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Publication - Research Finding

Warmer Homes Scotland - first annual review

Published: 3 Nov 2016
Part of:
Housing
ISBN:
9781786525789

Annual review of our Warmer Homes Scotland scheme, looking at delivery from September 2015 to March 2016.

92 page PDF

3.0MB

92 page PDF

3.0MB

Contents
Warmer Homes Scotland - first annual review
Appendix 1: Draft Specifications

92 page PDF

3.0MB

Appendix 1: Draft Specifications

Bio-Mass Stove without Central or Water Heating

Biomass boilers - Microgeneration Installation Standard: MIS 3004 - Issue 4.0

The sole purpose and intention of this supplement to Scheme Measure MIS:3004 is to create an opportunity for the installation, off gas-grid of a bio-mass boiler as a room heater only. This occasion will normally be merited and substantiated, by the Surveyor to create a workable carbon efficient and fuel poverty alleviating option for a specific customer

There is no direct provision for this within PAS 2030 hence the inclusion of the main MIS 3004 contractual narrative that is essential to ensure that what is created is a safe working installation that simply has no active water or central heating pipework connected at the time of installation and commissioning.

Therefore, this Measure seeks to set out the contractual requirement for contractors undertaking the supply, design, installation, set to work, commissioning and handover of solid bio-fuel room heaters ONLY.

Scope

The details of this Standard specify the requirements of MCS for the approval and listing of Contractors undertaking the supply, design, installation, set to work, commissioning and handover of microgeneration solid biofuel heating systems, and their fuel supply systems and heating systems supplying permanent buildings. The MCS Biomass Working Group is currently reviewing the requirements for the installation of dry biomass systems. Until this is completed and it is necessary to install a dry biomass system, the MCS Installation Company shall contact MCS.

Any reference to wet system design installation of performance are purely coincidental.

Multiple MCS certified solid biofuel heating products may be used in a single installation, but the individual output for a single product shall not exceed 45 kWth as defined by the MCS Product Certification Scheme document MCS 008. All products must meet the requirements of MCS 008. For a summary of product categories see MCS 008.

The Scope of this MCS Installation Standard is limited to installations with a design heat load requirement of up to 70 kWth as determined in accordance with Section 4.5.1 of this Standard.

Solid biofuel as defined in the " BS EN 14961 Solid biofuels - Fuel specifications and classes. Terminology, definitions and descriptions" and excluded from the Waste Incineration Directive.

Design and Installation

The formulation of a written plan and drawings, substantiated by the relevant dimensioning and system performance calculations of this Standard (see 4.5), as well as a specific list of products and fixings to form a completed system for a defined microgeneration technology within a particular building; including extensions and alterations to existing heating systems.

The design (see 2.6) of the bio-mass heating stove, chimney flashings and integral system, shall contain a statement confirming its purpose.

This shall confirm as a minimum that it has been designed and installed to provide space heating for indoor use.

Solid biofuel heating systems and fuel storage systems shall be installed in accordance with the guidance given in Building Standards (Scotland) Regulations Scotland and Health and Safety Executive ( HSE) guidance. Where the legal requirement is more stringent than the product guidance, the legal requirement shall take precedence. Where the product manufacturer's requirements exceed the Building Regulations then these shall be adhered to.

Where the product manufacturer's requirements give additional guidance to the building regulations then these should be followed. Where manufacturer's instructions conflict with the requirement of this Standard, the MCS Contractor shall conform to this Standard unless it can be proven that conformance to the manufacturer's instructions will facilitate a system that is more efficient than if the requirements of this Standard were met.

The competence of staff includes their ability to design and / or install (also see Section 5 for Subcontracting). Many factors such as fuel storage design are site specific at the design stage. Note: Wood stores installed in Scotland need to meet Scottish Building Regulations.

  • If the product is to be installed in a Smoke Control Area, that it is a "recorded exempt product";
  • If the product is to be installed in a Smoke Control Area, under Section 21 of the Clean Air Act 1993, it must be a recorded exempt appliance, showing that it meets the limits agreed by DEFRA for operation of solid fuel appliances in a Smoke Control Area. See http://smokecontrol.defra.gov.uk/

Biofuel appliances used in installations shall be listed under the MCS. Note: see www.microgenerationcertification.org to view product list.

Biofuel appliances and ancillary equipment shall be fit for purpose of the intended installation.

All Microgeneration solid biofuel boilers that are installed within the European Union must be CE marked in compliance with the relevant European Directives.

