generations;
  • Raise the profile of Scotland at home and abroad, and ensure that as many people as possible in Scotland and overseas are able to benefit from, be inspired by and enjoy the very best of Scotland's creative, cultural and historic wealth.

The Government's work is focused on widening access and participation and ensuring that the necessary infrastructure is in place to deliver cultural opportunities whilst promoting a drive to achieve cultural excellence. This work contributes to the Government's strategic objectives [79] , through understanding and monitoring levels of cultural engagement and participation both at the national and sub-national levels, to inform decisions on government and local government policy making. For example, data from the Scottish Household Survey ( SHS) informs our National Indicator 41: Increase cultural engagement.

Cultural engagement is defined as those adults who have either participated in a cultural activity or who have attended at least one type of cultural event or place in the past 12 months. The SHS is the primary source of information on cultural attendance and participation in Scotland and is the only source of data on attendance and participation at local authority level. Questions on cultural attendance were introduced in the SHS for the first time in 2007. From 2012 onwards, it is possible to obtain data at local authority level every year. For 2016, these data will be published at a later date.

Attendance at "a cultural event or place of culture" is defined as those adults who attended at least one type of cultural place in the previous year. There are a number of different types of cultural events and places of culture: cinemas, museums libraries and live music events, for example. Likewise, participation in any cultural activity means that adults take part in at least one activity in the previous year. Examples of cultural activities include reading for pleasure, dancing and crafts.

Annex 2: Glossary provides a full list of activities, places or events for cultural attendance and participation.

Please note that figures from 2012 onwards are not directly comparable with previous years, due to a change of wording in 2012. More detail about the culture questions can be found in the historical SHS questionnaires [80] .

12.2 Cultural Engagement

  • Around nine in ten adults had attended or participated in some cultural event or activity in 2016.
  • The level of cultural engagement in Scotland has increased by around 5 percentage points since it was first recorded in the SHS in 2007.
  • Trips to the cinema make up the majority of cultural attendance, and reading for pleasure is the most common participation activity.

Figure 12.1 shows that around nine in ten adults had attended or participated in some cultural event or activity in 2016 (92 per cent). Trips to the cinema make up the majority of cultural attendance, and reading for pleasure is the most common participation activity. The level of cultural engagement in Scotland has increased by around 5 percentage points since it was first recorded in the SHS in 2007.

Cultural engagement is a composite measure of both cultural attendance and participation. Each of these will be reported on separately in the sections to follow.

Figure 12.1: Cultural engagement by adults in the last 12 months by year
Percentages, 2007 to 2016 data (minimum base: 9,130)

Figure 12.1: Cultural engagement by adults in the last 12 months by year

* Note that the figures for 2012 onwards are not directly comparable with previous years due to changes in the wording of the cultural attendance and participation questions.

12.3 Attendance at Cultural Events and Places

  • Around eight in ten adults in Scotland had recently attended a cultural event or place of culture.

Figure 12.2 shows how attendance has changed since 2012. In 2016, around eight in ten adults had attended a cultural event or place of culture in the last 12 months (83 per cent). When trips to the cinema are excluded, the attendance figure was lower at 75 per cent. Since 2012, attendance when cinema trips are included has increased from 78 per cent to 83 per cent. When trips to the cinema are excluded, the attendance figure has increased from 70 per cent to 75 per cent.

Attendance at individual cultural events or places has been broadly static or increased by one or two percentage points since 2012. However, there have been larger increases in some areas. The number of adults who attended street art events has increased by 5 percentage points between 2012 and 2016 (12 per cent to 17 per cent). Similarly, visits to historical or archaeological places increased by 6 percentage points (28 to 34 per cent).

Figure 12.2: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months
Percentage of adults, 2012 to 2016 data (minimum base: 9,410)

Figure 12.2: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months

12.3.1 Attendance by Gender and Age

  • Attendance in the last 12 months at specific cultural events and visiting places of culture varied by gender and age.

