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Publication - Research Publication

Serious organised crime in Scotland: a summary of the evidence

Published: 8 Dec 2017
Part of:
Law and order, Research
ISBN:
9781788514378

A desk-based review of national and international literature and national operational and mapping data on serious organised crime.

48 page PDF

547.8kB

48 page PDF

547.8kB

Contents
Serious organised crime in Scotland: a summary of the evidence
Footnotes

48 page PDF

547.8kB

Footnotes

1. Scottish Government. (2015) Scotland Serious Organised Crime Strategy, Edinburgh, The Scottish Government p. 6.

2. Scottish Government. (2015) Scotland Serious Organised Crime Strategy. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government p. 18.

3. Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Constabulary (2016) PEEL: Police Effectiveness 2016 - A National Overview.

4. Croall, H. (1998) Crime and Society in Britain, Pearson Education Limited: Harlow, England p. 238.

5. These examples are provided in Croall, H. (1998) Crime and Society in Britain, Pearson Education Limited: Harlow, England p. 238.

6. Stafford, M. Chandola, T., and Marmot, M. (2007) 'Association Between Fear of Crime and Mental and Physical Functioning'. American Journal of Public Health 97 (11): 2076-2081.

7. Scottish Government. (2015) Scotland's Serious Organised Crime Strategy. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government p.7.

8. Scottish Government. (2015) Scotland's Serious Organised Crime Strategy. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government p. 3.

9. Scottish Government. (2015) Scotland's Serious Organised Crime Strategy. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government p.18.

10. For example, as noted in Von Lampe, K. (2004) 'Measuring Organised Crime: A Critique of Current Approaches', in Dyne P.C., Jager, M., Von Lampe, K. and Newell, J.L. ' Threats and Phantoms of Organised Crime, Corruption and Terrorism: Critical European Perspectives.' The Netherlands: Wolf Legal Publishers. '

11. The Police Foundation. (2016) Reducing the impact of Serious Organised Crime In Local Communities, The Impact of organised crime on local communities Briefing 4 p. 5.

12. Tilley, N. and Hopkins, M. (2008) Organised Crime and Local Business Criminology and Criminal Justice, 8 (4): 443-459.

13. Scottish Government. (2015) Scotland's Serious Organised Crime Strategy, Edinburgh, The Scottish Government, 2015 p. 6.

14. Local Government Association. (2015) Tackling serious and organised crime: a local response, Report.

15. Home Office. (2013) Serious And Organised Crime Strategy, London, Home Office, 2013, p.14

16. Nonetheless, it is important to point out the complexity of the transnational organised crime phenomenon, at least in relation to immigration. A Home Office report (2010) identified that many offenders identified as being involved in organised immigration crime (as part of transnational organised crime) may in fact be victims, or may simply be illegal migrants.

17. Bakowski, P. (2013) EU response to organised crime, Library Briefing. Library of the European Parliament. 06/09/ 2013 p.2.

18. Europol. (2015) Exploring Tomorrow's Organised Crime p. 11.

19. Scottish Crime Campus. (2016) Scottish Multi-Agency Strategic Threat Assessment p. 5.

20. Scottish Crime Campus. (2016) Scottish Multi-Agency Strategic Threat Assessment p. 4.

21. Home Office. (2013) Serious and Organised Crime Strategy p. 14.

22. Scottish Serious Organised Crime Group. (2009). Preliminary Findings on the Scale and Extent of Serious Organised Crime in Scotland: Scottish Serious Organised Crime mapping group Mapping Project. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government.

23. Scottish Crime Campus. (2016) Scottish Multi-Agency Strategic Threat Assessment p.5.

24. Scottish Crime Campus. (2016) Scottish Multi-Agency Strategic Threat Assessment p.5.

25. Scottish Crime Campus. (2016) Scottish Multi-Agency Strategic Threat Assessment p.5.

26. Home Office. (2015) Individuals at risk of being drawn into Serious and Organised Crime- a Prevent Guide p. 7.

27. Home Office. (2015) Individuals at risk of being drawn into Serious and Organised Crime- a Prevent Guide p.8.

28. Scottish Parliament. (2009) Criminal Justice and Licensing (Scotland) Bill, Policy Memorandum, Section 28, Paragraph 117.

