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Publication - Statistics Publication

Scotland's People: Results from the 2015 Scottish Household Survey

Published: 27 Sep 2016
Part of:
Statistics
ISBN:
9781786524416

Report presenting reliable and up-to-date information on the composition, characteristics and behaviour of Scottish households.

287 page PDF

5.4MB

287 page PDF

5.4MB

Contents
Scotland's People: Results from the 2015 Scottish Household Survey
9 Sport

287 page PDF

5.4MB

9 Sport

9.1 Introduction and ContextSport has a key role to play in combatting problems caused by physical inactivity, which it is estimated results in around 2,500 premature deaths in Scotland each year and costs NHS Scotland around £94 million annually [53] . Sport, therefore, contributes to a number of National Outcomes including "we live longer, healthier lives" and the associated National Indicator, to "increase physical activity" [54] .

The Scottish Government is committed to promoting and supporting sport as part of a broader physical activity agenda. It recognises and values the benefits that sport can bring to individuals and our communities. The Government's work is focused on enabling a greater equality of opportunity in relation to participation in sport and physical activity, and enhancing the role of community sport.

The Scottish Government is determined to ensure that we capitalise on the Commonwealth Games to create a lasting social, cultural and economic legacy for the whole of Scotland. In relation to sport particularly, the Scottish Government and sportscotland will continue to develop Scotland's world-class system for sport and continue to invest in world-class facilities such as the National Performance Centre for Sport for both community use and elite athletes to train in.

The SHS contributes to the Government's vision of a More Active Scotland where more people are more active, more often through understanding and monitoring levels of sporting participation both at the national and sub-national levels and in turn to inform decisions on government and local government policy making. It is the primary source of information on sporting participation in Scotland and the only comparable source of data on participation at local authority level. Questions on sporting participation were introduced in the SHS for the first time in 2007. From 2012 onwards, it is possible to obtain data at local authority level every year.

The sport questions within the SHS cover levels and frequency of participation in sport and exercise activities in the last 4 weeks, as well as providing an indication of satisfaction with local authority leisure services.

Main Findings

A large majority of adults (80 per cent) reported participation in sport and exercise (including recreational walking) in the last four weeks in 2015. This is a small increase from 2014 and is largely a result of an increase in recreational walking participation. Walking for 30 minutes (for recreational purposes) was by far the most common activity with 69 per cent of adults having done this. This compares to 64 per cent in 2014.

When walking was excluded, 52 per cent had undertaken at least one of the remaining sport and exercise activities in the last four weeks. Participation in sport and exercise (excluding walking) has remained largely unchanged over the period 2007 to 2015.

Frequency of participation in sport and exercise among participants continues an upward trend. Regular participation (on more than 15 days in the past 4 weeks prior to interview) has increased from over a third (36 per cent) in 2007, to half (50 per cent) in 2015.

Inequalities in sports and exercise participation are evident. If walking is excluded, sports participation declines markedly with age and men participate considerably more than women (57 per cent compared to 47 per cent).

Participation in sport and exercise (including walking) is lowest in those living in the most deprived areas (72 per cent) or those with no qualifications (56 per cent) compared to those from the least deprived areas (88 per cent) or with higher level of education (91 per cent).

Participation in sport and exercise (including walking) varies also by health. It was lowest for those who reported a condition which caused long-term major reduced daily capacity (40 per cent), compared to 87 per cent participation for those with no condition.

There have been relatively stable levels of satisfaction with sports and leisure services over time amongst users and non-users. In 2015, a large majority of users in the past 12 months were very or fairly satisfied (86 per cent). This has been stable since 2011 but represents an increase compared to 2007 (82 per cent).

9.2 Participation in Sports and Exercise

9.2.1 Participation in Sports and Exercise in the Last Four Weeks

Figure 9.1 shows that four fifths of adults (80 per cent) had participated in any sport in the last four weeks. By far the most prevalent activity was walking for at least 30 minutes (for recreational purposes), with 69 per cent of adults doing this. Comparatively, participation in other activities listed ranged from 2 to 17 per cent.

When walking was excluded, just over half of adults (52 per cent) had undertaken at least one of the remaining sports in the previous four weeks. Annex 2: Glossary provides the complete list of activities which respondents were asked to choose from.

Figure 9.1: Participation in sports and exercise in the last four weeks

Percentage of adults (minimum base: 9,410)

Figure 9.1: Participation in sports and exercise in the last four weeks

9.2.2 Participation in Sports and Exercise - Trends Over Time

Figure 9.2 and Table 9.1 show that participation in sport and exercise in the previous four weeks remained relatively constant from 2007 to 2010 (between 72 per cent and 73 per cent). Since 2010, participation in sport and exercise increased to 78 per cent in 2013 and has increased again to 80 per cent in 2015. This is largely attributable to more adults taking up recreational walking.