Table 12.1 shows that in 2016, more women attended a cultural event than men (84 per cent and 82 per cent). Women also had higher cultural attendance than men after excluding trips to the cinema, increasing the gap to 6 percentage points (78 per cent and 72 per cent).

More women than men attended the theatre (39 per cent, compared with 27 per cent). Women were also more likely than men to visit the library (32 per cent compared with 23 per cent).

People in the younger age groups were more likely to have attended the cinema. Eighty-six per cent of adults aged 16 to 24 and 77 per cent of 25-34 year olds visited the cinema, compared with 19 per cent of those aged 75 or over. Similarly, almost half of 16 to 24 year olds (47 per cent) attended a live music event, compared with almost a quarter of 60 to 74 year olds (23 per cent).

Table 12.1: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by gender and age
Percentages, 2016 data

Adults Male Female 16 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 59 60 to 74 75 plus All
Cinema 58 59 86 77 71 56 39 19 59
Live music event - e.g. traditional music, rock concert, jazz event (not opera or classical music performance) 34 32 47 42 36 35 23 9 33
Theatre - e.g. pantomime / musical / play 27 39 26 29 34 37 39 25 33
Library (including mobile and online) 23 32 29 33 33 22 27 26 28
Museum 33 34 34 41 39 32 30 20 33
Historic place - e.g. castle, stately home and grounds, battle or archaeological site 35 33 31 40 40 34 32 19 34
Gallery 20 21 20 23 23 21 19 11 21
Exhibition - including art, photography and crafts 17 19 17 17 18 19 20 11 18
Street arts (e.g. musical performances or art in parks, streets or shopping centre) 17 18 18 20 22 20 14 4 17
Culturally specific festival
(e.g. mela /Feis/ local Gala days)
16 17 17 17 22 19 13 6 16
Dance show / event - e.g. ballet 8 14 10 12 14 14 10 5 11
Classical music performance or opera 8 9 4 6 7 9 12 9 8
Book festival or reading group 4 6 4 4 5 5 6 3 5
Archive or records office (e.g. Scotland's Family History Peoples Centre) 2 2 1 1 1 2 3 2 2
None 18 16 6 8 11 17 24 41 17
Any cultural attendance (excluding cinema) 72 78 79 80 79 76 72 56 75
Any cultural attendance (including cinema) 82 84 94 92 89 83 76 59 83
Base 4,400 5,240 730 1,270 1,480 2,380 2,450 1,330 9,640

Columns may not add to 100 per cent since multiple responses were allowed.

12.3.2 Attendance by Highest Level of Qualification

  • Attendance at cultural places or events was highest for those with degrees or professional qualifications and lowest for those with no qualifications.

Figure 12.3 shows that in 2016, adults with degrees or professional qualifications were most likely to attend cultural places and events; whereas attendance was lowest for those with no qualifications (95 per cent compared to 58 per cent). The pattern holds when cinema attendance is excluded (91 per cent to 50 per cent).

Figure 12.3: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by highest level of qualification
2016 data, percentage of adults (minimum base: 500)

Figure 12.3: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by highest level of qualification

Table 12.2 gives a breakdown of attendance at each individual cultural event or place. As with the overall figure, attendance was consistently higher for adults with a degree or professional qualification at individual events or places. The most marked differences between those with degrees and no qualifications can be seen for attendance at the cinema (74 per cent and 27 per cent respectively) and at a historic place (56 per cent and 12 per cent respectively).

Table 12.2: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by highest qualification level
Percentages, 2016 data