Specific Relevant Legislation and Guidance

  • MCS 001 - Installer Certification Scheme Requirements
  • MCS 008 - Product Certification Scheme Requirements - Biomass
  • The MCS Solid Biofuel Wet Heating System Calculator (currently in development and will be available prior to the date of implementation of this Standard)
  • The Compliance Certificate for solid biofuel wet heating systems available from http://www.microgenerationcertification.org
  • Domestic Building Services Compliance Guide for Scotland (applicable for building regulations purposes from 1 October 2015) (available from: www.scotland.gov.uk/bsd)
  • BS EN 14961 Solid Biofuels - Fuel Specifications and Classes (available from: www.bsi-global.com/en/Standards-and-Publications/)
  • The Government's Standard Assessment Procedure for Energy Rating of Dwellings (available from: www.bre.co.uk)
  • Domestic Heating Design Guide - The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers ( CIBSE) (available from: www.cibse.org)
  • BS EN 12831 Heating systems in buildings. Method for calculation of the design heat load
  • HETAS Advice Leaflet (1) Using Wood Fuels For A Sustainable Future
  • BFCMA - British Flue & Chimney Manufacturers Association - General Guidance on the selection and installation of flues and chimneys for wood burning and multi fuel appliance in residential properties.

Operational Scheme Notes

The introduction states obvious issues around "active ….. at the time of commissioning" these are set out so that with Warmworks detailed Quality Assurance process photographic records should be included to show that the stove, on final completion and certification was simply being used as a room heater. Why? These units may have closed off or un-used tappings for hot water heat exchangers that are built into a unit but are not used.

The reason for stating this is not to prevent customers or Warmworks future proofing installations but to avoid serious health and safety issues later if a room heating installation is either changed or adapted by a customer and problems, fires or explosions occur due to poor or erroneous works.

Off Gas Grid, Highland and Island Fuel Types

The use of local or nationally available none wood fuels will be an issue in Island and Highland locations. The main peat option will be prepared fully dried and retail packs of extruded peat briquettes: these should be viewed as available fuel source but the sustainable certification of this product may not be readily available.

The use of croft or community generated cut peat, locally dried stacked and ready for use are a local natural resource but carbon sustainable

Notes:

Some world resources suggest that peat may be considered as a CO neutral fuel yet others note the peat has the notable disadvantage of being highly carbon intensive emitting 1.23 times more CO per tonne than coal.

This aspect may require added clarification as an essential scheme query from the Energy Saving Trust or similar organisation.

The International Peatland Society ( IPS) Peat as an Energy Resource

Source: 2001 WEC Survey of Energy Resources published by the World Energy Council

Although environmental aspects nowadays play a central role in social and commercial decision-making processes, they are only a part of the totality, which includes many other aspects. In the White Book on "An Energy Policy for the European Union" the Commission emphasises that in the energy policy of the European Community market integration, sustainable economic growth, job creation and prosperity for its citizens have to be taken into account. An especially important principle of the EU's energy policy is security of supply, as well as social and economic cohesion.

Peat as a local "biomass" fuel meets most of the demands the Commission has set for the energy policy of the European Community. Peat is produced mostly in remote areas where there is a chronic lack of industrial jobs. Powerful tractors typical in peat harvesting can be used outside the production season in agriculture, road maintenance and in wood transportation.

There are three main forms in which peat is used as a fuel:

Sod peat - slabs of peat, cut by hand or by machine, and dried in the air; mostly used as a household fuel;

Milled peat - granulated peat, produced on a large scale by special machines; used either as a power station fuel or as raw material for briquettes;

Peat briquettes - small blocks of dried, highly compressed peat; used mainly as a household fuel.

PAS 2030 Reference Criteria

Please refer to the appended relevant measure reference criteria that should be included within the Warmworks pricing of these items to establish the two-fold delivery and installation tender process.

Smoke and Heat Detectors and a CO Detector should be installed in accordance with the Project Technical Specification

Ground - Source Heat Pump

Microgeneration Installation Standard: MIS 3005 - Issue 4.0

Requirements for contractors undertaking the supply, design, installation, set to work, commissioning and handover of microgeneration heat pump systems

The more common developments in the use of Air Source Heat Pumps and the 2016 review of Permitted Development Rights, relaxing the planning application process by a significant extent that will offer clear financial impetus to see more ASHP units installed by virtue of the added volume and reduced unit prices.

This improvement will percolate slower but progressively to the ground, sea water and inland water loch systems in addition to more recent systems that are utilising old mine shafts and the like.

The core design principles apply to all Heat Pumps and hence there is little difference here for specific ground source units.

The key distinction is that the Ground Source design may be either extensive in its use of land or intensive.

Extensive Method

The first uses coils of pipe work buried some 1.5 metres deep in an open area of land that shall absorb the sun's heat, the ground need not necessarily be left undeveloped, it can be used as car-parking or access road etc. The incidence of these options may offer a possibility in a fuel poverty situation where other supporting community funded improvements may create a new roadway or similar landscaping works.

