beta

You're viewing our new website - find out more

Publication - Statistics Publication

Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey (SALSUS): Smoking Report 2015

Published: 25 Oct 2016
Part of:
Health and social care
ISBN:
9781786525314

Report presenting the smoking findings from the 2015 wave of the Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey (SALSUS).

66 page PDF

4.0MB

66 page PDF

4.0MB

Contents
Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey (SALSUS): Smoking Report 2015
7 Risk and protective factors

66 page PDF

4.0MB

7 Risk and protective factors

Family

A number of elements of family life were associated with regular smoking. These were: family structure, parental awareness of pupil activities, family communication and pupil caring responsibilities (Figure 7.1).

Family structure

Among both age groups, those living with a single parent or step parent were more likely to be regular smokers than those who lived with both parents.

Maternal and paternal awareness

Among both age groups, regular smoking was higher among those who thought that their mother knew a below average amount about what they do and who they are with. The same pattern emerged for father's perceived knowledge of activities, although to a lesser degree.

Family communication

Across both age groups, those who said they would be likely to talk to their family if they felt worried about something, were less likely to be regular smokers than those who would not.

Caring responsibilities

Those who had caring responsibilities were more likely to be regular smokers than those who did not.

Figure 7.1 Proportion of pupils who were regular smokers by factors relating to family life (2015)

Figure 7.1 Proportion of pupils who were regular smokers by factors relating to family life (2015)

Figure 7.1 Proportion of pupils who were regular smokers by factors relating to family life (2015)

Base: all pupils (for full base sizes please see Appendix B)

Friends and leisure activities

Aspects of a pupil's social life were related with regular smoking. These were: the number of close friends, the age of friends, the number of evenings spent out with friends, the amount of their own cash they had available to spend, and the types of leisure activities they pursued (Figures 7.2 and 7.3).

Number of friends

Pupils with no close friends were more likely to be regular smokers than those who had one or more.

Age of friends

Pupils with mostly older friends, or friends of mixed ages, were more likely to be regular smokers than those who had younger friends or friends about the same age.

Number of evenings spent out with friends

The greater the number of evenings pupils spent out with friends, the greater the likelihood that they were a regular smoker.

Amount of own cash to spend

Pupils with more money of their own to spend were more likely to be a regular smoker than those with less.

Leisure activities

15 year olds who spent time reading books, doing a hobby or playing sport, were less likely to be regular smokers. In contrast, hanging out in the street, going to concerts or gigs regularly, and going to a friend's house on a weekly basis was associated with regular smoking among 15 year olds.

Figure 7.2 Proportion of pupils who were regular smokers by factors relating to friendships (2015)

Figure 7.2 Proportion of pupils who were regular smokers by factors relating to friendships (2015)

Base: all pupils (for full base sizes please see Appendix B)

Figure 7.3 Regular smoking among 15 year olds, by weekly activities in order of strength of association (2015)

Q. Here is a list of things that young people sometimes do in their free time, when they aren't at school. What about you?

Figure 7.3 Regular smoking among 15 year olds, by weekly activities in order of strength of association (2015)

Base: all 15 year old pupils (for full base sizes please see Appendix B)

School

Factors relating to a pupil's engagement with school were strongly associated with smoking. The more engaged a pupil was with school, the less likely they were to be a regular smoker. The main factors were: enjoying school, feeling pressured by schoolwork, exclusion from school, truanting and post-school expectations (Figure 7.4).

Enjoying school

The more a pupil liked school, the less likely they were to be a regular smoker.

Feeling pressured by schoolwork

At age 13, those who felt pressured by schoolwork 'a lot of the time' were slightly more likely to be regular smokers than those who never, or only sometimes, felt pressured.

However, among 15 year olds, it was those who never felt pressured who were most likely to be a regular smoker.

Exclusion from school

Pupils who had ever been excluded from secondary school were more likely to be regular smokers than those who had not. 13 year olds who had been excluded were six times more likely to be a regular smoker, while 15 year olds who had been excluded were four times as likely.

Truanting

Truancy was strongly correlated with regular smoking. Among both age groups, the more frequently a pupil truanted, the more likely they were to be a regular smoker.

Post-school expectations

Among both age groups (although to a lesser extent at age 13), those that said they expected to go to university after school were less likely to be a regular smoker.

Figure 7.4 Proportion of pupils who were regular smokers, by school factors (2015)

Figure 7.4 Proportion of pupils who were regular smokers, by school factors (2015)

Figure 7.4 Proportion of pupils who were regular smokers, by school factors (2015)

Base: all pupils (for full base sizes please see Appendix B)

Inequalities

Inequalities related to health and wellbeing had a stronger relationship with smoking than deprivation. These measures were: self-rated health, whether a pupil had an illness or disability, emotional and behavioural problems and mental wellbeing (Figures 7.5).

Self-rated health

Among both age groups, pupils who rated their health as 'bad' were more likely to be a regular smoker than those who rated their health as 'good'.

Illness or disability

Pupils who said they had a long-term illness or disability were more likely to be regular smokers than those who did not.

Emotional and behavioural problems

Emotional and behavioural problems are assessed through the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire ( SDQ) in SALSUS. This is a brief behavioural screening questionnaire that is designed for use with children and young people. The questionnaire contains 5 scales: emotional problems, conduct problems, hyperactivity problems, peer problems and pro-social behaviour. A score derived from the first 4 scales listed provides an overall indicator of emotional and behavioural problems.

Pupils with poorer scores for emotional and behavioural conduct were more likely to be regular smokers than those with better scores.

Mental wellbeing

Mental wellbeing is assessed in SALSUS using the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale ( WEMWBS). This is a scale of 14 positively worded items, with five response categories. The scale is scored by summing the response to each item answered on a 1 to 5 Likert scale. The minimum score is 14 and the maximum is 70. The higher a respondent's score, the better their mental wellbeing.

Among both age groups, those with poorer mental wellbeing scores were more likely to be a regular smoker than those with an average or above average score.

Deprivation

Area-based deprivation is assessed using the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation ( SIMD). This is used to provide an indication of material disadvantage in individual pupils.

Among 15 year olds, the more deprived an area a pupil lived in, the more likely they were to be a regular smoker. However, among 13 year olds, there was no relationship between regular smoking and deprivation.

Figure 7.5 Proportion of pupils who were regular smokers, by inequalities and age (2015)

Figure 7.5 Proportion of pupils who were regular smokers, by inequalities and age (2015)

Figure 7.5 Proportion of pupils who were regular smokers, by inequalities and age (2015)

Base: all pupils (for full base sizes please see Appendix B)


Contact