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3 Housing

Main Findings

The total number of households in Scotland has increased by 12 per cent from 2.19 million households in 1999 to 2.45 million households in 2016. This means that a specific tenure can have reduced in relative proportion but increased in absolute size.

Housing Tenure from 1999 to 2016

The proportion of households in the private rented sector has grown steadily from 5 per cent in 1999 to 15 per cent in 2016, an estimated increase of 250,000 households.

The percentage of households in the social rented sector declined from 32 per cent in 1999 to 23 per cent in 2007, an estimated drop of 150,000 households, and has remained at around 23 per cent of all households since then.

The percentage of households in owner occupation grew from 61 per cent in 1999 to 66 per cent in 2005, but then declined by an estimated 90,000 households between 2009 and 2014 to 60 per cent. The level was around the same in 2015 and 2016 at 61 per cent.

Characteristics of households by tenure, 2016

Owned-outright properties (estimated 780,000 households):

Most properties were houses (82 per cent).

Nearly three quarters (72 per cent) of households had a highest-income householder aged 60 and over.

Half of adults in these properties have lived at their address for more than 20 years.

The vast majority (85 per cent) of adults in these properties did not expect to move from their current property in the future.

Properties owned with a mortgage or loan (estimated 720,000 households):

Thirty seven per cent of households contained children.

Adults in properties owned with a mortgage or loan were more likely to be employed (80 per cent) than adults in other tenures.

Over eight in ten (83 per cent) households had a net income of more than £20,000.

Private rented properties (estimated 370,000 households):

Sixty seven per cent of properties were flats and 46 per cent were located in large urban areas.

Over six in ten (62 per cent) of households contained one or two adults under 65 with no children.

Forty one per cent of adults in these properties had been at their address for less than one year.

Social rented properties (local authority and housing association properties) (estimated 560,000 households):

Around half (52 per cent) of local authority properties were flats. Thirty seven per cent of properties were located in the 20 per cent most deprived areas.

A little under two-thirds (62 per cent) of housing association properties were flats. Over half (56 per cent) of properties were located in the 20 per cent most deprived areas and 55 per cent were located in large urban areas.

Thirteen per cent of adults in social rented properties were permanently sick or disabled, and a further 9 per cent were unemployed and seeking work.

Over four in ten (44 per cent) of households in social rented accommodation stated that they would most like to live in an owner occupier property, with around half (49 per cent) preferring to live in social rented accommodation.

Households on housing lists:

An estimated 110,000 (4 per cent) of households were on a housing list in 2016, a decrease compared with an estimated 130,000 (5 per cent) of households in 2015.

Of households on a housing list in 2016, almost three quarters (72 per cent) were on a single list and over half (53 per cent) had been on a housing list for 3 years or less.

For around a quarter (24 per cent) of social rented households on a housing list, the main reason for being on a list was to move to bigger or smaller property. The main reason for private rented households was that they cannot afford current housing or would like cheaper housing (identified by 31 per cent of private rented households on a housing list).

3.1 Introduction and Context

The Scottish Government's vision for housing is that ‘All people in Scotland live in high quality sustainable homes that they can afford and that meet their needs’ [23] . While the Scottish House Condition Survey ( SHCS) [24] is the primary source of information about the physical condition of housing in Scotland, the Scottish Household Survey ( SHS) also includes many useful questions on housing which can be used to explore the relationships between living circumstances and the characteristics, attitudes and behaviours of Scottish households.

This chapter presents information on changes to housing tenure in Scotland between 1999 and 2016, along with tenure profiles for 2016 that provide information on characteristics of households by type of tenure.

The SHS has included a question since 2013 on whether a household is on a housing list, and therefore headline analysis on this is also presented. These estimates provide additional evidence on the proportion and number of households that are on housing lists and complement existing sources, such as the Housing Statistics for Scotland ( HSfS) publication [25] , which was published on 12 September 2017 and included statistics on the number of households on a local authority or common housing list up to 31 March 2016.

3.2 Housing Tenure

  • The proportion of households in the private rented sector has grown steadily from 5 per cent in 1999 to 15 per cent in 2016, an estimated increase of 250,000 households.
  • The percentage of households in the social rented sector declined from 32 per cent in 1999 to 23 per cent in 2007, an estimated drop of 150,000 households, and has remained at around 23 per cent of all households since then.
  • The percentage of households in owner occupation grew from 61 per cent in 1999 to 66 per cent in 2005, but then declined by an estimated 90,000 households between 2009 and 2014 to 60 per cent. The level was around the same in 2015 and 2016 at 61 per cent.

All figures presented in this section on proportions of households in different tenures should be considered in the context of changes over time to the total number of dwellings in Scotland. The number of dwellings in Scotland has increased from 1.77 million in 1969 to 2.58 million in 2016, an increase of 46 per cent over this time period.

This means that a reporting of a decrease over time in the percentage share of a specific group of households does not necessarily mean that this group has reduced in terms of absolute size. Some groups of households may have maintained or increased their absolute size whilst their proportionate share of the total has reduced.

There has been a substantial change in the profile of housing tenure in Scotland since the 1960s. The long-term trend has been a marked increase in the proportion of owner-occupier households, from around 30 per cent in 1969 [26] to 66 per cent in 2005, although this percentage then dropped to 60 per cent in 2014, and in 2016 was around the same level at 61 per cent.

This long-term increase has been mirrored over this time period by the decline in the percentage of households in the social rented sector, which in 1969 accounted for around 50 per cent of households compared to 23 per cent in 2015 and 2016. The proportion of households in the private rented sector also decreased from around 20 per cent in 1969 to 5 per cent in 1999, before increasing to 15 per cent in 2016.

The percentage of households in owner occupation grew from 61 per cent in 1999 to 66 per cent in 2005 (an estimated 12 per cent increase in absolute numbers of households), but declined since 2009 to stand at 60 per cent in 2014 (an estimated 6 per cent decrease in absolute numbers of households), and stayed at around the same level to 2016 (an estimated 2 per cent increase in absolute numbers of households). The increase in total numbers of dwellings in Scotland from 1999 to 2016 means that there are more owner occupier properties in 2016 in terms of absolute numbers (1.49 million households) than there were in 1999 (1.34 million households).