Adults Degree, Professi-
onal qualific-
ation
HNC/HND or equivalent Higher, A level or equivalent O' Grade, Standard grade or equivalent Other qualific-
ation
No qualific-
ations
All
Cinema 74 66 69 56 32 27 59
Live music event - e.g. traditional music, rock concert, jazz event (not opera or classical music performance) 48 41 38 28 12 10 33
Theatre - e.g. pantomime / musical / play 47 32 32 27 33 18 33
Library (including mobile and online) 39 29 28 20 20 18 28
Museum 55 32 32 22 21 14 33
Historic place - e.g. castle, stately home and grounds, battle or archaeological site 56 35 33 22 20 12 34
Gallery 39 18 19 10 12 7 21
Exhibition - including art, photography and crafts 34 17 16 8 8 5 18
Street arts (e.g. musical performances or art in parks, streets or shopping centre) 29 18 15 13 9 6 17
Culturally specific festival
(e.g. mela /Feis/ local Gala days)
27 18 15 12 8 6 16
Dance show / event - e.g. ballet 16 16 10 9 5 5 11
Classical music performance or opera 17 8 6 3 5 3 8
Book festival or reading group 10 3 3 2 4 1 5
Archive or records office (e.g. Scotland's Family History Peoples Centre) 4 1 2 1 1 1 2
None 5 10 11 18 33 42 17
Any cultural attendance (excluding cinema) 91 82 79 68 62 50 75
Any cultural attendance (including cinema) 95 90 89 82 67 58 83
Base 2,780 1,000 1,400 1,890 500 2,010 9,640

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

12.3.3 Attendance by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation ( SIMD)

  • Those living in the less deprived areas of Scotland were more likely to attend cultural events or places compared to those living in the most deprived areas.
  • This has held true since the questions were introduced although the gap is now narrowing over time.

Figure 12.4 shows that levels of cultural attendance increase as deprivation as measured by the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation ( SIMD 2016) decreases.

In 2016 there was a 15 percentage point difference in cultural attendance (including cinema) between the 20 per cent most and 20 per cent least deprived areas (75 per cent compared with 90 per cent). This gap has narrowed since 2014 (the gap was 20 per cent in 2014 dropping to 15 per cent in 2016). When excluding cinema attendance, the difference is greater; 64 per cent in the most deprived areas and 83 per cent in the least deprived areas (in 2014 25 percentage points dropping to 20 percentage points [81] in 2016).

Figure 12.4: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation
2016 data, adults (minimum base: 1,880)

Figure 12.4: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

Table 12.3: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by area deprivation
Percentages, 2012 to 2016 data

Adults 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Base (2016)
Attendance (including cinema) Attendance (excluding cinema) Attendance (including cinema) Attendance (excluding cinema) Attendance (including cinema) Attendance (excluding cinema) Attendance (including cinema) Attendance (excluding cinema) Attendance (including cinema) Attendance (excluding cinema)
20% Most deprived 70 60 72 61 70 60 72 62 75 64 1,880
2 73 63 76 67 76 68 79 69 80 70 1,990
3 77 69 79 71 81 74 83 75 85 76 2,070
4 82 75 85 78 84 78 87 81 87 81 1,970
20% Least deprived 88 83 90 85 91 86 91 85 90 83 1,730
Scotland 78 70 80 72 80 73 82 75 83 75 9,640

12.3.4 Attendance by Long-Term Physical/Mental Health Condition

  • Cultural attendance was highest among those with good physical and mental health.
  • Cultural attendance was lower for those with a long-term physical or mental health condition, especially if the condition caused a major reduction in daily capacity.

Figure 12.5 shows that cultural attendance was lowest among adults with a physical or mental health condition that caused long term major reduced daily capacity (55 per cent compared to 89 per cent attendance for those with no condition). For those whose condition caused minor reduced daily capacity, the attendance rate was 78 per cent.

Figure 12.5: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by long term physical/mental health condition
2016 data, adults (minimum base: 1,290)

Figure 12.5: Attendance at cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months by long term physical/mental health condition

12.3.5 Frequency of Attending cultural events or places

  • The library was the most frequently attended cultural place or event.

The library was the most frequently attended cultural place or event, with almost one in five people (18 per cent) attending at least once a week, and double that number attending at least once a month (35 per cent).

Cinema attendance was the next most popular, with 19 per cent of respondents attending at least once a month. Table 12.4 shows the frequency of cultural attendance in the past year.

