2. Atlantic Salmon ( Salmo salar) - Ova and Smolts
Production survey information was collected from all 26 companies actively involved in the freshwater production of Atlantic salmon, farming 87 active sites. This figure represents the entire freshwater industry operating in Scotland.
Company and Site Data
Table 12: Number of companies and sites in production during 2007-2016
|Year||No. of companies||No. of sites|
In 2016 the number of companies authorised by the Scottish Government for freshwater production of Atlantic salmon increased by one to 26. A total of 87 sites were actively engaged in commercial production, which remained the same as the 2015 figure.
Production and Staffing
Table 13: Number (000's) of smolts produced, staff employed and smolt productivity during 2006-2016
|Number (000's) of smolts produced||40,827||38,125||36,450||36,868||36,872||43,626||44,324||40,457||45,004||44,571||42,894|
|Productivity, 000's of smolts per person||150.6||136.6||138.6||136.5||127.6||148.9||135.1||142.0||145.6||151.6||145.9|
Smolt production in 2016 decreased by 4% compared to 2015. The number of staff employed in 2016 remained the same and productivity decreased by 3.8% to a figure of 145.9 smolts produced per person. Data for staffing and productivity in 2013 are shown, however, there are uncertainties with these data due to consolidation within the industry.
Smolts by Age Group
Table 14: Number of smolts (000's) produced by type during 2004-2016
In 2016, there was an increase (5.1%) in the number of S½ smolts produced but a decrease (13.9%) in the number of S1 smolts produced. There was no production of S1½ and S2 smolts in 2016.
Table 15: Number and capacity of production systems during 2012-2016
|System||No. of sites with system||Total capacity, 000's cubic metres|
|Tanks and Raceways||57||58||55||49||49||51||64||65||47||46|
The principal types of facility used for the production of smolts in freshwater are cages or tanks and raceways. In 2016, the number of farms using cages and tanks and raceways remained the same as in 2015. In terms of volume, cage capacity increased by 45,000 m³ and tank and raceway capacity decreased by 1,000 m³. This resulted in a net increase in volume of 44,000 m³ available for the production of smolts in Scotland during 2016.
Table 16: Number (000's) of smolts produced and stocking densities by production system during 2012-2016
|Number of smolts produced (000's)||Stocking densities (smolts/m 3 )|
The average stocking densities of cages decreased from 51 to 40 fish per m³ in 2016 compared to 2015 while densities in tanks and raceways increased from 562 to 587 fish per m³.
Table 17: Number (000's) of salmon ova produced during 2009-2016
|No. of ova||91,964||91,655||78,208||57,489||56,904||33,450||11,605||13,689|
In 2016, 13.7 million ova were stripped, an increase of 18% from the number of ova produced in 2015.
Table 18: Source, number (000's) and previous year's estimate of ova laid down to hatch during 2005-2017
|Year||In-house broodstock||Out-sourced GB broodstock||GB wild broodstock||Foreign ova||Total||Previous year's estimate|
The number of ova laid down to hatch was 64.3 million, a decrease of 3.9 million (5.6%) on the 2015 figure. The majority of the ova (90.8%) were derived from foreign sources, this being a decrease of 3.0 million (4.9%) on the 2015 figure. Supplies derived from GB broodstock decreased by 0.8 million, a 12.1% decrease on the 2015 figure. No ova from GB wild broodstock were laid down in 2016, however, in previous years the ova derived from wild stocks were generally held and hatched for wild stock enhancement by the aquaculture industry in cooperation with wild fisheries managers.
Smolts Produced and Put to Sea
Table 19: Actual and projected smolt production and smolts put to sea (millions) during 2007-2018
|Actual smolts put to sea||37.8||36.6||38.5||38.5||42.7||41.1||40.9||48.1||45.5||43.0|
|Ratio of ova laid down to smolts produced||2.0||1.7||1.8||1.9||1.5||1.4||1.6||1.6||1.5||1.5|
The figure for the number of smolts put to sea includes smolts produced in England and fish imported from elsewhere, whereas smolt production data relate only to those produced in Scotland. Farmers estimate putting 39.3 million smolts to sea in 2017. The ratio of ova laid down to hatch to smolts produced in 2016 was same as the ratio in 2015.
Scale of Production
Table 20: Smolt-producing sites grouped by numbers (000's) of smolts produced during 2003‑2016
|Year||Scale of production||No. of sites in production||Total smolts produced|
Note: These data refer only to sites producing smolts. The sites holding only ova, fry or parr are excluded.
The number of sites producing smolts in 2016 was 48. The number of sites producing less than 101,000 smolts has decreased by three and there has also been a decrease of five in the number of sites producing between 101,000 and one million smolts. The number of sites producing in excess of one million smolts per year increased by one.
Production of Ova and Smolt by Production Area
Table 21: Staffing in 2016, ova laid down to hatch in 2015-2016, smolt production in 2015-2016 and estimated production in 2017-2018 by region
|Region||Number of staff employed in 2016||Ova laid down to hatch (000's)||Smolt production (000's)||Estimated smolt production (000's)|
|East and South||8||0||950||1,052||1,821||1,358||1,127||720|
In 2016, the North West and the West were the main areas where ova were laid down to hatch. The North West, the West and the Western Isles were the main smolt producing areas. The greatest number of staff were employed in the North West region.
International Trade in Ova
Since the introduction of the EU single market on 1 st January 1993 and the associated Fish Health Regulations common to all EU member states, a trade in live salmon and ova has been established. In addition, the European Economic Area ( EEA) agreement allows trade between the EU and the member states of the European Free Trade Association ( EFTA). Trade is based on the same rules as are established within the EU regarding compartments and zones declared free from listed diseases.
Trade with Third Countries has also been established, but only from sites that have met the same health standards as are established within the EU regarding the approval of farms and zones for listed diseases. Exports to countries outside the EU are subject to the health conditions placed by the importing country. Marine Scotland Science advises potential exporters to ascertain with the importing country any specific health testing requirements that may be a condition of import.
Figure 2: The distribution of active Atlantic salmon smolt sites in 2016
Imports and Exports
Table 22a: Source and number (000's) of salmon ova, parr and smolts imported during 2004-2016 derived from health certificates
|Import Year||Ova||Parr and Smolts|
|EU Member States||EFTA||Third Countries||Total||EU Member States||EFTA - Norway|
The numbers of ova imported decreased by 17.3%. The number of parr and smolts imported decreased from that observed in 2015, with only 1.9 million parr and smolts imported from EU member states.
Table 22b: Destination and number (000's) of salmon ova, parr and smolts exported during 2005-2016 derived from health certificates
|Export year||Farmed origin ova||Total||Parr and Smolts|
In 2016, 361,000 ova were exported. Parr and smolt exports increased by 165,000 fish on the 2015 figure.
Table 23: Number of sites using vaccines and number (millions) of fish vaccinated during 2008-2016
|No. of sites||80||68||70||67||63||63||56||55||47|
|No. of fish (millions) vaccinated||36.7||39.6||42.6||49.2||48.1||47.5||44.7||48.0||42.6|
Vaccines were used to provide protection against furunculosis, infectious pancreatic necrosis ( IPN), ERM, vibriosis and salmonid alphavirus ( SAV). The majority of fish were vaccinated against furunculosis and IPN, with smaller numbers of fish being vaccinated against ERM, vibriosis and SAV. A total of 42.6 million fish were vaccinated across 47 sites.
In 2016, there were no reported escapes from sites rearing freshwater Atlantic salmon.
Email: Lorna Munro, email@example.com
Phone: 0300 244 4000 – Central Enquiry Unit
The Scottish Government
St Andrew's House