The decrease in the share of owner occupier households between 2009 and 2014 was driven by a decline in the percentage of households owning their property with a mortgage or loan, from 39 per cent of all households in 2003 to 30 per cent of all households in 2014, after which the figure has remained at similar levels and was 29 per cent in 2016. The proportion of all households owning outright increased steadily from 22 per cent in 1999 to 30 per cent in 2007, a level at which it has remained since then, with a similar figure of 32 per cent seen in 2016.

Figure 3.1: Tenure of household by year
1999-2016 data, Households (minimum base: 10,330)

Figure 3.1: Tenure of household by year

Trends over the medium term have also seen an increase in the proportion of households in the private rented sector, from 5 per cent in 1999 to 15 per cent in 2016 (an estimated 208 per cent increase in absolute numbers of households). The breakdown of the private rented sector into component parts of households renting from private landlord and households renting from family/friends/employers is available from 2009 onwards.

This shows that the increase in the private rented sector since 2009 has been largely due to growth in the private landlord element of the sector, which has increased from 8 per cent to 13 per cent of all households, whilst the family/friends/employer part of the sector has remained flat at 2 per cent of all households for most of these years.

The percentage of households in the social rented sector has declined from 32 per cent in 1999 to 23 per cent in 2007 (a 22 per cent drop in estimated numbers of households). The social sector has remained at around 23 per cent of all households for most years since then.

Table 3.1: Households by tenure and year
Column percentages and estimates, 1999-2016 data

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Owner Occupier 61 62 64 65 65 64 66 65 66 66 66 65 64 63 61 60 61 61
Owned outright 22 24 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 30 30 30 30 31 30 30 31 32
Buying with help of loan/mortgage 39 38 39 39 39 37 38 37 36 36 36 35 34 32 32 30 30 29
Social Rent 32 30 28 28 26 27 25 25 23 23 22 23 23 23 23 24 23 23
Local authority 27 25 23 22 20 19 17 17 16 15 14 14 15 13 14 14 13 13
Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust 5 5 5 6 6 8 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10
Private Rented 5 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 11 13 13 14 14 15
Private landlord 5 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 9 9 8 9 10 11 11 12 13 13
Family/Friends/Employer - - - - - - - - - - 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 2
Other 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1
All 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Base 14,680 15,550 15,570 15,070 14,880 15,940 15,400 15,620 13,410 13,810 14,190 14,210 14,360 10,640 10,650 10,630 10,330 10,470
1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
Owner Occupier 1,340,000 1,380,000 1,400,000 1,430,000 1,460,000 1,450,000 1,500,000 1,500,000 1,520,000 1,540,000 1,550,000 1,530,000 1,520,000 1,490,000 1,470,000 1,460,000 1,480,000 1,490,000
Owned outright 490,000 530,000 530,000 560,000 590,000 610,000 630,000 660,000 690,000 700,000 700,000 710,000 710,000 730,000 710,000 730,000 760,000 780,000
Buying with help of loan/mortgage 850,000 850,000 860,000 870,000 870,000 840,000 860,000 840,000 840,000 840,000 850,000 830,000 810,000 760,000 760,000 730,000 720,000 720,000
Social Rent 690,000 660,000 620,000 610,000 590,000 600,000 560,000 570,000 540,000 550,000 520,000 540,000 550,000 540,000 560,000 590,000 570,000 560,000
Local authority 580,000 550,000 500,000 490,000 450,000 420,000 390,000 390,000 370,000 350,000 330,000 330,000 350,000 320,000 330,000 330,000 320,000 320,000
Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust 110,000 110,000 120,000 120,000 140,000 170,000 170,000 180,000 180,000 200,000 190,000 200,000 210,000 220,000 230,000 250,000 240,000 250,000
Private Rented 120,000 120,000 140,000 140,000 140,000 160,000 170,000 180,000 210,000 210,000 240,000 260,000 270,000 320,000 320,000 330,000 350,000 370,000
Private landlord 120,000 120,000 140,000 140,000 140,000 160,000 170,000 180,000 210,000 210,000 190,000 220,000 230,000 270,000 270,000 290,000 310,000 320,000
Family/Friends/Employer - - - - - - - - - - 50,000 40,000 30,000 40,000 50,000 40,000 40,000 50,000
Other 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 50,000 40,000 50,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 40,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 30,000
All* 2,186,100 2,203,160 2,194,564 2,211,430 2,230,797 2,251,262 2,274,283 2,295,185 2,318,966 2,337,967 2,351,780 2,364,850 2,376,424 2,387,211 2,401,788 2,418,335 2,433,956 2,451,869

Note that these estimates differ to the estimated stock of dwellings by tenure figures presented in annual Housing Statistics for Scotland publications. Housing Statistics for Scotland estimates focus on the number of dwellings each year as at March and use separately collected figures on social rent stock.
* Household estimates are from National Records of Scotland. The 1999 and 2000 estimates are based on 2001 census data, all other years are based on 2011 census data. http://www.nrscotland.gov.uk/statistics-and-data/statistics/statistics-by-theme/housholds/household-estimates

Age group of the highest income householder

  • The proportion of households with a highest earner of age 60 and over has risen gradually from 32 per cent in 1999 to 36 per cent in 2016.
  • The proportion of households with a highest earner of age 16 to 34 years fell from 22 per cent in 1999 to 19 per cent in 2003, and has remained around this level since then, being 20 per cent in 2016.

Figure 3.2 shows the trends from 1999 to 2016 in the proportions of households split by age group of the highest income householder. The proportion of households with a highest earner of age 16 to 34 years fell from 22 per cent in 1999 to 19 per cent in 2003, and has remained around this level since then, being 20 per cent in 2016. The percentage of households with a highest earner of age 35 to 59 years increased from 45 per cent in 1999 to 48 per cent in 2003, but has since fallen back to 45 per cent in 2015, where it remained in 2016. The proportion of households with a highest earner of age 60 and over has risen gradually from 32 per cent in 1999 to 36 per cent in 2016.

The small fall in the percentage of households aged 16 to 34 years between 1999 and 2016 may be a result of overall demographic population changes, for example an aging of the general population, but might also be a result of some younger people remaining within family homes rather than moving to their own property. Separate Census data on household composition [27] shows that the percentage of people aged 20 to 34 living with their parents increased by 2.2 per cent percentage points between 2001 (23.7 per cent) and 2011 (25.9 per cent).

