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Publication - Statistics Publication

Scotland's People: Results from the 2015 Scottish Household Survey

Published: 27 Sep 2016
Part of:
Statistics
ISBN:
9781786524416

Report presenting reliable and up-to-date information on the composition, characteristics and behaviour of Scottish households.

287 page PDF

5.4MB

287 page PDF

5.4MB

Contents
Scotland's People: Results from the 2015 Scottish Household Survey
5 Economic Activity

287 page PDF

5.4MB

5 Economic Activity

5.1 Introduction and ContextThe Scottish Government is committed to improving the economic situation and opportunity of people in Scotland, through sustainable economic growth [38] . The Scottish Household Survey ( SHS) gathers information about the current economic situation and the characteristics of individuals and households in different economic activity categories.

The information gathered in the SHS about the current economic situation of members of the household is reported by the respondent to the 'household' part of the interview and may not conform to official definitions of employment and unemployment. The SHS has questions on these topics only for selecting the data of particular groups, such as working adults [39] or those who are permanently retired from work, for further analysis or for use as background variables when analysing other topics.

The official source of statistics on employment, unemployment and economic activity is the Labour Force Survey for Scotland and the Annual Population Survey at a local authority level. Results from both surveys are available from the Scottish Government website [40] .

In this chapter, the current economic situation of adult men and women is considered. This is followed by an examination of the economic situation of working households, starting with the number of working adults within households. In households with adults of working age [41] , the current economic situation is further analysed by gender and whether an adult has a long standing illness, health problem or disability. Finally, this chapter explores the current economic situation of women of working age, specifically investigating the impact of whether there are children present in the household.

Main Findings

Just under one in five (17 per cent) adults had no qualifications, with those aged 75 and over least likely to have qualifications (45 per cent).

In 2015, 51 per cent of working age adults in households earning over £40,000 had degree level or professional qualifications, while only four per cent had no qualifications.

A higher proportion of men (60 per cent) than women (50 per cent) were currently in work. Women were more likely to be in part-time employment than men (17 compared with 5 per cent). In contrast, self-employment was more common among men than women (8 and 4 per cent, respectively).

There was a relationship between the highest level of qualification and full time employment, with those who have attained degree level or professional qualifications having the highest proportion in full-time employment (59 per cent). In contrast, 29 per cent of adults with no qualifications were in full time employment.

5.2 Highest Qualification Level

Table 5.1 shows that the proportion of those with a degree or professional qualification was highest in the 25 to 34 and 35 to 44 age categories (37 and 40 per cent, respectively) and can then be seen to decrease by increasing age group. The proportion of adults with degree level or professional qualifications was lowest for those aged 16 to 24 (16 per cent), but this is likely to be because many adults in this age category were in higher or further education and had therefore not completed degree qualifications.

In contrast, just under one in five adults (17 per cent) had none of the qualifications listed below. Of these, the highest proportion was in the 75 and over age group, with around half (45 per cent) having no qualifications.

Table 5.1: Highest level of qualification held by gender and age

Column percentages, 2015 data

Adults Male Female 16 to 24 25 to 34 35 to 44 45 to 59 60 to 74 75 plus All
Degree, Professional Qualification 28 30 16 37 40 31 26 19 29
HNC/ HND or equivalent 11 11 12 15 15 13 7 5 11
Higher, A level or equivalent 19 16 35 17 17 17 11 7 17
No qualifications 17 18 8 8 8 16 30 45 17
O Grade, Standard Grade or equivalent 21 20 27 22 18 23 16 8 20
Other qualification 3 5 1 1 1 1 9 15 4
Qualifications not known 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 1
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Base 4,240 5,160 750 1,210 1,390 2,440 2,380 1,240 9,410

Links between degree level qualifications and higher incomes can be seen among working adults [42] (Table 5.2). In 2015, as income increased, the proportion of working age adults with a degree or professional qualification increases, while conversely, the proportion with no qualifications decreases (Figure 5.1).