Between 2007 and 2010, participation in walking was relatively similar (between 54 per cent and 56 per cent), but it increased to 65 per cent in 2013 and has increased again to 69 per cent in 2015.

Overall participation in sport and exercise, when walking is excluded, has remained relatively stable between 2007 to 2015 (ranging between 51 and 54 per cent). Within the different types of sports, levels of participation are also relatively stable with the exception of some sports, such as cycling, which has seen participation increase from 9 per cent in 2007 to 12 per cent in 2015. Dancing has seen a decrease from 14 to 7 per cent.

Figure 9.2: Participation in sport and exercise in the last four weeks

Percentages, 2007 to 2015 data (minimum base: 9,130)

Figure 9.2: Participation in sport and exercise in the last four weeks

Table 9.1: Participation in sport and exercise in the last four weeks

Percentages, 2007 to 2015 data

Adults 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Any sporting participation (inc. walking) 73 73 72 72 75 74 78 78 80
Any sporting participation (exc. walking) 53 52 51 51 54 51 52 51 52
Walking (at least 30 minutes) 56 55 54 54 57 59 65 64 69
Swimming 19 19 17 17 18 17 17 18 17
Keep Fit / Aerobics 12 12 12 13 14 14 13 13 14
Multigym / Weight Training 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 13
Running / Jogging 10 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 12
Cycling (at least 30 minutes) 9 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 12
Dancing 14 12 11 10 10 8 7 7 7
Football 9 8 9 9 8 7 8 7 8
Golf 9 8 8 7 8 6 7 6 6
Snooker / Billiards / Pool 9 9 8 7 7 5 6 5 5
Bowls 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 2
Other 9 10 6 8 10 10 10 9 9
None of these 27 27 28 28 25 26 22 22 20
Base 10,300 9,230 9,130 9,620 9,680 9,890 9,920 9,800 9,410

9.2.3 Frequency of Participation in Sports and Exercise - Trends Over Time

Figure 9.3 shows that frequency of participation in sport and exercise among participants has increased since 2007. Regular participation (on more than 15 days in the past 4 weeks prior to interview) had increased from over a third (36 per cent) in 2007, to half (50 per cent) in 2015.

Figure 9.3: Frequency of participation by adults who took part in sport and exercise in the previous four weeks

Percentages, 2007 to 2015 data (minimum base: 6,240)

Figure 9.3: Frequency of participation by adults who took part in sport and exercise in the previous four weeks

9.2.4 Participation in Sport and Exercise by Gender and Age

Table 9.2 presents results on sport and exercise participation in the past four weeks by age and gender for 2015.

9.2.4.1 By Gender

Overall sport and exercise participation was marginally higher for men than women (81 per cent and 78 per cent respectively). This difference was larger when walking was excluded (57 per cent and 47 per cent respectively).

Walking for at least 30 minutes was the most popular form of participation for both men and women (67 per cent of men and 71 per cent of women) with women participating more than men.

Men participated more than women in most sports and exercise listed. However, women participated more than men in keep fit/aerobics (17 per cent compared to 10 per cent) and dancing (10 per cent compared to 4 per cent).

9.2.4.1 By Age

If walking is excluded, sports participation declines markedly with age. Participation is at its highest in age group 25-34 (70 per cent) compared to 36 per cent in those aged 60-74 years and 21 per cent for those over the age of 75.

Walking initially increases with age and then declines from about the mid-40s. Sixty eight per cent of 16-24 year olds report participation in recreational walking compared to 77 per cent age 35-44 and 43 per cent aged over 75. A lesser decline with age of participation in all sports and exercise was noted if walking was included compared to when it was excluded.

The popularity of different types of sports and exercise varied by age. Playing football decreases with age for example, with 19 per cent of those aged 16 to 24 having participated in the previous four weeks compared with 3 per cent of 45 to 59 year olds. Running/jogging and weight-training showed a similar pattern. However, participation in swimming and cycling initially increased with age and then declined at a later stage being most popular amongst adults aged 35 to 44.