Figure 3.2: Households by age of highest income householder, 1999 to 2016
1999-2016 data, Households (minimum base: 10,330)

Figure 3.2: Households by age of highest income householder, 1999 to 2016

Age and tenure of households

  • The proportion of households with a highest earner of age 16 to 34 owning their property with a mortgage increased in the latest year from 28 per cent in 2015 to 33 per cent in 2016, which may reflect the wider availability of high loan to value mortgages in recent years, compared with the post-financial crisis period.
  • This annual increase follows a longer term drop in owning with a mortgage for this age group, from 50 per cent in 2003 to 28 per cent in 2014.

For households with a highest income householder aged between 16 and 34 years, the percentage living in the private rented sector increased substantially from 1999 (13 per cent) to 2015 (41 per cent), before remaining at a similar level of 40 per cent in 2016 ( Figure 3.3). The percentage of households in properties owned with a mortgage fell from 50 per cent in 2003 to 28 per cent in 2014, after which the proportion stayed at a similar level in 2015 before increasing to 33 per cent in 2016. Sixty-two per cent of households in 2016 were living in a rented property (either social rented or private rented), a drop from 66 per cent in the previous year 2015.

The increase in the proportion of 16 to 34 year old households owning with a mortgage in 2016 may reflect the wider availability of high loan to value mortgages in recent years, compared with the post-financial crisis period. Data from the Council of Mortgage Lenders show that the average loan to value ratio on loans for house purchase by first time buyers in Scotland reached 85 per cent in 2016, up from 75 per cent in 2009, while the number of such loans totalled 31,400 in 2016, a 6 per cent increase compared to 2015, and up by 77 per cent from the post-financial crisis low in 2010 [28] .

Figure 3.3: Tenure of households by year (HIH aged 16 to 34)
1999-2016 data, Households (minimum base: 1,700)

Figure 3.3: Tenure of households by year (HIH aged 16 to 34)

Households in which the age of the highest income earner is between 35 and 59 years ( Figure 3.4) have also seen a rise in the percentage renting in the private sector, from 4 per cent in 1999 to 12 per cent in 2016. The proportion owning with a loan or mortgage has correspondingly dropped from 54 per cent in 1999 to 45 per cent in 2016.

Figure 3.4: Tenure of households by year ( HIH aged 35 to 59)
1999-2016 data, Households (minimum base: 4,640)

Figure 3.4: Tenure of households by year (HIH aged 35 to 59)

Households in which the age of the highest income earner is 60 years or over have seen a rise in the percentage who own outright, from 46 per cent in 1999 to 63 per cent in 2012 ( Figure 3.5). There has been a corresponding drop in the proportion renting a social sector property from 39 per cent in 1999 to 22 per cent in 2012, after which the proportion has stayed at similar levels.

Figure 3.5: Tenure of households by year ( HIH aged 60 plus)
1999-2016 data, Households (minimum base: 3,980)

Figure 3.5: Tenure of households by year (HIH aged 60 plus)

3.3 Characteristics of Households by Tenure

  • Household characteristics in 2016 show some marked differences by tenure.
  • Most (82 per cent) of owned outright properties were houses, and nearly three quarters (72 per cent) of owned outright households had a highest-income householder over the age of 60.
  • For households buying properties with a mortgage, 37 per cent contained children, and 80 per cent had an adult who was employed, a figure higher than other tenures.
  • Sixty seven per cent of private rented properties were flats and 46 per cent were located in large urban areas. Forty one per cent of adults in private rented properties had been at their address for less than one year.
  • Thirteen per cent of adults in social rented properties were permanently sick or disabled, and a further nine per cent were unemployed and seeking work.

The long-term decline in the percentage of social housing has been accompanied by substantial changes in the profile of its tenants. Data from the Scottish Census [29] show that in 1981 the profile of social sector tenants was similar to the profile of all Scottish households in terms of size, composition, and social and economic characteristics. This is no longer the case and household characteristics in 2016 show some marked differences by tenure.

Table 3.2, Table 3.3, Table 3.4, Table 3.5, Table 3.6 and Table 3.7 explore these differences in characteristics for 2016 in more depth across all main tenure categories.

Table 3.2 focuses on housing characteristics for the year 2016 such as dwelling type, location (urban/rural and index of multiple deprivation) as well as size of property as measured by the numbers of bedrooms.

Owned outright properties are much more likely to be houses (82 per cent) than flats (17 per cent). Half (50 per cent) of properties owned outright are located in the 40 per cent least deprived areas of Scotland, while only 12 per cent are in the 20 per cent most deprived areas. Only five per cent of properties owned outright have one bedroom, with nearly two-thirds (64 per cent) of properties having three or more bedrooms.

Properties owned with a mortgage or loan have a similar profile to properties owned outright, although they are marginally more likely to be flats, located in large urban areas and in the 20 per cent most deprived areas. In contrast to owner occupied properties, private rented properties are more likely to be flats (67 per cent) than houses (33 per cent), and they are generally much smaller – one in five (24 per cent) have one bedroom and a little under half (47 per cent) have two bedrooms. Eighty-seven per cent of private rented properties are located in urban areas (this includes small towns).

There are slightly more local authority flats (52 per cent) than houses (47 per cent). Thirty seven per cent of local authority properties are located in the 20 per cent most deprived areas of Scotland, while 44 per cent are located in ‘other’ (i.e. not large) urban areas.

Housing association properties have a broadly similar profile to private rented properties in terms of dwelling type (62 per cent are flats). However, they are more likely than any other tenure to be located in the 20 per cent most deprived areas (56 per cent) and to have one bedroom (30 per cent).

Table 3.2: Housing characteristics by tenure
Column percentages, 2016 data

Owner Occupier Social Rent
Owned outright Buying with help of loan/mortgage All Private Rent Local authority Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust All Other All
Proportional sizes of sectors 32 29 61 15 13 10 23 1 100
Dwelling type
House 82 78 80 33 47 37 43 70 64
Flat 17 22 20 67 52 62 56 30 35
Other 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 - 0
SIMD16
1 - Most Deprived 12 14 13 20 37 56 46 24 22
2 17 18 18 22 36 20 29 8 21
3 21 20 21 22 17 13 15 31 20
4 24 23 23 19 8 7 8 26 19
5 - Least Deprived 27 25 26 17 2 3 2 12 19
Urban / Rural Classification
Large urban areas 30 35 32 46 27 55 39 23 36
Other urban areas 33 37 35 31 44 28 37 28 35
Accessible small towns 10 9 10 7 10 6 8 8 9
Remote small towns 4 3 4 3 5 4 4 1 4
Accessible rural 14 12 13 8 10 4 7 20 11
Remote rural 8 4 7 4 4 4 4 19 6
Number of bedrooms
1 bedroom 5 5 5 24 25 30 27 15 13
2 bedrooms 31 28 30 47 48 46 47 39 36
3 bedrooms 44 41 43 23 25 20 23 35 35
4+ bedrooms 20 26 23 6 3 4 3 11 16
Base 3,650 2,920 6,570 1,390 1,360 1,020 2,380 130 10,470

Table 3.3 provides information on household characteristics for the year 2016 such as number of people in the household, type of household composition, and number of cars.