In an off gas-grid remote area or island setting the ground or sea or freshwater Heat Pump installation may offer a practical option in specific situations.

Intensive Method

This option can be easily retro-fitted around existing properties as it relies upon deep drilled well pipes that contain a flow and return pipe-in-pipe circuit that draws the heat of the ground via a coolant material such as glycol (car anti-freeze).

This option is at its cost of drilling in unlikely to benefit a fuel poverty scheme but may offer a design option where in remote areas a redundant deep well as do exist in some post-war old wind driven windmill-head water pumps that are today redundant due to new water supplies but offer the potential deep shaft capital that might be given a new use.

Scope

This Standard specifies the requirements of the MCS for the approval and listing of Contractors undertaking the supply, design, installation, set to work, commissioning and handover of micro-generation heat pump systems supplying permanent buildings and either linked to the building's space heating and/or hot water system.

Microgeneration heat pump systems utilise different primary heat sources (ground, air, and water sources), each of which requires different design and installation considerations. This MCS Installation Standard includes the requirements for both compression and thermally activated heat pumps, as well as heat pump systems for heating or for heating and cooling. Cooling only systems and direct expansion ( DX) ground-loop systems are excluded from this Standard.

For the purposes of this MCS Installation Standard, microgeneration heat pump systems are defined as those having a design output that does not exceed 45 kW thermal. Multiple MCS certified heat pumps may be used in a single installation, but the individual output for a single heat pump shall not exceed 45 kWth, as defined by the MCS Product Certification scheme document MCS 007. The scope of this MCS Installation Standard is limited to installations with a design heat load requirement of up to 70 kWth, as determined in accordance with BS EN 12831

The Contractor shall be assessed under one or more of the following four categories of heat pump installation work:

  • Ground source heat pump ( GSHP) systems;
  • Exhaust air heat pump systems;
  • Gas absorption and adsorption heat pump systems.

The Certification Body must identify the scope of works that the Contractor wishes to be registered for and undertake the assessment in accordance with this Standard using the clauses relevant to the category of heat pump installation work.

NOTE: It can be deemed that installers successfully assessed on GSHP systems can also undertake work on ASHP systems.

Design and Installation

All applicable regulations and directives must be met in full. Certificated Contractors shall ensure they are working to the most recent documents and have a system to identify all applicable regulations and changes to them.

All work, and working practices, must be in compliance with all relevant health and safety regulations and where required a risk assessment shall be conducted before any work on site is commenced.

All Contractors shall make their customers aware of all permissions and approvals required for the installation. The Contractor shall assess the building using a competent professional experienced in heat pump systems to ensure that the site is suitable for the installation, and that the building will meet the requirements of the building regulations (in particular those relating to energy efficiency) and other regulations applicable to their work during and following installation.

Where required, planning permission shall be obtained before work is commenced. Where work is undertaken that is notifiable under the building regulations, it shall be made clear to the customer who shall be responsible for this notification.

The MCS Contractor shall ensure that this notification has been completed prior to handing over the installation.

The following principles shall be met when designing, specifying and installing heat pump systems. Note: Appendix E provides a summary of heat pump design definitions and calculations.

Heat Pump Sizing

The following procedure shall be followed for the correct sizing and selection of a heat pump and related components for each installation:

  • A heat loss calculation should be performed on the building using a method that complies with BS EN 12831, taking into account any requirements for an uplift factor or allowance for intermittent heating in accordance with the heating system control strategy.
  • Heat loss calculations shall be based on the internal and external temperatures specified in BS EN 12831 UK National Annex adjusted for height and local conditions. Any supplementary in-built electric heater shall be designed to not operate above the external temperatures in Table 2 at the internal temperatures specified in Table 1.
  • When calculating the heat loss through a solid floor in contact with the ground, the temperature difference to be used is the internal design room temperature (Table 1) minus the local annual average external air temperature (Appendix B).
  • When calculating the heat loss through a suspended floor, the temperature difference to be used is the internal design room temperature (Table 1) minus the design external air temperature (Table 2).
  • Table 1 is reproduced from the UK National Annex to BS EN 12831. Customers should be consulted to establish whether they have any special requirements and the internal design temperatures increased if required.