Figure 5.1: Highest level of qualifications held by working adults by net annual household income

2015 data, Adults (base: 6,400)

Figure 5.1: Highest level of qualifications held by working adults by net annual household income

Table 5.2: Highest level of qualifications held by working adults by net annual household income

Column percentages, 2015 data

Adults £0 - £6,000 £6,001 - £10,000 £10,001 - £15,000 £15,001 - £20,000 £20,001 - £25,000 £25,001 - £30,000 £30,001 - £40,000 Over £40,000 All
Degree, Professional Qualification 21 11 14 19 22 29 35 51 31
HNC/ HND or equivalent 6 11 10 13 15 14 14 13 13
Higher, A level or equivalent 33 20 19 20 19 21 20 18 20
O Grade, Standard Grade or equivalent 17 27 33 28 26 25 22 14 23
Other qualification 3 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
No qualifications 21 26 20 17 15 9 8 4 11
Qualifications not known - 4 1 1 1 1 0 0 1
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Base 160 450 880 910 760 690 1,060 1,490 6,400

5.3 Current Economic Situation

A higher proportion of men (60 per cent) compared to women (50 per cent) were 'currently in work'. In 2015, this is demonstrated in Table 5.3, with some of the key differences picked out and displayed graphically in Figure 5.2, which shows that men were more likely to be full-time employed or self-employed, while women were more likely to be part-time employed or looking after the home or family.

Table 5.3: Current economic situation of adults aged 16 and over

Column percentages, 2015 data

Adults Male Female All
Self employed 8 4 6
Employed full time 47 29 38
Employed part time 5 17 11
Looking after the home or family 1 9 5
Permanently retired from work 22 26 24
Unemployed and seeking work 5 2 4
Education/training 7 8 7
Permanently sick or disabled 4 4 4
Other 1 1 1
Total 100 100 100
Base 4,240 5,160 9,410

Figure 5.2: Current economic situation of adults aged 16 and over by gender

2015 data, Adults (base: 9,410)

Figure 5.2: Current economic situation of adults aged 16 and over by gender

5.3.1 Current Economic Situation of Working Age Adults

Table 5.4 shows that men of working age were more likely to be employed in paid work compared to women. Men were employed predominantly either full-time (58 per cent) or were self-employed (10 per cent). Taken together with the relatively small proportion of working age men employed part-time, this means that over seven in ten (73 per cent) adult men of working age were currently engaged in some form of paid work.

In comparison, 64 per cent of working age women were in some form of paid work. However, there was greater variation in how women were employed. Full-time employment was the most common type of employment and accounted for 38 per cent of working age women. However, unlike men, the next most common option among women was part-time employment which accounted for 21 per cent of working age women.

It was relatively uncommon for men or women of working age to be permanently retired from work (5 per cent males; 6 per cent females). This is likely to have under-represented all those who have taken early retirement as some who do so will subsequently take up other employment opportunities.

Table 5.4: Current economic situation of adults of working age by gender

Column percentages, 2015 data

Working age adults (16-64) Male Female All
Self employed 10 5 7
Employed full time 58 38 48
Employed part time 5 21 13
Looking after the home or family 2 12 7
Permanently retired from work 5 6 5
Unemployed and seeking work 6 3 5
At school 2 2 2
Higher/Further education 7 8 7
Government work/training scheme - 0 0
Permanently sick or disabled 5 5 5
Unable to work due to short term ill-health 1 1 1
Other 0 0 0
Total 100 100 100
Base 3,030 3,560 6,590

There was a relationship between the highest level of qualification and full time employment (Table 5.5), with those who had attained degree level or professional qualifications having the highest proportion in full-time employment (59 per cent). In contrast, 29 per cent with no qualifications were in full time employment. This group also had the highest proportion (20 per cent) who were permanently sick or disabled.

Table 5.5: Current economic situation of adults of working age by highest level of qualification

Column percentages, 2015 data

Working age adults (16-64) Degree, Professional Qualification HNC/ HND or equivalent Higher, A level or equivalent O Grade, Standard Grade or equivalent Other qualification No qualifications Qualifications not known All
Self employed 8 8 8 6 11 5 * 7
Employed full time 59 53 45 42 37 29 * 48
Employed part time 12 14 12 15 10 10 * 13
Looking after the home or family 5 6 5 10 7 11 * 7
Permanently retired from work 6 3 4 4 16 8 * 5
Unemployed and seeking work 2 4 3 8 5 9 * 5
At school 0 - 4 4 - 2 * 2
Higher/Further education 6 9 15 4 5 2 * 7
Government work/training scheme 0 - 0 0 - - * 0
Permanently sick or disabled 2 3 3 5 5 20 * 5
Unable to work due to short term ill-health 0 1 1 2 4 3 * 1
Other 0 0 - - 0 0 * 0
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Base 2,040 860 1,240 1,470 100 830 40 6,590

It is possible to compare the differing economic situations of the adults with limiting long-term conditions with the rest of the population (Table 5.6). In 2015, just over a quarter (27 per cent) of adults of working age with a long-standing physical or mental health condition or illness were permanently sick or disabled.