Households who own outright have the biggest percentage of two-person households (49 per cent) across all main tenure types. Only 15 per cent of owned outright households have three or more people living in them. Correspondingly, households in this tenure are much more likely than other tenures to be older one-person (27 per cent) or older two-person (32 per cent) households. Eighty [30] per cent of households owning outright have at least one car. Almost three quarters (74 per cent) of owned-outright households state that they are managing very well or quite well financially, a figure higher than other tenures.

Households that own with a mortgage or loan have the highest proportion of three people (22 per cent) or four or more people (28 per cent) living in the household. Correspondingly, 37 per cent of these households have children. Over 90 per cent (91 per cent) of households that own with a mortgage or loan have at least one car and 83 per cent of households have a net household income of over £20,000, the highest of any tenure.

Sixty-two per cent of private renting households are either single adult households or small adult households. Forty-four per cent of private renting households do not have a car.

The profiles of households in local authority rented properties and those in housing association properties are similar. Social rented households are characterised by large percentages of one-person households (47 per cent), and correspondingly have a high proportion of single adult household compositions (30 per cent). Six in ten (59 per cent) of social sector households do not have a car, and almost half (47 per cent) have a net household income of £15,000 or less. Thirty-one per cent of social sector households state that they manage well financially, a figure lower than other tenures. Around one in five (19 per cent) state that they don’t manage well, a figure that is higher than other tenures.

Table 3.3: Household characteristics by tenure
Column percentages, 2016 data

Owner Occupier Social Rent
Owned outright Buying with help of loan/mortgage All Private Rent Local authority Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust All Other All
Proportional sizes of sectors 32 29 61 15 13 10 23 1 100
Number of people in household
1 person 36 19 28 39 47 48 47 50 34
2 people 49 32 40 35 27 25 26 33 36
3 people 9 22 15 14 13 15 14 10 15
4+ people 6 28 17 12 13 12 13 7 15
Household composition
Large adult 9 12 11 7 7 8 7 3 9
Large family 2 9 5 4 5 5 5 2 5
Older smaller 32 4 18 2 8 6 7 11 13
Single adult 11 18 14 35 29 30 30 26 21
Single parent 1 4 2 9 11 11 11 7 5
Single older 27 2 15 5 18 19 19 24 14
Small adult 16 27 21 27 12 13 12 19 20
Small family 3 25 14 11 10 9 9 8 12
Number of cars
0 cars 20 9 14 44 57 61 59 39 29
1 car 50 40 45 43 36 30 34 45 42
2+ cars 31 51 40 13 7 8 8 16 29
Net household income
£0-£6,000 2 1 2 4 3 3 3 7 2
£6,001-£10,000 11 2 7 7 14 17 15 12 9
£10,001-£15,000 17 5 11 18 28 30 29 24 16
£15,001-£20,000 14 7 11 17 22 19 20 18 14
£20,001 plus 50 83 66 49 30 27 29 34 54
Don't know/Refused 5 1 3 5 3 5 4 4 4
Base 3,650 2,920 6,570 1,390 1,360 1,020 2,380 130 10,470
How well household is managing financially*
Manages well 74 63 69 46 30 33 31 34 56
Gets by 24 31 28 43 52 48 50 52 36
Does not manage well 2 5 3 11 18 19 19 15 8
Base 3,620 2,900 6,520 1,380 1,350 1,010 2,350 130 10,380

*Excludes Don’t know / Refused responses. The “Manage well” category has been created by combining the response categories “Manages very well” and “Manages quite well”. The “Does not manage well” category has been created by combining the response categories “Does not manage very well”, “Has some financial difficulties” and “Is in deep financial trouble”.

Table 3.4 provides information on characteristics for the year 2016 such as age, ethnicity, length of tenure and tenure of previous address.

Adults in households who own outright tend to be older compared to other tenures, with 72 per cent having a highest income householder aged 60 years or more. Over half (55 per cent) of adults in owned-outright properties are estimated to be permanently retired from work, and half (50 per cent) have been in living in the same address for more than 20 years. Of the small proportion (3 per cent) of adults who have moved into their address within the previous year, it is estimated that nearly half (47 per cent) have moved from another owned-outright property.

Households owning with a mortgage or a loan are more likely to have a highest income householder of age 35 to 44 (27 per cent) or 45 to 59 (41 per cent) than any other tenure. Based on random adult householder interviews, adults in properties owned with a mortgage or loan were more likely to be employed [31] (80 per cent) than adults in other tenures. Of the 9 per cent of adults who have moved into their address in the previous year, an estimated 38 per cent moved from another property owned with a mortgage and a further 21 per cent moved from the private rented sector.

Households in private rented accommodation are more likely to have a highest income householder aged 16 to 24 (19 per cent) or 25 to 34 (34 per cent) than other tenures. An estimated 21 per cent of adults in the private rented sector are in school or further/higher education. Only 57 per cent have recorded their ethnicity as white Scottish, which is much lower than other tenures, while 41 per cent have been at their current address for less than one year, much higher than any other tenure. For those who have moved into their property in the last year, over half (55 per cent) moved from another private rented dwelling, whilst 26 per cent moved from living at their parental home.

Adults living in local authority dwellings and housing association properties have a very similar profile of person characteristics. Adults in social rented properties have a higher proportion of people permanently sick or disabled (13 per cent) compared to adults in private rented households or owner occupier households, and a higher proportion of people unemployed and seeking work (9 per cent) compared to other tenures. Eighty-seven per cent of people in social sector properties record their ethnicity as white Scottish, compared with 79 per cent for Scotland as a whole. For the 12 per cent who have moved into their property in the last year, 49 per cent had moved from another social rented property.