Information about Table 1

  • A heat pump shall be selected that will provide at least 100% of the calculated design space heating power requirement at the selected internal and external temperatures in Tables 1 and 2, the selection being made after taking into consideration the flow temperature at the heat pump when it is doing space heating. Performance data from both the heat pump manufacturer and the emitter system designer should be provided to support the heat pump selection. Heat pump thermal power output for the purposes of this selection shall not include any heat supplied by a supplementary electric heater. Where clauses 4.2.1d and/or 4.2.1e cannot be met, then clause 4.2.1f shall apply.
  • When selecting an air source heat pump, the heat pump shall provide 100% of the calculated design space heating power requirement at the selected ambient temperature and emitter temperature, after the inclusion of any energy required for defrost cycles. Where clause 4.2.1d and/or 4.2.1e cannot be met, then clause 4.2.1f shall apply.
  • For installations where other heat sources are available to the same building, the heat sources shall be fully and correctly integrated into a single control system. A heat pump shall be selected such that the combined system will provide at least 100% of the calculated design space heating requirement at the selected internal and external temperatures, the selection being made after taking into consideration the space heating flow temperature assumed in the heat emitter circuit and any variation in heat pump performance that may result. Heat pump thermal power output for the purposes of this section shall not include any heat supplied by a supplementary electric heater within the design temperature range.

For installations where other heat sources are available to the same building, it shall be clearly stated by the Contractor what proportion of the building's space heating and domestic hot water has been designed to be provided by the heat pump. The figures stated (i.e. the proportion of the annual energy provided by the heat pump) shall be based only on the energy supplied by the heat pump and shall not include any heat supplied by a supplementary electric heater.

Domestic Hot Water Services Design Considerations

Domestic hot water services design should be based on an accurate assessment of the number and types of points of use and anticipated consumption within the property, making appropriate adjustments for the intended domestic hot water storage temperature and domestic hot water cylinder recovery rate.

The reheat time shall be estimated, and then discussed and agreed with the customer. Additional information for assessing hot water use is available: in EN 8558 Guide to the design, installation, testing and maintenance of services supplying water for domestic use within buildings and their curtilages. Complementary guidance to EN 806; EN 806 Specifications for installations inside buildings conveying water for human consumption; and studies conducted by the Energy Saving Trust ( EST) and Department of Energy and Climate Change ( DECC), for example "Measurement of domestic hot water consumption in dwellings (Energy Monitoring Company) March 2008".

For domestic hot water cylinder heat exchanger specification, installers shall follow the heat pump manufacturers' and/or cylinder manufacturers'/suppliers' recommendations. Domestic hot water heat exchangers for heat pump systems tend to require a much greater heat exchanger performance as compared to traditional combustion-based heat sources (i.e. boilers). For coil-type heat exchangers, this usually requires a significantly greater heat exchanger area.

Domestic hot water systems shall incorporate a means to prevent bacterial growth (including Legionella bacteria). NOTE: Further guidance can be found within the Health and Safety Executive Approved Code of Practice L8 document ( HSE ACoP L8).

Specific Relevant Legislation and Guidance

Operational Scheme Notes

The operation of ground source heat pump will require a modestly well insulated dwelling that requires a new low or very low consumption energy source and therefore very carbon efficient system.

PAS 2030 Reference Criteria

Please refer to the appended relevant measure reference criteria that should be included within the Warmworks pricing of these items to establish the two-fold delivery and installation tender process.

Use should be made by Warmworks of the EST (Energy Saving Trust) open public access Green Homes Network which sets out established schemes that have installed working, viable and proven technology that can be visited by interested parties in a series of Mini-Lessons Learned and Case Study Works.

This was one EST resource used to assess the technical viability and practicability of the outline ITT Tender and Procurement process.

Micro-Hydro System

Micro-hydro systems - Microgeneration Installation Standard: MIS 3006 - Issue 2.2a

Requirements for contractors undertaking the supply, design, installation, set to work commissioning and handover of micro-hydropower systems.

Scope

This standard specifies the requirements of the MCS for Contractors undertaking the supply, design, installation, set to work, commissioning and handover of micro hydropower systems. For the purposes of this MCS Installation Standard micro- hydropower systems are defined as those having a design output that does not exceed 50kW electrical and are based on-shore.

Recent developments in small scale hydro-schemes do offer the opportunity to use existing piped or contained water flows including some private water supplies which offer adequate volume of flow and or head of pressure. There is also an inherent misconception that high or significant vertical changes of height is the main or only determinant for a viable scheme. Modern small scale inline turbine units can derive suitable and viable opportunities with very long travel distances with modest low changes in height.

Design and Installation

All applicable regulations and directives must be met in full. It should be noted that regulations that must be applied may be different in England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Some guidance on applicable regulations is given in the guidance document MCS 002. This guidance is not necessarily exhaustive and may change from time to time. Certificated contractors must ensure they have a system to identify all applicable regulations and changes to them:

  • All work, and working practices, shall be in compliance with all relevant Health and Safety regulations and a risk assessment shall be conducted before any work on site is commenced to safeguard against pressures exceeding the pressure rating of the weakest component.
  • To comply with the provisions of the Reservoirs Act 1975 when a reservoir (>25,000m3) is utilised.

Systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with but not exclusive to:

  • the manufacturer's instructions.
  • provision for safe de-commissioning.
  • the current issue of Environment Agency Hydropower Guidelines; or Guidelines for Low-Head Hydropower Installations;
  • or SEPA Hydro Power Guidelines and,
  • the British Hydropower Association Mini Hydro Development Guide.
  • the relevant provisions of BS: EN61116.

The maximum hydro turbine flow rate should be related to the long-term annual mean flow available at the site, and the relationship should be demonstrated. A calculation, or series of calculations, should be clearly presented to explain how the maximum hydro turbine flow rate was determined from the flow data.

The source of the flow data shall be stated and justified in the calculations for the site. This should include a clear statement of the percentage of an 'average flow' year that the hydro turbine would be operating at its maximum flow rate, the percentage it would be operating at a part flow rate, and the percentage of the year the hydro turbine would be shut down due to insufficient flow.

Any assumed Scottish Environment Protection Agency ( SEPA) compensation flows should be clearly stated. The design (rated) flow rate shall be stated to the customer and shall be appropriate for the water course.

Installers shall provide an estimate of average energy performance based on the system design and specification, the flow duration curve and head duration curve of the watercourse.

Installers must list all known SEPA constrictions of system usage on the specific watercourse and include restrictions in the overall performance estimation.

It is incumbent on the installer to explain to the customer that the performance of a Hydropower System in any one year is impossible to predict with certainty due to the variability in the amount of rainfall for location-to-location and year-to-year.

Site Planning

The following issues should be addressed in the design of hydropower systems

  • The EA, SEPA or the NIEA must be consulted at the initial design stage of the development.
  • The system shall be designed in accordance with the current issue of Environment Agency Hydropower Guidelines or SEPA Hydro Power Guidelines and the British Hydropower Association Mini Hydro Development Guide.
  • Depending on the sensitivity of the site and size of the development SEPA may issue:
  • Land drainage consent
  • Impoundment licence
  • Abstraction licence
  • Controlled Activity Regulations ( CAR) Licence
  • Consent for affecting the watercourse and/or flood defences.
  • Engineering Works licence

Planning Permission may be required from the Local Authority

The Contractor shall survey the site using a suitably qualified person and/or a professional experienced in Hydropower Systems to ensure that the site is suitable for the installation and that the civil works will meet the requirements of the building regulations and other applicable regulations during and following installation.

All Contractors shall make their customers aware of all permissions approvals and licences required for the installation. Where required the contractor shall ensure that these permissions approvals or licences have been obtained before work is commenced.

The Contractor shall ensure the customer is aware from the outset that metering will be required if the customer wishes to access certain financial incentive schemes. The contractor will ensure the customer has the opportunity to take account of this when awarding the contract.

Note: for guidance on metering requirements please follow MCS Metering Guidance v1.0, available from the Standards section of http://www.microgenerationcertification.org/

Hydropower Systems shall be listed under the MCS or equivalent.

Equipment shall be suitable for its application and equipment shall have a manufacturer's declaration of conformity for the appropriate standard.

All equipment comprising the hydropower system must be in compliance with the applicable European Directives.

'As new' hydro equipment, which is certificated to the 'As new' hydro product standard may be used.

Specific Relevant Legislation and Guidance

The following list implies the latest edition and amendments:

  • MCS 001 - Microgeneration Certification Scheme - Installer certification scheme document. Available from www.microgenerationcertification.org
  • MCS 002 - Guidance on regulations and directives for microgeneration installations. Available from www.microgenerationcertification.org
  • G83/1 - Recommendations for the connection of small-scale embedded generators (up to 16A per phase) in parallel with public low voltage distribution networks.
  • G59/1 - Recommendations for the connection of embedded generating plant to the public Electricity Suppliers distribution systems.
  • BS: EN 61116 - Electromechanical equipment guide for small hydro installations
  • Health and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974
  • Electricity at Work Regulations
  • Environment Agency Hydropower Guidelines
  • SEPA Hydro Power Guidelines
  • British Hydropower Association Mini Hydro Development Guide
  • MCS Metering Guidance

Operational Scheme Notes

The main options that may apply to a single customer are more likely to arise where the customer's property benefits from an existing redundant feature such as weir of a mill laid, old water supply take-off pipe work, or dam outfall pipe where the dam was previously used for public water supplies but has been returned to the landowner.

The overall scheme design will require significant upfront invested costs to undertake:

  • The SEPA compliance design audit process that in two stages may take three months or 15 months.
  • The required statutory consents can only be applied for on completion of the above audit stages.
  • The need to appoint a design team, usually on a "design and install" basis, this will be developed into the full installation and commissioning process,
  • All the above before that any electrical generation benefits the customer's property.