Around a quarter (23 per cent) of working age adults who reported having long-standing physical or mental health condition or illness were in full-time employment. In comparison, around half (53 per cent) of working age adults who did not report having long-standing physical or mental health condition or illness were in full-time employment. Excluding those who are permanently sick or disabled, the proportion of people with limiting health issues who were in full-time employment rises to 31 per cent.

Table 5.6: Current economic situation of adults of working age by whether they have a long-standing physical or mental health condition or illness

Column percentages, 2015 data

Working age adults (16-64) Limiting long- term condition Non-limiting long-term condition No long-term condition All Excluding 'Permanently sick or disabled'
Limiting long- term condition Non-limiting long-term condition No long-term condition All
Self employed 5 6 8 7 7 6 8 8
Employed full time 23 54 53 48 31 54 53 50
Employed part time 10 13 14 13 13 13 14 14
Looking after the home or family 9 4 6 7 12 4 7 7
Permanently retired from work 8 13 4 5 12 13 4 5
Unemployed and seeking work 6 3 4 4 8 3 4 5
At school 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2
Higher/Further education 5 3 8 7 7 3 8 7
Government work/training scheme 0 - 0 0 0 - 0 0
Permanently sick or disabled 27 1 0 5 - - - -
Unable to work due to short term ill-health 6 0 0 1 8 0 0 1
Other 0 - 0 0 0 - 0 0
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
Base 1,320 390 4,850 6,560 910 380 4,840 6,130

5.4 Working Households

In this section the focus is on working households. Firstly, the number of adults in paid employment [43] in households is examined. Subsequently, adults of working age are investigated in more detail.

5.4.1 Adults in Paid Employment

As Figure 5.3 shows, in 2015 for Scotland as a whole, just over four fifths (62 per cent of) households had at least one adult in paid employment. This was made up of just a third of households (33 per cent) containing two or more adults in paid employment and 29 per cent having one adult in paid employment. The remaining households (38 per cent) contained no adults in paid employment.

The number of working adults in a household varied according to the deprivation levels of the area in which they were situated. Just over a half of households in the 20 per cent most deprived areas contained at least one adult in paid employment (51 per cent). In comparsion, over six in ten households in the rest of Scotland contained at least one adult in paid employment (64 per cent).

Figure 5.3: Number of adults in paid employment by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

2015 data, Households (minimum base: 1,910)

Figure 5.3: Number of adults in paid employment by Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation

It is important to note that while these estimates demonstrate that households in the most deprived areas were less likely to contain adults in employment, these households also contained fewer adults and we would therefore expect to see a smaller proportion of households in these areas to have two or more working adults. Furthermore, the figures presented here are for all households that took part in the survey. This means the data presented includes people who you would not necessarily expect to be in paid employment. For example, pensioners, people who have taken early retirement and students are all included. The results have not been broken down further because the SHS is not the recognised source for employment statistics.

5.4.2 Women of Working Age

The final section of this chapter focuses on the current economic situation of women of working age and examines the difference in situation according to whether there are children in the household.

Table 5.4 showed that the majority of women of working age are in some form of work and Table 5.7 shows that the presence of children in the household does not significantly affect this. The 2015 SHS found that 64 per cent of women in households containing children were in work, compared to 63 per cent of those without children.

The main differences between the two groups of working age women were that a higher proportion of those with no children in the household were employed full-time (45 per cent compared with 28 per cent of those where children are present), while a higher proportion with children in the household were looking after the home or family (22 per cent compared with 5 per cent of those with no children present).

Table 5.7: Current economic situation of women by presence of children in the household

Column percentages, 2015 data

Working age females (16-64) Yes, have children No children All
Self employed 5 4 5
Employed full time 28 45 38
Employed part time 31 14 21
Looking after the home or family 22 5 12
Permanently retired from work 0 9 6
Unemployed and seeking work 3 3 3
At school 2 2 2
Higher/Further education 6 9 8
Government work/training scheme 0 0 0
Permanently sick or disabled 2 6 5
Unable to work due to short term ill-health 1 1 1
Other 0 0 0
Total 100 100 100
Base 1,380 2,190 3,560

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