Table 3.4: Adult characteristics by tenure
Column percentages, 2016 data

Owner Occupier Private Rent Social Rent Other All
Owned outright Buying with help of loan/mortgage All Local authority Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust All
Proportional sizes of sectors* 32 29 61 15 13 10 23 1 100
Ethnicity
White Scottish 83 80 81 57 89 84 87 74 79
White other British 13 12 13 16 5 8 6 14 12
White Polish 0 2 1 5 3 2 3 . 2
White other 2 3 2 11 1 2 2 2 3
Any Mixed or Multiple Ethnic Groups 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0
Asian, Asian Scottish or Asian British 1 2 2 8 1 1 1 3 2
African, Caribbean or Black 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 4 1
Other Ethnic Group 1 0 0 2 0 1 1 1 1
Don't know - - - 0 - - - - 0
Refused - 0 0 0 - - - - 0
Economic situation
Self employed 6 8 7 8 3 2 3 7 6
Employed full time 22 59 41 41 23 26 24 25 37
Employed part time 7 13 10 8 10 11 11 6 10
Looking after the home or family 2 4 3 8 10 9 9 10 5
Permanently retired from work 55 5 29 6 23 22 23 32 25
Unemployed and seeking work 1 1 1 5 10 8 9 8 3
At school 1 4 2 1 2 2 2 - 2
In further / higher education 2 5 3 20 3 5 4 5 6
Gov't work or training scheme - 0 0 0 0 0 0 - 0
Permanently sick or disabled 2 1 1 2 13 13 13 6 4
Unable to work because of short-term illness or injury 0 0 0 1 3 3 3 1 1
Other (specify) 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 - 0
Length of time at current address
Less than one year 3 9 6 41 12 12 12 20 12
1 to 2 years 5 14 10 27 14 16 15 14 13
3 to 4 years 5 11 8 15 14 14 14 15 10
5 to 10 years 12 27 20 12 20 28 24 18 19
11 to 20 years 25 28 27 3 19 21 20 12 22
More than 20 years 50 10 29 2 20 9 16 22 23
Average time at current address in years 22.3 9.9 15.9 2.8 11.9 8.9 10.6 11.8 12.9
Base 3,440 2,610 6,050 1,270 1,260 940 1,390 120 9,640
Age
16 to 24 1 2 1 19 6 5 5 9 5
25 to 34 2 20 11 34 14 14 14 23 15
35 to 44 3 27 14 19 16 18 17 11 16
45 to 59 23 41 32 18 28 30 29 15 29
60 to 74 45 8 27 8 24 21 23 15 23
75 plus 27 2 15 3 11 12 12 27 13
Base 3,650 2,920 6,570 1,390 1,360 1,020 2,380 130 10,470
Tenure of previous address**
Owned outright 47 5 16 5 3 2 3 - 8
Buying with help of loan/mortgage 20 38 33 7 9 4 7 - 15
Private Rented 13 21 19 55 16 23 19 - 36
Rent – Local authority 8 4 5 2 38 13 27 - 8
Rent - Housing association/Coop/Charitable trust 2 3 3 2 7 41 22 - 6
Other 4 4 4 3 6 6 6 - 4
In parental/family home 6 26 21 26 20 11 16 - 22
Base 100 220 320 470 150 110 260 20 1,080

* Based on Household sample (base: 10,470)
** Only asked of those who have been at their current address for less than a year

Responses for ethnicity, economic situation, length of time at current address and tenure of previous address are based on the random adult part of the survey, and therefore reflect characteristics of adults within households rather than the entire household.

Neighbourhood views, reasons for moving and future housing aspirations

  • Over a third of households who own their property outright moved to their area to get the right size or kind of property.
  • Around one in five households in private rented accommodation moved to their area to be close to work or employment.
  • Only 19 per cent of households in private rented accommodation had a very strong feeling of belonging to their immediate neighbourhood (45 per cent of households who own outright).
  • Seven in ten households in private rented accommodation state that the type of accommodation they would most like to live in would be an owner occupier property.
  • Over four in ten (44 per cent) of households in social rented accommodation state that the type of accommodation they would most like to live in would be an owner occupier property, with around half (49 per cent) preferring to live in social rented accommodation.

Table 3.5 provides information for the year 2016 on people’s views on their neighbourhood, their reasons for moving to the area, and their future housing aspirations.

Over a third (36 per cent) of households who own their property outright moved to their area to get the right size or kind of property, a figure higher than for rented tenures. Over two thirds (68 per cent) of households who own outright rate their neighbourhood as a very good place to live, with a further 30 per cent rating their neighbourhood as fairly good. Nearly half (45 per cent) of households who own outright have a very strong feeling of belonging to their immediate neighbourhood, with a further 41 per cent having a fairly strong feeling of belonging. Eighty five per cent of households who own outright expect not to move from their current property in the future, and nearly all owned-outright households (99 per cent) state that the type of accommodation they would most like to live in would be an owner occupier property.

Similar to owned-outright households, a third (34 per cent) of households owning with a mortgage or a loan moved to their area to get the right size or kind of property. Nearly one in five (20 per cent) of households owning with a mortgage or a loan state that they would expect to move from their current property within 5 years. Almost three quarters (73 per cent) expect not to move from their current property in the future. Similar to owned-outright households, nearly all (97 per cent) of households owning with a mortgage or a loan state that the type of accommodation they would most like to live in would be an owner occupier property.

Around one in five (21 per cent) households in private rented accommodation moved to their area to be close to work or employment, a higher percentage figure than other tenures. Only 19 per cent of households in private rented accommodation had a very strong feeling of belonging to their immediate neighbourhood, whilst 40 per cent felt not very strongly or not at all strongly; the highest of any tenure. Over half (54 per cent) of households in private rented accommodation expect to move from their current property within the next 5 years, a percentage much higher than in other tenures. Seven in ten (70 per cent) households in private rented accommodation state that the type of accommodation they would most like to live in would be an owner occupier property. Nine per cent would most like to live in social rented accommodation and 18 per cent would most like to live in private rented accommodation.

Local authority dwellings and housing association properties show a very similar profile. Around four in ten (41 per cent) of households in social rented properties rated their neighbourhood as a very good place to live, a percentage which is lower than other tenures. Almost eight in ten (79 per cent) expect not to move from their current property in the future. Over four in ten (44 per cent) of households in social rented accommodation state that the type of accommodation they would most like to live in would be an owner occupier property, with around half (49 per cent) preferring to live in social rented accommodation.