Scheme Scope may be developed to expand the opportunity to develop a mini-district generation scheme that could create a viable solution in an island or remote area scheme.

The option to derive "true off-grid" electrical voltages at say 12 or 24 volts, which with LED lighting technology and an element of battery storage and the use of selected inverter unit use - the electrical transformer that does the reverse of a battery charger: it transfers 12 volts to 220 volts but has a restriction on the volume of power it can generate. On the basis the in these situations the customer may already make use of a diesel generator to supply higher value power outputs for short duration use to heat kettles, runs ovens or cookers.

PAS 2030 Reference Criteria

Please refer to the appended relevant measure reference criteria that should be included within the Warmworks pricing of these items to establish the two-fold delivery and installation tender process.

Use should be made by Warmworks of the EST (Energy Saving Trust) open public access Green Homes Network which sets out established schemes that have installed working, viable and proven technology that can be visited by interested parties in a series of Mini-Lessons Learned and Case Study Works.

This was one EST resource used to assess the technical viability and practicability of the outline ITT Tender and Procurement process.

Micro-Wind System

Wind turbines - Microgeneration Installation Standard: MIS 3003 - Issue 3.3

Requirements for contractors / Service Provider undertaking the supply, design, installation, set to work commissioning and handover of micro and small wind turbine systems

The MCS guidance suggests that a pre-design period of around 1-year is preferred before a design is commissioned; unless given the size, location and design output can be reliably and justifiably determined by modelling.

Retention of this installation category in a fuel poverty scheme is seen as being inclusive in nature and may in specific circumstances justify support within scheme parameters.

Scope

This standard specifies the requirements the Microgeneration Certification Scheme ( MCS) for Contractors undertaking the supply, design, installation, set to work, commissioning and handover of micro and small wind turbine systems located on dedicated free-standing / guyed towers or building-mounted; supplying permanent buildings; and either linked to the electricity distribution grid or off-grid battery charging systems.

For the purposes of this standard, Micro and Small Wind Turbine systems are defined as those having an electrical output up to 50kW (measured at a wind speed of 11.0 metres per second as defined in BWEA etc).

Design and Installation

Wind Turbine systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with the Energy Saving Trust publication CE72 - 'Installing small wind-powered electricity generating systems', with the following exception and the additional requirements specified in this standard. The scope of CE72 is defined as wind turbines with power outputs ranging from 500W to 25kW. For the purposes of this standard this range is extended to between 0W and 50kW (measured at a wind speed of 11.0 m s-1).

Document detailing and system performance

Annual Energy Production Estimate

An estimate of annual energy production shall be calculated using the standardised procedure detailed below. This standardised procedure is a simple method using freely available wind speed data ( NOABL) and simple tabulated correction factors for the local terrain, obstructions and turbine height, and hence has a relatively high degree of uncertainty. However, it gives useful information, especially where full wind monitoring of the site is not considered financially viable.

As indicated below it is permissible to give estimates of annual energy production based on other procedures in addition to the standardised estimate. However, an estimate based on the standardised procedure shall be given in all cases to give preliminary information about the suitability of the site, to allow comparisons between different systems, and to provide a reality check for any other estimates that may be provided.

For a greater level of certainty, it is recommended that on-site wind speed monitoring is undertaken ideally for at least a year. Note: it may be useful to monitor for shorter periods, especially if the acquired data is then correlated with other sources in order to estimate an annual mean wind speed." In addition to the above standard estimate of annual energy performance, additional estimates may be provided using alternative methodologies or additional adjustment factors in the standard methodology. Any such estimates must clearly describe and justify the approach taken and factors used, must not be given greater prominence than the standard estimate and must have an associated warning that they should be treated with caution if they are significantly greater than the result given by the standard method.

The details of the standardised and any additional estimates of the annual energy performance shall be recorded and retained in the project file.

Electrical connections

The wind turbine system shall be installed in accordance with the latest version of BS7671 Requirements for Electrical Installations and CE72. Note: it is acceptable that BS7671 overrides CE72 in that it does not require the installation of a dedicated circuit to a dedicated fuse way or circuit breaker in some circumstances.

Commissioning

The wind turbine system shall be commissioned according to a documented procedure to ensure that the system is safe, has been installed in accordance with the requirements of this standard and the manufacturers' requirements, and is operating correctly in accordance with the system design. A record of completion of the commissioning procedure for each installation shall be retained in the customer file containing any items recommended by the turbine manufacturer, or in the absence of any such recommendations it shall cover the items in Clause 5 of the Energy Saving Trust publication CE72.

