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Publication - Research Publication

Unconventional oil and gas: compatibility with Scottish greenhouse gas emissions targets

Published: 8 Nov 2016

Research into the compatibility of unconventional oil and gas with Scottish greenhouse gas emissions targets.

92 page PDF

1.8MB

92 page PDF

1.8MB

Contents
Unconventional oil and gas: compatibility with Scottish greenhouse gas emissions targets
Footnotes: Supporting annex on analytical assumptions

92 page PDF

1.8MB

Footnotes: Supporting annex on analytical assumptions

1 P90, P50 and P10 are the estimates provided with the relevant percentage level of confidence. For example, the P90 value is an estimate made with 90% confidence.

2 https://www.eia.gov/analysis/studies/worldshalegas/pdf/UK_2013.pdf

3 http://www.nature.com/news/can-fracking-power-europe-1.19464

4 The reason for the poor performance of the wells is thought to be due to the presence of loam (clay) in the shale; on contact with water the loam swells reducing the gas flow.

5 IDDRI (2014) Unconventional Wisdom,
Available at: http://www.iddri.org/Publications/Unconventional-wisdom-economic-analysis-of-US-shale-gas-and-implications-for-the-EU

6 http://www.ogj.com/articles/print/volume-113/issue-12/drilling-production/study-forecasts-gradual-haynesville-production-recovery-before-final-decline.html

7 It should be noted that the economic life of the well is likely to be shorter than the productive life; therefore the total volume of gas produced from the well is likely to be smaller than the EUR.

8 SGI (2015), Methane and CO 2 emissions from the natural gas supply chain,
http://www.sustainablegasinstitute.org/publications/white-paper-1/

9 Bond et al. (2014), Life-cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Unconventional Gas in Scotland,
http://www.climatexchange.org.uk/files/2514/1803/8235/Life-cycle_Assessment_of_Greenhouse_Gas_Emissions_from_Unconventional_Gas_in_Scotland_Full_Report_Updated_8.Dec.14.pdf

10 The highest in literature is 6,800,000 m3 as estimated by Howarth.

11 Marchese et al. (2015) Methane Emissions from United States Natural Gas Gathering and Processing.
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/es5052809

12 Allen et al. (2013) Measurements of methane emissions at natural gas production sites in the United States. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2013, 110 (44), 17768−17773.
http://www.pnas.org/content/110/44/17768.short

13 Brantley et al. (2014) Assessment of Methane Emissions from Oil and Gas Production Pads using Mobile Measurements.
http://pubs.acs.org/doi/pdf/10.1021/es503070q

14 We assume the average economic life of a well at 20 years.

15 In reality we expect the emission associated with each subsequent workover to be lower due to a drop in well productivity and reservoir pressure.

16 US EPA, Recommended Technologies to Reduce Methane Emissions,
https://www.epa.gov/natural-gas-star-program/recommended-technologies-reduce-methane-emissions

17 This well had 7,500 unloading events per year. It is unlikely that this number of events would be replicable without an automated plunger lift system.

18 We assume that the potential for 'super-emissions' increases as the equipment ages.


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