Table 12.4: Frequency of attending cultural events and visiting places of culture in the last 12 months
Percentages, 2016 data

Adults At least once a week Less often than once a week / at least once a month Less often than once a month but within the last 12 months Don't know Total Base
Cinema 2 19 78 0 100 5,020
Live music event - e.g. traditional music, rock concert, jazz event (not opera or classical music performance) 1 11 87 0 100 2,870
Theatre - e.g. pantomime / musical / play 0 3 96 1 100 3,060
Library (including mobile and online) 18 35 47 1 100 2,760
Museum 1 8 90 0 100 3,060
Historic place - e.g. castle, stately home and grounds, battle or archaeological site 1 10 88 1 100 3,090
Gallery 1 11 87 1 100 1,890
Exhibition - including art, photography and crafts 1 6 92 1 100 1,730
Street arts (e.g. musical performances or art in parks, streets or shopping centre) 3 7 90 1 100 1,500
Culturally specific festival (e.g. mela /Feis/ local Gala days) 0 2 97 1 100 1,530
Dance show / event - e.g. ballet 1 4 95 1 100 1,080
Classical music performance or opera 0 7 92 1 100 840
Book festival or reading group 3 7 89 1 100 480
Archive or records office (e.g. Scotland's Family History Peoples Centre) 4 7 86 3 100 210

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

12.4 Participation in Cultural Activities

  • Overall participation in cultural activities is high, and has remained largely unchanged since 2012.
  • Reading for pleasure was by far the most common cultural activity in 2016.

Figure 12.6 shows levels of participation by adults at specific cultural activities in the last 12 months in 2012 and 2016. Overall participation in 2016 was 79 per cent, which is largely unchanged since 2012. When reading is excluded, participation was 53 per cent. This has increased, year on year, from 48 per cent in 2012.

Reading for pleasure was by far the most common cultural activity in 2016, with 66 per cent of respondents saying that they had done this in the last year.

The next most popular activity was doing creative work on a computer or by social media (26 per cent), followed by crafts (17 per cent) and dance (13 per cent). Participation levels in all other cultural activities was 12 per cent or less.

About one in five people (21 per cent) had not participated in any cultural activity in the last 12 months.

Figure 12.6: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months
Percentage of adults (minimum base: 9,640)

Figure 12.6: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months

12.4.1 Participation by Gender and Age

  • Overall participation in cultural activities was higher among women than men, although this does vary by activity.
  • Cultural participation was broadly similar for all age groups. However, participation decreased with age when reading was excluded from the measure.
  • Women were more likely to read for pleasure, do crafts or dance than men, whereas men were more likely to play a musical instrument or write music and use a computer or social media to produce creative work.
  • Older people were more likely to read for pleasure and do craftwork such as knitting, woodwork and pottery.

Table 12.5 shows that in 2016, more women than men participated in a cultural activity in the last 12 months (85 per cent and 73 per cent respectively). When reading is excluded, the difference between women and men was slightly smaller (eight percentage points). Overall cultural participation was broadly similar for all age groups; however, participation decreased with age when reading was excluded from the measure. Women participated more than men in a number of cultural activities including reading for pleasure (74 per cent compared with 59 per cent), crafts (26 per cent compared with 8 per cent) and dance (15 per cent compared with 10 per cent). Men had higher participation rates than women for playing a musical instrument or writing music (15 per cent of men and seven per cent of women) and using a computer or social media to produce creative work (28 per cent compared with 24 per cent).

For most cultural activities, younger adults, particularly those aged 16-24 were more likely than older age groups to participate in cultural activities. However, older people were more likely to read for pleasure and do craftwork such as knitting, woodwork and pottery.