Equipment

Wind turbine systems used in installations shall be listed under the MCS. Equipment shall be suitable for its application and have a manufacturer's declaration of conformity for the appropriate standards & directives.

Handover requirements

At the point at which the micro and small wind turbine system is handed over to the client or as soon as practicable after installation (within at least 10 working days of the commissioning date), the documentation detailed below should be provided and explained:

  • A documentation pack in accordance with CE72;
  • The maintenance requirements and maintenance services available;
  • A certificate signed by the contractor containing at least the following:
  • a statement confirming that the installed wind turbine system meets the requirements of this standard (being MIS 3003);
  • client name and address;
  • site address (if different);
  • contractors name, address etc.;
  • list of key components installed;
  • estimation of system performance, calculated according to 4.3.1;
  • The generic fixing system for the wind turbine and type of construction of the building; structural engineer's report for a building mounted wind turbine or for the
  • Advice to the customer that the customer should advise their insurer(s) of the installation of a wind turbine.

Specific Relevant Legislation and Guidance

In the following list reference to undated publications implies the latest edition and amendments unless a specific date or edition is indicated:

  • British Wind Energy Association Small Wind Turbine Safety & Performance Standard (revision 29 February 2008).
  • CE 72 - Installing small wind-powered electricity generating systems (November 2004) Available from: www.est.org.uk/download.cfm?p=1&pid=336
  • BS7671:2008 Requirements for Electrical Installations (IEE Wiring Regulations Seventeenth Edition). Available from British Standards Institution ( BSI): www.bsi-global.com or The Institution of Engineering and Technology ( IET): www.theiet.org/publications/
  • EN 61400-2: 2006 Wind Turbines - Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines. Available from British Standards Institution ( BSI): www.bsi-global.com
  • G59: Recommendations for the connection of embedded generating plant to the public electricity suppliers' distribution systems. Available from The Energy Networks Association: www.energynetworks.org
  • G83: Recommendations for the connection of small scale embedded generators (up to 16 A per phase) in parallel with public low voltage distribution networks. Available from The Energy Networks Association: www.energynetworks.org
  • MCS 001 -Microgeneration Certification Installer Certification Scheme. Available from www.microgenerationcertification.org
  • MCS 020 - Planning Standard. Available from www.microgenerationcertification.org
  • NOABL (Numerical Objective Analysis of Boundary Layer) database. The national database of approximate wind speeds published by the UK government (referred to as NOABL http://www.microgenerationcertification.org/mcs-standards/external-links

Operational Scheme Notes

The main options that may apply to a single customer are more likely to arise where the customer's property benefits from an elevated position that offers a clean regular and relatively consistent wind.

Scheme Scope may be developed to expand the opportunity to develop a mini-district generation scheme that could create a viable solution in an island or remote area scheme.

The option to derive "true off-grid" electrical voltages at say 12 or 24 volts, which with LED lighting technology and an element of battery storage and the use of selected inverter unit use - the electrical transformer that does the reverse of a battery charger: it transfers 12 volts to 220 volts but has a restriction on the volume of power it can generate. On the basis the in these situations the customer may already make use of a diesel generator to supply higher value power outputs for short duration use to heat kettles, runs ovens or cookers.

PAS 2030 Reference Criteria

Please refer to the appended relevant measure reference criteria that should be included within the Warmworks pricing of these items to establish the two-fold delivery and installation tender process.

Use should be made by Warmworks of the EST (Energy Saving Trust) open public access Green Homes Network which sets out established schemes that have installed working, viable and proven technology that can be visited by interested parties in a series of Mini-Lessons Learned and Case Study Works.

This was one EST resource used to assess the technical viability and practicability of the outline ITT Tender and Procurement process.

Micro-Combined Heat and Power Units

Microgeneration Installation Standard: MIS 3007 - Issue 3.1

Requirements for contractors undertaking the design, supply, installation, set to work, commissioning and handover of a heating system containing a micro-cogeneration package

Scope

This standard specifies the requirements of the Microgeneration Certification Scheme ( MCS) for the approval and listing of Contractors undertaking the design, supply, installation, set to work, commissioning and handover of a heating system containing a micro-cogeneration package. The micro-cogeneration packages covered by this standard are those described in the MCS Product Certification Scheme requirements MCS 014 (see Ref. [7.2])

Domestic micro-CHP systems are currently powered by mains gas or LPG with models powered by oil or bio-liquids possible too. Although gas and LPG are fossil fuels rather than renewable energy sources, the technology is still considered to be a 'low carbon technology' because it can be more efficient than just burning a fossil fuel for heat and getting electricity from the national grid.

Micro-CHP systems are similar in size and shape to ordinary, domestic boilers and like them can be wall hung or floor standing. The only difference to a standard boiler is that they are able to generate electricity while they are heating water.