Table 3.5: Views on neighbourhood and housing aspirations, by tenure
Column percentages, 2016 data

Owner Occupier Social Rent
Owned outright Buying with help of loan/mortgage All Private Rent Local authority Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust All Other All
Proportional sizes of sectors* 32 29 61 15 13 10 23 1 100
Reasons for moving to area
To be near family/friends 7 10 8 9 12 9 11 18 9
To be close to work/employment 11 11 11 21 3 3 3 19 11
Change in family/household circumstances / left home 25 23 24 29 30 31 30 19 26
To buy own house/flat or rent place of own 13 21 17 9 9 7 8 2 13
Health reasons, including move to bungalow / flat 3 1 2 1 9 11 10 5 4
Moved to sheltered housing / supported accommodation - 0 0 0 2 2 2 - 1
Like the area / nice area 18 17 18 15 8 11 9 10 15
Move to the countryside / sea 2 2 2 1 0 1 0 - 2
Good schools 2 4 3 1 1 - 0 3 2
Good services / amenities 1 2 2 3 2 3 2 5 2
Good transport 1 1 1 1 - 0 0 - 1
Wanted a garden / land 3 3 3 1 1 - 1 2 2
Right size / kind of property 36 34 35 17 27 20 24 20 29
Cheaper property 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 4 2
No choice - allocated by council / Housing Association, eviction 1 1 1 3 10 15 12 4 4
To avoid violence / discrimination 1 1 1 1 3 2 2 4 1
Other 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 4 1
Don't know 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 - 0
Base 1,120 900 2,020 450 470 360 830 60 3,360
Rating of neighbourhood as a place to live
Very good 68 60 63 49 43 40 41 56 57
Fairly good 30 37 34 45 47 49 48 37 38
Fairly poor 2 2 2 5 8 7 7 3 4
Very poor 1 0 0 1 3 4 3 4 1
No opinion 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 - 0
Strength of belonging to immediate neighbourhood
Very strongly 45 33 39 19 32 35 33 38 35
Fairly strongly 41 46 44 39 42 42 42 26 42
Not very strongly 11 17 14 27 16 15 15 19 16
Not at all strongly 2 4 3 13 8 8 8 13 5
Don't know 0 0 0 2 1 1 1 3 1
Base 3,440 2,610 6,050 1,270 1,260 940 2,200 120 9,640
When the householder expects to move
Within 6 months 1 3 2 16 2 3 2 - 4
Over 6 months to less than 1 year 1 2 2 12 3 4 3 - 3
Over 1 year, less than 2 years 2 4 3 14 4 4 4 - 5
Over 2 years, less than 3 years 1 3 2 8 2 2 2 - 3
Over 3 years, less than 4 years 1 4 2 2 2 0 1 - 2
Over 4 years, less than 5 years 1 3 2 2 1 1 1 - 2
More than 5 years 3 5 4 3 1 1 1 - 3
Don't expect to move 85 73 79 35 79 79 79 - 72
Don't know 4 3 4 8 5 4 5 - 4
Accommodation householder would like to live in
Owner occupier 99 97 98 70 46 41 44 - 82
Local Authority Rent 0 1 1 7 42 5 26 - 7
Housing Association Rent 0 1 0 2 5 47 23 - 6
Private Rent 0 0 0 18 1 0 1 - 3
Sheltered / Supported accommodation 0 0 0 1 4 4 4 - 1
Other - - - 0 - 1 0 - 0
Don't know 0 1 1 2 2 1 1 - 1
Base 1,160 980 2,140 450 410 310 720 30 3,350

* Based on Household sample (base: 10,470)
** Columns may not add up to 100 per cent since multiple responses were allowed

Housing adaptations and support

  • Households in social rented accommodation (60 per cent) were more likely than other tenures to have a member of the household with a physical or mental health condition or illness lasting or expecting to last 12 months or more.
  • The most common types of home adaptions already in place for all homes (whether needed or not) are handrails, which are in 10 per cent of all homes, and in 15 per cent of social sector homes.
  • Over one in ten (12 per cent) of social sector homes have a specially designed or adapted bath or shower, and 5 per cent of social sector homes have a specially designed or adapted toilet.

Table 3.6 and Table 3.7 provide information for the year 2016 on housing adaptations and support.

Households owning their property outright (44 per cent) and households in social rented accommodation (60 per cent) were more likely than other tenures to have a member of the household with a physical or mental health condition or illness lasting or expecting to last 12 months or more.

For households with a person with a physical or mental health condition, the most common aspects of their home that limit activities that can be done (based on the question options provided in the Scottish Household Survey) are not being able to get upstairs inside the house (six per cent) and the bath or shower being difficult to access or use (four per cent). Of all households with a person with a physical or mental health condition, 86 per cent stated that nothing about the home limited activities that could be done.

Twelve per cent of households with a person with a physical or mental health condition state that their home requires adaptations to make it easier to go about daily activities, rising to 16 per cent for those in social rented accommodation.

The most common types of home adaptions already in place for all homes (whether needed or not) are handrails, which are in 10 per cent of all homes, and in 15 per cent of social sector homes. Over one in ten (12 per cent) of social sector homes have a specially designed or adapted bath or shower, and five per cent of social sector homes have a specially designed or adapted toilet.

Two per cent of all households currently receive a home care worker or home help to help with housework, cooking and cleaning, whilst two per cent receive a home care worker to help with washing, bathing, dressing etc. Four per cent of homes receive some sort of assistance from a relative, friend or neighbour, rising to seven per cent of social sector homes.