Table 12.5: Participation in any cultural activity in the last 12 months by gender and age
Column percentages, 2016 data

Adults Male Female 16 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 59 60 to 74 75 plus All
Read for pleasure (not newspapers, magazines or comics) 59 73.810 57 63 66 68 73 68 66
Used a computer / social media to produce creative work of any kind 28 24.458 41 33 28 25 18 8 26
Crafts such as knitting, wood, pottery, etc. 8 26.056 11 16 14 17 24 21 17
Dance - e.g. ceilidh, salsa, Highland dancing, ballet 10 15.056 18 16 14 12 9 6 13
Played a musical instrument or written music 15 7.298 21 15 11 8 8 4 11
Photography / making films or videos as an artistic activity (not family or holiday 'snaps') 13 10.687 19 15 12 11 10 4 12
Painting, drawing, printmaking or sculpture 9 14.393 23 16 12 8 8 4 12
Creative writing - stories, books, plays or poetry 5 4.580 10 6 5 4 4 3 5
Took part in a play / sang in a choir or other performance (not karaoke) 3 4.665 6 4 3 3 5 3 4
Other cultural activity 4 2.318 3 3 4 3 3 3 3
None 27 15.395 20 23 22 21 19 24 21
Participated in any (excluding reading) 49 56.761 66 58 54 50 51 38 53
Participated in any (including reading) 73 84.605 80 77 78 79 81 76 79
Base 4,400 5,240 730 1,270 1,480 2,380 2,450 1,330 9,640

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

12.4.2 Participation by Highest Level of Qualification

  • Those with a degree or professional qualification were more likely to participate than adults with no qualifications (94 per cent compared to 59 per cent). The gap between these two groups increases when reading is excluded.

As with cultural attendance, Figure 12.7 and Table 12.6 show that participation in cultural activities in 2016 was highest among adults with a degree or professional qualification (94 per cent) and lowest for those with no qualifications (59 per cent). When reading is excluded, the difference between qualification levels is even greater (71 per cent for those with a degree or professional qualifications, compared with 30 per cent for those with no qualifications).

Figure 12.7: Participation in any cultural activity in the last 12 months by highest level of qualification
2016 data, percentage of adults (minimum base: 500)

Figure 12.7: Participation in any cultural activity in the last 12 months by highest level of qualification

Participation rates for specific cultural activities are shown in Table 12.6.

Table 12.6: Participation in cultural activities in the last 12 months by highest level of qualification
Percentages, 2016 data

Adults Degree, Professional qualification HNC/HND or equivalent Higher, A level or equivalent O Grade, Standard grade or equivalent Other qualification No qualifications All
Read for pleasure (not newspapers, magazines or comics) 85 66 65 55 64 48 66
Used a computer / social media to produce creative work of any kind 38 35 29 20 12 6 26
Crafts such as knitting, wood, pottery, etc. 23 19 14 12 20 14 17
Dance - e.g. ceilidh, salsa, Highland dancing, ballet 19 13 13 9 5 7 13
Played a musical instrument or written music 18 11 14 6 3 4 11
Photography / making films or videos as an artistic activity (not family or holiday 'snaps') 21 14 12 6 4 3 12
Painting, drawing, printmaking or sculpture 16 13 13 10 6 4 12
Creative writing - stories, books, plays or poetry 10 4 5 2 1 1 5
Took part in a play / sang in a choir or other performance (not karaoke) 7 4 4 2 2 2 4
Other cultural activity 5 3 1 2 2 2 3
None 6 17 19 29 25 41 21
Participated in any (excluding reading) 71 59 55 44 39 30 53
Participated in any (including reading) 94 83 81 71 75 59 79
Base 2,780 1,000 1,400 1,890 500 2,010 9,640

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

12.4.3 Participation by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation ( SIMD 2016)

  • Those in less deprived areas participate in culture more.

There was a 22 percentage point difference in cultural participation between those living in the 20 per cent most deprived and the 20 per cent least deprived areas (66 per cent compared with 88 per cent). This is consistent with the differences observed for cultural attendance.

Table 12.7 and Figure 12.8 show that levels of cultural participation increase as deprivation, as measured by the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation ( SIMD 2016), decreases. Sixty-six per cent of adults in the 20 per cent most deprived areas participated in cultural activities, compared with 88 per cent of adults in the 20 per cent least deprived areas. When reading is excluded, the pattern is similar, with 42 per cent in the most deprived areas and 62 per cent in the least deprived areas of Scotland participating in a cultural activity.