29. Home Office. (2015) Individuals at risk of being drawn into Serious and Organised Crime- a Prevent Guide.

30. Scottish Centre for Crime and Justice Research. (2010) Youth Violence in Scotland: Literature Review. Edinburgh: Scottish Government Social Research p. 42.

31. Scottish Government. (2015) Criminal Proceedings in Scotland, 2014-2015, Crime and Justice. A National Statistics Publication for Scotland p. 64.

32. Scottish Government. (2015) Criminal Proceedings in Scotland, 2014-2015, Crime and Justice. A National Statistics Publication for Scotland p. 32.

33. 'Criminal careers' is a criminological term which refers to an individual's long term involvement in crime as a source of income.

34. Kleemans, E.R. and de Poot, C.J. (2008) Criminal Careers in Organized Crime and Social Opportunity Structure. European Journal of Criminology 5(1) 69-98.

35. Van Koppen et al. (2010) Criminal Trajectories in Organised Crime. British Journal of Criminology 50 (1) 102-123.

36. Francis, B. et al. (Home Office). (2013) Understanding criminal careers in Organised Crime, Research Report 74 p. 38.

37. Francis, B. et al. (Home Office). (2013) Understanding criminal careers in Organised Crime, Research Report 74 p. 41.

38. Home Office. (2015) Individuals at risk of being drawn into Serious and Organised Crime- a Prevent Guide p. 10-11.

39. Kleemans, E. and de Poot C.J. (2008) Criminal Careers in Organized Crime and Social Opportunity Structure , European Journal of Criminology, 5 (1): 69-98.

40. Scottish Government. (2015). What Works to Reduce Reoffending: A Summary of the Evidence, Scottish Government Social Research.

41. Von Lampe, K. (2016) Organised Crime: Analyzing Illegal Activities, Criminal Structures and Extra-Legal Governance Sage Publications: London p. 123.

42. McIllwain, K. (1999) Organised Crime: A Social Network Approach . Crime, Law and Social Change 32 (4): 301 – 323.

43. Vy Le., Organised Crime Typologies: Structure, Activities and Conditions (2012), Internal Journal of Criminology and Sociology. Law and Justice Research Centre, Australia, 12 121-131 p.121.

44. Local Government Association (2015) Tackling serious and organised crime: a local response, Report p. 9

45. Finckenauer, J. (2005), Problems of Definition: What is Organised Crime? Trends in Organised Crime, 8 (3): 63 -83 p. 65.

46. Hobbs, D. (1998) Going Down the Glocal: The Local Context of Organised Crime. Howard Journal 37 (4): 407-422.

47. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2002) Results of a Pilot Survey of Forty Selected Organised Criminal Groups in Sixteen Countries.

48. Vy Le. (2012) Organised Crime Typologies: Structure, Activities and Conditions. Internal Journal of Criminology and Sociology, Law and Justice Research Centre, Australia, 12 121-131 p. 124.

49. Von Lampe, K. (2004) 'Measuring Organised Crime: A Critique of Current Approaches', in Dyne P.C., Jager, M., Von Lampe, K. and Newell, J.L. ' Threats and Phantoms of Organised Crime, Corruption and Terrorism: Critical European Perspectives.' The Netherlands: Wolf Legal Publishers.

50. Vy Le. (2012) Organised Crime Typologies: Structure, Activities and Conditions (2012). Internal Journal of Criminology and Sociology, Law and Justice Research Centre, Australia, 12 121-131 p.123.

51. Local Government Association. (2015) Tackling serious and organised crime: a local response, Report p. 9.

52. Or alternatively, some new and emerging activities may in fact be neither; instead they may have only recently received widespread public and political attention, and therefore may simply appear new.