Table 9.2: Participation in sport and exercise in the past four weeks by gender and age

Percentages, 2015 data

Adults Male Female 16 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 59 60 to 74 75 plus All
Walking (at least 30 minutes) 67 71 68 76 77 73 67 43 69
Swimming 16 18 19 24 25 16 11 4 17
Keep Fit / Aerobics 10 17 20 19 15 13 9 5 14
Multigym / Weight Training 17 9 27 22 16 10 4 1 13
Running / Jogging 14 10 25 22 16 9 1 0 12
Cycling (at least 30 minutes) 16 8 12 16 18 14 6 1 12
Dancing 4 10 9 9 7 7 6 5 7
Football 14 2 19 15 10 3 1 - 8
Golf 11 1 5 5 5 7 7 5 6
Snooker / Billiards / Pool 9 2 13 7 6 4 2 1 5
Bowls 3 2 1 1 1 2 5 5 2
Other 10 8 13 12 10 9 6 2 9
None of these 19 22 12 9 13 20 27 49 20
Any sporting participation (inc. walking) 81 78 88 91 87 80 73 51 80
Any sporting participation (exc. walking) 57 47 68 70 61 49 36 21 52
Base 4,240 5,160 750 1,210 1,390 2,440 2,380 1,240 9,410

Columns add up to more than 100 per cent as multiple responses allowed.

9.2.5 By Age Groups Over Time

Figure 9.4, Figure 9.5 and Figure 9.6 show how sport and exercise participation (including and excluding walking) and recreational walking in the previous four weeks has changed over time within different age groups.

Within almost all age groups there has continued to be an increase in participation in all sport including walking. The exception is for the youngest age group where participation has remained relatively stable, 87 per cent in 2007 compared to 88 per cent in 2015. In contrast, those in the oldest age group (age 75 and over) have seen a 15 percentage point rise in the proportion participating between 2007 and 2015, with an 8 percentage point rise compared to 2014.

Figure 9.4: Participation in sport and exercise (including walking) in the last four weeks over time by age

Percentages, 2007 to 2015 data (minimum base: 710)

Figure 9.4: Participation in sport and exercise (including walking) in the last four weeks over time by age

Figure 9.5 shows how sport and exercise participation in the previous four weeks (excluding walking) has remained relatively stable within most age groups over time. This contrasts with the pattern already described when walking is included. Those in the youngest age group show a decline in participation from 73 per cent in 2007 to 68 per cent in 2015.

Figure 9.5: Participation in sport and exercise (excluding walking) in the last four weeks over time by age

Percentages, 2007 to 2015 data (minimum base: 710)

Figure 9.5: Participation in sport and exercise (excluding walking) in the last four weeks over time by age

Figure 9.6 shows there has been an increase in recreational walking from 2007 across all age groups. With the exception of those aged 16-24 years, all age groups continued to increase participation in recreational walking in 2015 compared to 2014.

Figure 9.6: Participation in recreational walking in the last four weeks over time by age

Percentages, 2007 to 2015 data (minimum base: 710)

Figure 9.6: Participation in recreational walking in the last four weeks over time by age

9.2.6 Participation in Sport and Exercise by Highest Level of Qualification

Figure 9.7 shows how participation in sport and exercise (including walking) varies with level of qualification. Participation in 2014 was highest amongst adults with a degree or professional qualifications (91 per cent) and lowest for those with no qualifications (56 per cent). When walking is excluded, the difference between qualification levels is even greater (68 per cent with a degree or professional qualifications, compared to 25 per cent with none).

Figure 9.7: Participation in sport and exercise in the past four weeks by highest level of qualification

2015 data, percentage of adults (minimum base: 70)

Figure 9.7: Participation in sport and exercise in the past four weeks by highest level of qualification

9.2.7 Participation in Sport and Exercise by Area Deprivation

Figure 9.8 shows how participation in sport and exercise (including walking) varies by area deprivation. Participation in the previous four weeks was lowest (72 per cent) among those in the 20 per cent most deprived areas of Scotland, compared with 88 per cent in the 20 per cent least deprived areas, as measured by the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (a 16 percentage point difference).

Figure 9.8: Participation in sport and exercise in the last four weeks by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

2015 data, percentage of adults (minimum base: 1,640)

Figure 9.8: Participation in sport and exercise in the last four weeks by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

Table 9.3 shows participation in a range of different sports by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation ( SIMD). This indicates that walking is the most popular irrespective of SIMD area, however those in the least deprived areas participate substantially more than those in the areas of highest deprivation.

A similar unequal pattern of participation was observed for swimming, keep fit, running, cycling and golf, whereas there was less difference by deprivation levels in football, snooker, bowls and dancing.