The Energy Saving Trust, having undertaken detailed research indicate that there are three main micro-CHP technologies that deliver the way in which they generate electricity

  • Stirling engine micro-CHP - This technology is new to the market, although the principal of the Stirling engine is well established. The electrical output is small relative to the heat output (about 6:1) but this is not necessarily a problem for micro-CHP.
  • Internal combustion engine CHP - This is the most proven technology. These are essentially, and sometimes literally, truck diesel engines modified to run on natural gas or heating oil, connected directly to an electrical generator. Heat is then taken from the engine's cooling water and exhaust manifold. The engines can have a higher electrical efficiency than a Stirling engine but are larger and are not currently available for the normal domestic market.
  • Fuel cell CHP technology - This is also new to the market in the UK and globally. Fuel cells work by taking energy from fuel at a chemical level rather than burning it. The technology is still at developmental stage and not widely available to consumers.

As with some of these more specialised technologies these may only become viable where in a remote or island situation more than one customer can combine their requirements to create a viable demand volume for the micro-CHP's output and aggregate grant contributions.

Design and Installation

All applicable regulations and directives must be met in full. It should be noted that regulations that must be applied may be different in England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Some guidance on applicable regulations is given in the guidance document MCS 002 (see Ref. [7.5]).

This guidance is not necessarily exhaustive and may change from time to time. Certificated contractors shall ensure they have a system to identify all applicable regulations and changes to them. All work, and working practices, must be in compliance with all relevant health and safety regulations and a risk assessment shall be conducted before any work on site is commenced.

The areas of competence relevant to the design and installation of heat-led micro- cogeneration package systems in dwellings are included in Clause 5. The following principles shall be met when selecting, designing, specifying and installing such systems.

  • The environmental performance of the micro-cogeneration package shall be equal or better than would be achieved by a boiler using the same fuel. This shall be determined by the method set out in Appendix B.
  • The design of the heating system shall ensure that it complies with the following fundamental assumptions:
  • The micro-cogeneration package is the primary heating system for the dwelling (i.e., it will produce at least 50% of the annual heating and hot water demand);
  • It is acting as a boiler substitute;
  • Water heating service throughout the year is included, unless the package is declared unsuitable for water heating;
  • The package is controlled by heat demand (i.e. it is "heat-led");
  • Heat is never wasted; and
  • Electricity is never wasted, and any that is not used in the dwelling is always exported to the grid.
  • The design of the micro-cogeneration package system shall be in compliance with the micro-cogeneration package manufacturer's specification and shall be clearly documented so that such compliance may be demonstrated.
  • The micro-cogeneration package system shall be installed such that all the manufacturer's instructions are followed.
  • The micro-cogeneration package shall be connected to the domestic electrical installation (in parallel with the mains supply) by following the appropriate guidance contained in the Guide prepared by the Electrical Safety Council "Connecting a microgeneration system to a domestic or similar electrical installation (in parallel with the mains supply)" (see Ref. [7.9]).
  • For new build the Contractor shall provide evidence of consultation and compliance with the requirements of the designers and installers of the building's heat distribution system (and hot water system if applicable) regarding specification and performance to ensure the correct and efficient operation of the system as a whole. This shall cover the selection of a micro-cogeneration package of appropriate output for the building, and the design of heat distribution systems and controls compatible with efficient operation.
  • When replacing an existing heating system, the Contractor shall provide evidence that the micro-cogeneration package selected is of appropriate output for the building, (and hot water system if applicable), and that the design of the heat distribution systems and controls is compatible with efficient operation of the package.
  • The Contractor shall ensure the customer is aware from the outset that metering will be required if the customer wishes to access certain financial incentive schemes. The contractor will ensure the customer has the opportunity to take account of this when awarding the contract.

Note: for guidance on metering requirements please follow the MCS Metering Guidance v1.0, available from the Standards section of http://www.microgenerationcertification.org/

Specific Relevant Legislation and Guidance

In the following list reference to undated publications implies the latest edition and amendments:

Operational Scheme Notes

The operation of this scheme measure will require a degree of fresh thinking to bring the cost profile of the scheme to a workable and viable fuel poverty solution.

PAS 2030 Reference Criteria

Please refer to the appended relevant measure reference criteria that should be included within the Warmworks pricing of these items to establish the two-fold delivery and installation tender process.

Use should be made by Warmworks of the EST (Energy Saving Trust) open public access Green Homes Network which sets out established schemes that have installed working, viable and proven technology that can be visited by interested parties in a series of Mini-Lessons Learned and Case Study Works.

This was one EST resource used to assess the technical viability and practicability of the outline ITT Tender and Procurement process.


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