Figure 12.8: Participation in any cultural activity in the last 12 months by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation
2016 data, adults (minimum base: 1,730)

Figure 12.8: Participation in any cultural activity in the last 12 months by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

Table 12.7: Participation in any cultural activity in the last 12 months by area deprivation
Percentages, 2012 to 2016 data

Adults 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Base (2016)
Participation (including reading) Participation (excluding reading) Participation (including reading) Participation (excluding reading) Participation (including reading) Participation (excluding reading) Participation (including reading) Participation (excluding reading) Participation (including reading) Participation (excluding reading)
20% Most deprived 68 38 68 40 69 40 68 42 66 42 1,880
2 74 42 73 44 73 43 73 46 75 48 1,990
3 80 49 79 50 78 50 80 52 81 56 2,070
4 83 55 83 53 85 58 85 58 84 57 1,970
20% Least deprived 87 55 88 56 88 58 88 60 88 62 1,730
Scotland 78 48 78 49 79 50 79 52 79 53 9,640

12.4.4 Participation by Long-Term Physical/Mental Health Condition

  • Cultural participation was lower for those with a long-term physical or mental health condition, especially if this caused major reduced daily capacity.

Figure 12.9 shows that cultural participation was lower for those with a physical or mental health condition (lasting, or expected to last 12 months or more). Participation was lowest where this condition caused long term major reduced daily capacity (65 per cent) compared with 81 per cent participation for those with no such condition.

When reading is excluded, participation for those with conditions with major reduced daily capacity was 38 per cent and, for those with no condition, it was 56 per cent. For those with minor reduced daily capacity, the participation rate was 51 per cent.

Figure 12.9: Participation in any cultural activity in the last 12 months by long term physical/mental health condition
2016 data, adults (minimum base: 1,290)

Figure 12.9: Participation in any cultural activity in the last 12 months by long term physical/mental health condition

12.4.5 Frequency of Participating in Cultural Activities

  • Respondents participated in cultural activities more frequently than they attended cultural places or events.
  • Reading for pleasure was the cultural activity most frequently participated in.

Table 12.8 shows that reading for pleasure was the cultural activity most frequently participated in. Of those who read for pleasure, 76 per cent did so at least once a week, and a further 12 per cent read at least once a month. Using a computer or social media for creative work was also popular among participants, with 70 per cent of those who participated having done so at least once a week.

Respondents participated in cultural activities more frequently than they attended cultural places or events. Eighteen per cent attended a library at least once a week but, apart from this, attendance at cultural events at least once a week was low. However, participation in cultural activities at least once a week ranged from 25 per cent to 76 per cent.

Table 12.8: Frequency of participating in cultural activities in the last 12 months
Row percentages, 2016 data

Adults At least once a week Less often than once a week / at least once a month Less often than once a month but within the last 12 months Don't know Total Base
Read for pleasure (not newspapers, magazines or comics) 76 12 12 0 100 6,470
Used a computer / social media to produce creative work of any kind 70 14 15 1 100 2,250
Crafts such as knitting, wood, pottery, etc. 45 26 28 1 100 1,840
Dance - e.g. ceilidh, salsa, Highland dancing, ballet 25 18 56 1 100 1,140
Played a musical instrument or written music 59 20 21 0 100 950
Photography / making films or videos as an artistic activity (not family or holiday 'snaps') 34 31 34 1 100 1,090
Painting, drawing, printmaking or sculpture 37 32 30 1 100 1,040
Creative writing - stories, books, plays or poetry 38 30 30 2 100 490
Took part in a play / sang in a choir or other performance (not karaoke) 38 18 43 1 100 350
Other cultural activity 31 26 41 2 100 270

Columns add to more than 100 per cent since multiple responses allowed.