53. Scottish Crime Campus. (2016) Scottish Multi-Agency Strategic Threat Assessment.

54. Recognition of this is reflected in the creation of new legislation specifically targeting NPS: namely the Psychoactive Substances Act. This legislation created a range of civil and criminal offences in relation to NPS, covering production, supply, possession, importation and exportation. It also outlines a wide range of penalties for these offences, including fines and custodial sentences. In this sense, this legislation constitutes another means to disrupt SOC while putting in place safeguards for potentially vulnerable populations who may use these substances.

55. Scottish Crime Campus. (2016) Scottish Multi-Agency Strategic Threat Assessment.

56. Casey et al. (2009) Assessing the scale and impact of illicit drug markets in Scotland. Edinburgh, Queens Printers of Scotland. 2009 p. 31.

57. A tiger kidnapping is one which involves the captors not only committing the crime of abduction (kidnapping), but also of captors demanding that the captive commit a crime on their behalf.

58. Scottish Crime Campus. (2016) Scottish Multi-Agency Strategic Threat Assessment.

59. Scottish Crime Campus. (2016) Scottish Multi-Agency Strategic Threat Assessment.

60. Scottish Crime Campus. (2016) Scottish Multi-Agency Strategic Threat Assessment.

61. Home Office. (2013) Understanding organised crime: estimating the scale and the social and economic costs.

62. Scottish Crime Campus. (2016) Scottish Multi-Agency Strategic Threat Assessment.

63. Home Office. (2013) Understanding organised crime: estimating the scale and the social and economic costs.

64. Home Office. (2013) Serious Organised Crime Strategy, London, Home Office, p. 22.

65. Scottish Crime Campus. (2016) Scottish Multi-Agency Strategic Threat Assessment.

66. Scottish Crime Campus. (2016) Scottish Multi-Agency Strategic Threat Assessment.

67. Scottish Crime Campus. (2016) Scottish Multi-Agency Strategic Threat Assessment.

68. The Police Foundation (2016) Reducing the Impact of Serious Organised Crime in Local Communities, Organised crime and child sexual exploitation in local communities, Briefing 3.

69. Scottish Crime Campus. (2016) Scottish Multi-Agency Strategic Threat Assessment p. 8.

70. Scottish Crime Campus. (2016) Scottish Multi-Agency Strategic Threat Assessment p. 7.

71. Scottish Crime Campus. (2016) Scottish Multi-Agency Strategic Threat Assessment p. 5.

72. von Lampe, K. (2016) Organised Crime: Analyzing Illegal Activities, Criminal Structures and Extra-Legal Governance Sage Publications: London p. 123.

73. Campana, P. and Varese, F. (2013) Co-operation in criminal organizations: Kinship and violence as credible commitments. Rationality and Society 25 (3): 263-269.

74. Center for the Study of Democracy. (2010) Examining The Links Between Organised Crime And Corruption. European Commission. p. 34.

75. Scottish Crime Campus. (2016) Scottish Multi-Agency Strategic Threat Assessment p. 5.

76. Home Office. (2013) Understanding organised crime: estimating the scale and the social and economic costs. Home Office p. 9.

77. Home Office. (2013) Understanding organised crime: estimating the scale and the social and economic costs. Home Office p. 19.

78. Home Office. (2013) Understanding organised crime: estimating the scale and the social and economic costs. p. 2.

79. Scottish Police Authority. (2013), 'Item Number 5' Presented By Assistant Chief Constable Nicolson For Approval Meeting SPA Board Meeting December 2013.

80. Home Office. (2009) Extending our Reach: A Comprehensive Approach to Tackling Serious Organised Crime. p. 9.

81. Casey et al. (2009), Assessing the scale and impact of illicit drug markets in Scotland. Edinburgh, Queens Printers of Scotland.

82. Casey et al. (2009) Assessing the scale and impact of illicit drug markets in Scotland. Edinburgh, Queens Printers of Scotland. p. 2.

83. Home Office. (2013) Understanding organised crime: estimating the scale and the social and economic costs. Home Office p. 34.

84. More detail on the SCJS can be provided here http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Crime-Justice/crime-and-justice-survey.