Table 9.3: Participation in different types of sport and exercise in the last four weeks by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

Percentages, 2015 data

Adults Most deprived 20% 2nd 3rd 4th Least deprived 20% Scotland
Walking (at least 30 minutes) 60 64 69 74 79 69
Swimming 14 15 16 19 21 17
Keep Fit / Aerobics 11 12 13 15 18 14
Multigym / Weight Training 11 11 15 12 17 13
Running / Jogging 10 10 11 14 16 12
Cycling (at least 30 minutes) 8 10 11 14 16 12
Dancing 6 6 7 9 8 7
Football 9 7 8 7 7 8
Golf 3 4 5 7 10 6
Snooker / Billiards / Pool 7 5 4 6 5 5
Bowls 2 2 2 3 2 2
Other 7 6 9 10 12 9
None of these 28 25 20 16 12 20
Any sporting participation (inc. walking) 72 75 80 84 88 80
Any sporting participation (exc. walking) 43 45 51 56 62 52
Base (minimum) 1,740 1,900 2,050 2,080 1,640 9,410

Columns add up to more than 100 per cent as multiple responses allowed.

9.2.8 Participation in Sport and Exercise by Long-term Physical/Mental Health Condition

Figure 9.9 shows participation in sport or exercise by long-term physical or mental health condition (lasting, or expected to last 12 months or more). Participation was lowest for those who reported a condition which caused long-term major reduced daily capacity (40 per cent), compared to 87 per cent participation for those with no condition. For those where the condition caused minor reduced daily capacity, the participation rate was also lower at 72 per cent.

There is also a marked difference in participation in recreational walking between those with and without longer-term physical and mental health conditions and hence sports and exercise participation whether walking is included or not.

Figure 9.9: Participation in sport and exercise in the last four weeks, by long-term physical/mental health condition

Percentages, 2015 data (minimum base: 1,200)

Figure 9.9: Participation in sport and exercise in the last four weeks, by long-term physical/mental health condition

9.3 Satisfaction with Local Authority Cultural and Sports Services

Since 2007, questions have been asked in the Local Services suite of questions in the SHS on the frequency of use and satisfaction with local authority cultural and sport and leisure services. Table 9.4 presents the results for satisfaction with local authority sports and leisure services in 2015. It shows that levels of satisfaction amongst respondents (which include non-users) have been relatively stable since 2007. There has been a small decrease in the proportion who expressed dissatisfaction and a corresponding increase in neutral responses in the period 2007 to 2015.

Table 9.4: Satisfaction with local authority sport and leisure services

Column percentages, 2007 to 2015 data

Adults 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Very / Fairly satisfied 50 50 48 49 51 51 53 52 51
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 11 9 9 9 9 7 9 12 14
Very / Fairly dissatisfied 9 8 8 8 8 5 6 5 5
No opinion 30 32 35 35 33 36 33 31 30
Base 10,220 9,240 9,710 9,020 9,660 9,890 9,920 9,800 9,410

Table 9.5 shows levels of satisfaction with local authority sports and leisure services, as above, but only amongst adults who have used these services in the past year. In 2015, a large majority were very or fairly satisfied (86 per cent). This has been stable since 2011 but represents an increase compared to 2007 (82 per cent).

Table 9.5: Satisfaction with local authority culture and sport and leisure services. (Service users within the past 12 months only)

Column percentages, 2007 to 2015 data

Adults 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Very / Fairly satisfied 82 83 82 82 85 88 88 87 86
Neither satisfied or dissatisfied 7 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 6
Very / Fairly dissatisfied 10 9 10 9 8 7 6 7 7
No opinion 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1
Base 3,650 3,210 3,270 3,140 3,230 3,400 3,450 3,390 3,230

9.4 The Commonwealth Games 2014

The XX Glasgow 2014 Commonwealth Games had the potential to create lasting social, cultural and economic benefits for both Scotland as a whole and for Glasgow. These benefits are collectively described as the 'legacy' of the Games. The Scottish Government's Assessing Legacy 2014 tracks the progress of these legacy ambitions. The data in Table 9.6 on perception of benefits from the Games contributes to the evidence base used to evaluate the legacy of the Games.

Table 9.6 shows whether respondents think there will be lasting benefits either to themselves and their families or to their local area. Results show that overall, 42 per cent in 2015 believed that hosting the Games in Scotland will provide lasting benefits to either their family or the local area.

Table 9.6: Will there be any lasting benefits of the games?

Column percentages, 2015 data

Adults 2013 2014 2015
To you and your family or your local area? 41 40 42
To you and your family? 30 29 32
To your local area? 29 28 29
Base 9,920 9,800 9,410

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