12.5 Satisfaction with Local Authority Cultural Services

  • In 2016, around half of adults were either very or fairly satisfied with each of the three Local Authority Cultural Services: museums and galleries, theatres or concert halls and libraries. Levels of satisfaction with local authority provision is considerably higher (around nine in ten) when only users of the services are included in the analysis i.e. users are more satisfied with the service than those who don’t use it.
  • Adults (including users and non-users of these services) were more satisfied with museums and galleries and with theatres or concert halls in 2016 than they had been in 2007.
  • The overall level of satisfaction with library services has decreased since 2007, with satisfaction levels among non-users driving the decrease.
  • Since 2007, questions have been asked in the SHS on the frequency of use and satisfaction with local authority cultural services.

Table 12.9 presents the results for satisfaction with three different types of local authority services in 2016. It shows that adults (including users and non-users of these services) were more satisfied with museums and galleries and with theatres or concert halls in 2016 than they had been in 2007. This increase was relatively small, three to four percentage points across this period for each type of service. However, there has been a seven percentage point decrease in satisfaction with library services (from 55 per cent in 2007 and 2008 to 48 per cent in 2016).

Table 12.9: Satisfaction with local authority culture services
Column percentages, 2007 to 2016 data

Adults 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Libraries  
Very/fairly satisfied 55 55 53 52 52 50 51 49 49 48
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 10 8 7 8 8 8 10 12 15 15
Very/fairly dissatisfied 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2
No opinion 32 34 37 38 37 39 38 36 34 35
Museums and galleries  
Very/fairly satisfied 41 42 41 38 44 42 44 46 46 45
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 14 12 10 11 10 10 11 14 16 17
Very/fairly dissatisfied 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
No opinion 41 42 45 48 44 46 42 38 35 36
Theatres or concert halls  
Very/fairly satisfied 44 44 43 42 45 44 46 47 48 47
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 14 11 10 10 10 9 10 13 15 16
Very/fairly dissatisfied 5 4 4 3 3 2 2 2 3 2
No opinion 38 40 43 45 42 45 42 38 35 35
Base 10,220 9,240 9,710 9,020 9,660 9,890 9,920 9,800 9,410 9,640

Table 12.10 shows levels of satisfaction with local authority provision is considerably higher when only users of the services are included in the analysis. In 2016, around nine in ten adults were either very or fairly satisfied with each of the three services (between 90 per cent and 93 per cent). As noted above, the overall level of satisfaction with library services has decreased since 2007, with satisfaction levels among non-users driving the decrease. In contrast, the levels of satisfaction among the service users have increased since 2007 across all services.

Table 12.10: Satisfaction with local authority culture services. (Service users within the past 12 months only)
Column percentages, 2007 to 2016 data

Adults 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Libraries  
Very/fairly satisfied 90 92 92 91 92 93 92 92 92 93
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 5 4 4 4 4 3 3 4 4 4
Very/fairly dissatisfied 3 3 3 4 2 2 3 2 3 2
No opinion 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 1 1
Base 4,090 3,510 3,590 3,400 3,510 3,450 3,370 3,270 3,100 3,060
Museums and galleries  
Very/fairly satisfied 87 89 88 87 90 92 91 92 91 91
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 8 7 6 7 5 3 4 5 6 5
Very/fairly dissatisfied 2 2 3 2 1 2 2 1 2 1
No opinion 3 2 4 4 4 3 3 2 2 3
Base 2,870 2,630 2,720 2,460 2,830 2,800 2,980 3,020 2,920 2,830
Theatres or concert halls  
Very/fairly satisfied 86 87 88 88 89 90 91 91 90 90
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 8 6 6 6 5 5 4 5 6 6
Very/fairly dissatisfied 3 4 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2
No opinion 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
Base 3,560 3,210 3,270 2,960 3,280 3,020 3,260 3,290 3,340 3,230

Conclusion

This chapter has summarised Scottish Household Survey findings on Culture and Heritage.


Contact

Email: Emma McCallum, emma.mccallum@gov.scot

Phone: 0300 244 4000 – Central Enquiry Unit

The Scottish Government
St Andrew's House
Regent Road
Edinburgh
EH1 3DG