Table 3.6: Limiting activities by tenure
Column percentages, 2016 data

Owner Occupier Social Rent
Owned outright Buying with help of loan/mortgage All Private Rent Local authority Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust All Other All
Proportional sizes of sectors* 32 29 61 15 13 10 23 1 100
Household has someone with a long term physical/mental health condition/illness**
Yes 44 24 35 25 60 59 60 46 39
No 56 76 65 75 40 41 40 54 61
Base 3,650 2,920 6,570 1,390 1,360 1,020 2,380 130 10,470
What about the home limits activities that can be done***
Can't get upstairs inside house 8 6 8 7 4 6 5 - 6
Too small / need more rooms 0 - 0 - 0 1 0 - 0
Can't leave house because of stairs to house 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 - 1
Restricted movement / can't get around the house due to design / layout 2 1 1 3 2 1 2 - 2
Doors too narrow 0 - 0 - 0 1 1 - 0
Rooms too small - 1 0 0 1 1 1 - 0
Bath / shower difficult to access / use 4 3 4 2 5 7 6 - 4
Toilet difficult to access / use 1 1 1 1 2 3 2 - 2
Electric lights / sockets are difficult to reach / use 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 - 1
Heating controls are difficult to reach / use 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 - 1
Can't open windows 1 2 1 2 1 3 2 - 1
Difficulty answering / opening door 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 - 1
Cupboards / shelves are difficult to reach / use 2 2 2 1 1 3 2 - 2
Can't get into / use garden 1 1 1 - 1 1 1 - 1
Other 1 0 0 - 0 0 0 - 0
None / nothing 87 88 87 91 85 82 84 - 86
Whether the home requires adaptations to make it easier to go about daily activities ***
Yes 10 7 9 9 15 18 16 - 12
No 89 92 90 91 83 82 83 - 87
Don't know 1 1 1 - 2 - 1 - 1
Base 550 250 800 130 320 240 560 30 1,510

* Based on Household sample (base: 10,470)
** A long term condition is defined as lasting or expecting to last for 12 months or more
*** Asked of households with someone with a long term condition/illness
Columns may not add up to 100 due to multiple answers allowed

Table 3.7: Housing adaptations and support, by tenure
Column percentages, 2016 data

Owner Occupier Social Rent
Owned outright Buying with help of loan/mortgage All Private Rent Local authority Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust All Other All
Proportional sizes of sectors* 32 29 61 15 13 10 23 1 100
Home adaptations that are already in place
Ramps 4 3 4 1 5 3 4 4 3
Door widening 2 2 2 0 2 4 3 7 2
Relocated light switches and power points 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 2 1
Individual alarm systems 3 1 2 0 4 4 4 3 2
Stairlift 3 1 2 0 2 1 1 4 2
Through floor lift 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 - 0
Handrails 13 5 9 5 17 12 15 21 10
Specially designed / adapted kitchen 1 0 0 0 2 2 2 - 1
Specially designed / adapted bathroom / shower 8 2 5 2 14 9 12 5 6
Specially designed / adapted toilet 4 2 3 1 6 3 5 4 3
Door entry phone 2 2 2 5 7 8 7 7 4
Extension to meet disabled person's needs 0 0 0 - 0 0 0 - 0
Special Furniture 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 - 1
Other - - - - 0 0 0 - 0
None needed / provided 78 89 84 88 67 74 70 67 81
Don't know 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1
Services that household members currently receive
Home care worker / home help (helping with housework, cooking, cleaning) 3 1 2 0 5 5 5 9 2
Home care worker (helping with washing / bathing, dressing, toilet) 2 0 1 0 3 3 3 1 2
Meals delivered to home / meals on wheels 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0
Day care / day centre (in hospital, residential home or other organisation) 0 - 0 1 1 1 1 - 0
Respite / short term care in residential / nursing home 1 0 0 0 1 - 0 - 0
Occupational therapy / physiotherapy 1 0 1 1 2 2 2 - 1
Help with shopping 2 1 1 1 4 3 4 5 2
Night care (someone present at night only) 0 - 0 0 1 1 1 - 0
Assistance from relative / friend / neighbour 4 1 3 2 9 5 7 4 4
None 91 98 94 97 86 87 87 89 93
Base 1,260 1,010 2,270 480 530 390 910 60 3,730

* Based on Household sample (base: 10,470)
Columns may not add up to 100 due to multiple answers allowed

3.4 Housing Lists

  • An estimated 110,000 (4 per cent) of households were on a housing list in 2016, a decrease compared with an estimated 130,000 (5 per cent) of households in 2015.
  • Of households on a housing list in 2016, almost three quarters (72 per cent) were on a single list and over half (53 per cent) had been on a housing list for 3 years or less.
  • For around a quarter (24 per cent) of social rented households on a housing list, the main reason for being on a list was to move to bigger or smaller property. The main reason for private rented households was that they cannot afford current housing or would like cheaper housing. This was identified by 31 per cent of private rented households on a housing list.

The number of people on housing lists helps provide an indication of the demand for social housing. In Scotland anyone over the age of 16 has the right to be admitted to a housing list. Since there is no test of particular housing need at the stage that an application is made, housing lists are indicators of demand and not necessarily of housing need.

Housing lists are held by social landlords, local authorities and housing associations, individually or jointly as Common Housing Registers. They can include people who are already in social housing but are seeking a move and in some cases applicants will be on more than one landlord’s list. Social landlords are responsible for allocating their housing, in line with their allocation policies and the legislative framework.

The Housing (Scotland) Act 2014 contains provisions intended to support social landlords to allocate and manage their housing in a way which balances the variety of housing needs in their area and gives local communities a greater say in who gets priority for housing.

A question on whether a household was on a housing list was introduced to the SHS in 2013, with additional, supplementary questions introduced in 2016. These questions are asked of the random adult [32] . Table 3.8 provides information on households on a housing list in 2016.

Eleven per cent of private rented households state that they are on a housing list, of which almost three quarters (73 per cent) are only on one list. Around half (51 per cent) of private rented households on a housing list had been so for 3 years or less, with one third (33 per cent) on a list for 1 to 3 years. Twelve per cent had been on a housing list for more than 10 years. For over three in ten (31 per cent) of private rented households on a housing list, the main reason for being on a housing list was that they can’t afford current housing or would like cheaper housing. This was a much larger percentage than the equivalent figure for social rented households (3 per cent).

Nine per cent of social rented households state that they are on a housing list, of which 71 per cent are only on one list. Fifty-nine per cent of social rented households on a housing list had been so for 3 years or less, with almost one third (29 per cent) on a list for less than a year. Eight per cent had been on a housing list for more than 10 years. For around a quarter (24 per cent) of social rented households on a housing list, the main reason for being on a housing list was to move to a bigger or smaller property.