85. Scottish Government. (2016), Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014/15: Drug Use. Edinburgh, Scottish Government p. 7.

86. Scottish Government. (2015) Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey ( SALSUS) Drug use Report 2015, A National Statistics Publication.

87. Scottish Government. (2015) Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey ( SALSUS) Drug use Report 2015, A National Statistics Publication p. 2.

88. Scottish Government. (2016) Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014/15: Drug Use. Edinburgh, Scottish Government p. 39-40.

89. Scottish Government. (2016) Scotland's People Annual Report: Results from the 2015 Scottish Household Survey. Edinburgh: Scottish Government p. 74 and 75 (Tables 4.5 and 4.6).

90. According to the SCJS, this particular time frame is generally regarded as the most stable measure of current drug use.

91. Scottish Government. (2016), Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014/15: Drug Use. Edinburgh, Scottish Government, p.33- 34.

92. Scottish Government. (2016) Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014/15: Drug Use. Edinburgh, Scottish Government p. 12.

93. Scottish Government (2015) Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014-2015 Data Tables, Volume 3, Drug Modules, Demographic Tables, Table 36.

94. Scottish Government (2016), Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014/15: Drug Use. Edinburgh, Scottish Government, p. 52.

95. Scottish Government. (2016) Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014/15: Drug Use. Edinburgh, Scottish Government, 2016 p. 11.

96. Scottish Government. (2016) Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014/15: Drug Use. Edinburgh, Scottish Government, 2016 p. 67.

97. NHS ISD (2016) Estimating the National and Local Prevalence of Problem Drug Use in Scotland 2012/13.

98. For example, in NHS. (2016) NHS Health Scotland , Drugs.

99. Scottish Government (2008) The Road to Recovery. Edinburgh, UK: Scottish Government.

100. Casey et al. (2009), Assessing the scale and impact of illicit drug markets in Scotland. Edinburgh, Queens Printers of Scotland. p. 16.

101. Casey et al. (2009) Assessing the scale and impact of illicit drug markets in Scotland. Edinburgh, Queens Printers of Scotland all p. 16. The authors also acknowledge the problems with categorising users and the limitations of so doing.

102. National Records of Scotland. (2015) Drug-related deaths in Scotland in 2015: Statistics of drug-related deaths in 2014 and earlier years, broken down by age, sex, selected drugs reported, underlying cause of death and NHS Board and Council areas, A National Statistics publication, p. 5.

103. NRS (2017) Drug related deaths in Scotland in 2016.

104. Scottish Government. (2017) Treating Scotland's changing drug problem https://news.gov.scot/news/treating-scotlands-changing-drug-problem

105. Home Office. (2013) Understanding organised crime: estimating the scale and the social and economic costs p. 30.

106. Home Office. (2013) Understanding organised crime: estimating the scale and the social and economic costs p. 31.

107. Home Office. (2013) Understanding organised crime: estimating the scale and the social and economic costs p. 31.

108. Home Office. (2013) Understanding organised crime: estimating the scale and the social and economic costs p. 40.

109. Who were first encountered in Scotland

110. National Crime Agency (2015) National Referral Mechanisms Statistics- End of Year Summary Statistics 2015, Annex C, Scotland p. 22.

111. Scottish Parliament. (2015) Human Trafficking and Exploitation (Scotland) Bill Briefing p. 3.

112. Easton, H. and Matthews, R. (2012) Equality and Human Rights Commission Research Report 82, Investigating the experiences of people trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation in Scotland p. 10.

113. The Police Foundation. (2016) Reducing the Impact of Serious Organised Crime in Local Communities, The role and impact of organised crime in the local off-street sex market, Briefing 2 p. 1-5.

114. Scottish Government. (2017a) Exploring Available Knowledge and Evidence on Prostitution in Scotland in Practitioner-Based Interviews. Scottish Government Social Research. p. 6.

115. National Fraud Authority. (2013), Annual Fraud Indicator p.11. The National Fraud Authority closed in March 2014, meaning it is not possible to provide more recent UK figures.

116. The Police Foundation. (2016) Reducing the Impact of Serious Organised Crime in Local Communities, Organised fraud in local communities, Briefing 1 p. 2.

117. The Police Foundation. (2016) Reducing the Impact of Serious Organised Crime in Local Communities, Organised fraud in local communities, Briefing 1 p. 4.

118. Office for National Statistics. (2016) Overview of fraud statistics: year ending March 2016, Section 2 and Section 4.

119. Home Office. (2013) Understanding organised crime: estimating the scale and the social and economic costs. p. 10 (definitions of 'scale' and 'social and economic cost' are found on p. 6).

120. Digital goods include software, music, DVDs and videos. Digital piracy is the illegal trade of these goods.

121. Home Office. (2013) Understanding organised crime: estimating the scale and the social and economic costs p. 92-93.

122. Home Office. (2013) Understanding organised crime: estimating the scale and the social and economic costs p. 94-96.

123. Home Office. (2009), Extending our Reach: A Comprehensive Approach to Tackling Serious Organised Crime. p. 9.

124. Scottish Government. (2013) Public perceptions of organised crime in Scotland. Scottish Government Social Research, p.6.

125. Scottish Government. (2013) Public perceptions of organised crime in Scotland. Scottish Government Social Research, p.3.

126. Leacock, V. (2014) Public Procurement Reform - a rapid evidence review. Scottish Procurement and Commercial Directorate. Scottish Government.

127. The Police Foundation and Perpetuity Research (2016) Reducing the impact of Serious Organised Crime In Local Communities, The Impact of organised crime on local communities, Briefing 4. p. 3.

128. Scottish Government (2013) Public perceptions of organised crime in Scotland. Scottish Government Social Research p. 6.

129. Scottish Government (2013) Public perceptions of organised crime in Scotland. Scottish Government Social Research p. 5.

130. Scottish Government. (2013) Public perceptions of organised crime in Scotland. Scottish Government Social Research p. 5.

131. Police Scotland. (2017) Your View Counts Survey Policing 2016-2017, Quarter 3: April 2016 to March 2017 , Prepared by Analysis and Performance Unit, May 2017. Although, it should be noted that this survey has some methodological limitations: for example, it is a self-selection survey.

132. Scottish Government. (2016) Scottish Crime and Justice Survey 2014-2015 Main Findings Edinburgh: The Scottish Government p. 63.

133. Media coverage of crime can influence public opinion of crime; some researchers have applied this to organised crime specifically- see Dubois, J. (2002) Media Coverage of Organized Crime: Impact on Public Opinion? (See Bibliography for full citation).

134. All Bullock, K., Chowdhury, R. and Holdings, P. (Home Office). (2009) Public concerns about Organised Crime Research Report 16, Key Implications.

135. All Bullock, K., Chowdhury, R. and Holdings, P. (Home Office). (2009) Public concerns about Organised Crime Research Report 16, Key Implications p. 10

136. Tilley, N., Hopkins M., with assistance from Adam Edwards and Jan Burrows, Home Office. (2008) Business views of organised crime, Second Edition, Research Report 10, Key Indications and Tilley, N. and Hopkins, M. (2008) Organised Crime and Local Business Criminology and Criminal Justice, 8 (4): 443-459

137. PWC referred to the Office for National Statistics' classification to gauge these.

138. Green, M. (2007) Voices of people experiencing poverty in Scotland: Everyone matters? Joseph Rowntree Foundation. York p. 9

139. Shildrick, T., MacDonald, R., Furlong , A., Roden, J. and Crow, R. (2012) Are 'cultures of worklessness' passed down the generations? Joseph Rowntree Foundation p. 31-32.

140. Mackenzie, S. and Hamilton-Smith, N. (2011) Measuring police impact on organised crime: performance management and harm reduction. In: Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies and Management, 34 (1): 7-30.

141. Von Lampe, K .(2016) Organised Crime: Analyzing Illegal Activities, Criminal Structures and Extra-Legal Governance. London: Sage Publications p. 234-235.


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