Table 3.8: Households on a Housing List by tenure
Column percentages, 2016 data

Owner Occupier Private Rent Social Rent Other All
Owned outright Buying with help of loan/mortgage All Local authority Housing association / Co-op / Charitable trust All
Whether household is on a housing list
Yes 1 1 1 11 10 8 9 10 4
No 99 99 99 88 88 90 89 89 95
Don't know/Refused 0 0 0 1 2 2 2 1 1
Base 3,440 2,610 6,050 1,270 1,260 940 2,200 120 9,640
How many housing lists households are on (households on a list)
1 list - - - 73 69 75 71 - 72
2 lists - - - 13 10 11 11 - 12
3 or more lists - - - 9 6 5 5 - 7
Don't know - - - 6 15 10 13 - 9
How long has the household been on a housing list (households on a list)
Less than a year - - - 18 34 21 29 - 24
1 to 3 years - - - 33 27 35 30 - 30
4 to 5 years - - - 20 18 14 17 - 18
6 to 10 years - - - 13 12 17 14 - 14
More than 10 years - - - 12 7 9 8 - 11
Don't know - - - 4 3 3 3 - 3
Main reason for household being on a housing list (households on a list)
Can't afford current housing/Would like cheaper housing - - - 31 - 7 3 - 13
Threatened with homelessness - - - 11 12 5 9 - 12
To move to a different area - anti-social/safety concerns in current area - - - 2 9 8 8 - 5
To move to a different area - for work opportunities - - - 2 3 3 3 - 2
To move to a different area - to a better area - - - 5 11 3 8 - 6
To move to a different area - to be nearer family and friends - - - 8 9 11 10 - 8
To move to a different area - other reason - - - 3 1 0 1 - 2
To move to a different property - bigger/smaller - - - 11 22 26 24 - 17
To move to a different property - need adaptations - - - 3 5 1 4 - 4
To move to a different property - need ground floor access - - - 2 10 12 11 - 8
To move to my own property away from parents/partner etc - - - 8 7 6 6 - 8
To move to a different property - other reason - - - 9 6 4 5 - 7
Other - - - 4 4 6 4 - 5
Don't know - - - - 1 8 4 - 2
Base 20 20 40 160 120 80 200 10 400

Table 3.9 and Table 3.10 present the results for 2016 based on the percentage of respondents who indicated that they were on at least one housing list, whether through a Council, Registered Social Landlord ( RSL) or a Common Housing Register ( CHR).

Table 3.9: Adults on housing lists
Column percentages and population estimates, 2013 to 2016 data

2013 2014 2015 2016 Difference
Per cent Adults Per cent Adults Per cent Adults Per cent Adults Per cent Adults
No, not on a housing list 91.9 4,060,000 92.9 4,120,000 94.3 4,210,000 95.5 4,290,000 1.2 80,000
Yes, on a housing list 6.4 280,000 6.0 270,000 5.0 220,000 3.9 170,000 -1.1 -50,000
Don't know/refused 1.7 80,000 1.1 50,000 0.7 30,000 0.6 30,000 -0.1 0
All* 100 4,416,021 100 4,436,318 100 4,460,738 100 4,488,783 0 28,045
Base 9,920 - 9,800 - 9,410 - 9,640 - -

* Adult estimates (population aged 16 and over) are from National Records of Scotland

Table 3.10: Households on housing lists
Column percentages and household estimates, 2013 to 2016 data

2013 2014 2015 2016 Difference
Per cent Households Per cent Households Per cent Households Per cent Households Per cent Households
No, not on a housing list 90.9 2,180,000 92.2 2,230,000 94.0 2,290,000 94.9 2,330,000 0.9 40,000
Yes, on a housing list 7.3 170,000 6.6 160,000 5.2 130,000 4.4 110,000 -0.8 -20,000
Don't know/refused 1.8 40,000 1.2 30,000 0.8 20,000 0.7 20,000 -0.1 0
All* 100 2,401,691 100 2,419,921 100 2,433,956 100 2,451,869 0 17,913
Base 9,920 - 9,800 - 9,410 - 9,640 - -

* Household estimates are from National Records of Scotland

To convert the SHS estimate into the corresponding number of adults, the SHS percentage is multiplied by the estimated adult population [33] . This estimates that there were 170,000 adults in Scotland on housing lists for 2016, a decrease from the estimated 220,000 adults in 2015. It is important to note that this estimate does not include children and that, where an adult is responsible for a child, the child will effectively also be on a housing list.

Housing list statistics are more commonly reported in terms of the number of households on lists rather than the number of adults. Table 3.10 shows that 4.4 per cent of households were on a housing list in 2016. In a similar way to the estimates for adults, this is multiplied by NRS household estimates [34] to give an estimate that 110,000 households are on a list. This is a decrease from the estimated 130,000 households in 2015.

Some of the decrease in the proportion of adults and households who have reported that they were on a housing list between 2013 and 2016 may be due to some social landlords moving to using a choice based letting system over this time period, as opposed to using a more traditional points based housing list system. This may have resulted in some households not considering themselves to be on a housing list even though they are actively seeking social housing through other routes such as choice based lettings. Changes have been made to the 2017 SHS questions on housing lists with the aim to better capture households who are using choice based lettings when seeking social housing.

Note that the Scottish Household Survey is based on a sample of the general population living in private residences in Scotland, and therefore it may exclude some people or households or who are on a housing list but who are living in other types of accommodation such as hostels or bed and breakfast accommodation.

The estimated share of households on a housing list has been calculated based on responses from the random adult but weighted to make it representative of households.

This methodology is likely to slightly under-estimate the true figure due to assumptions which are discussed in Annex 2: Glossary.

3.4.1 Other Sources of Housing List Statistics

Housing list statistics are also reported in Housing Statistics for Scotland ( HSfS) [35] , which reported that there were 167,122 applicant households on Local Authority or Common Housing Register housing waiting or transfer lists as at 31 March 2016, compared with the estimate of 110,000 from the SHS. The Housing Statistics for Scotland figure will include some double counting of households who are on multiple housing lists. However, it also excludes six Local Authorities (including Glasgow) which have transferred all of their social housing stock to Housing Associations.

Housing lists statistics are also available from an Ipsos MORI Omnibus Survey [36] conducted in 2010 and 2011, which reported 144,000 and 128,000 households respectively on lists. The questions asked in this survey were more detailed than the question asked in the SHS and provides information about current and previous experiences of households on housing lists. The Ipsos MORI results were based on sample sizes of around 1,000 adults, so they are less reliable than the SHS results.

Conclusion

This chapter has summarised Scottish Household Survey findings on housing. This has covered housing tenure, characteristics of households by tenure, housing adaptations and support and housing lists.


Contact

Email: Emma McCallum, emma.mccallum@gov.scot

Phone: 0300 244 4000 – Central Enquiry Unit

The Scottish Government
St Andrew's House
Regent Road
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