Certain types of water need special protection, and these are all described in the river basin management plans. Set out below are the measures we have put in place for safely managing:
- drinking water protected areas
- bathing waters
- shellfish water protected areas
- waters affected by agricultural pollution
- waters sensitive to sewage discharges
Drinking water protected areas
Drinking water quality in Scotland is regulated by the Drinking Water Quality Regulator (DWQR), which is responsible for monitoring water quality and enforcing regulations on behalf of Scottish Ministers. We provide technical and logistical support. Find out more on the water industry governance page or on the DWQR website.
The Water Environment (Drinking Water Protected Areas) (Scotland) Order 2013 determined the areas that need protecting as sources of drinking water.
We have published maps showing the drinking water protected areas in Scotland.
Certain areas of water that are popular for bathing are given special protection to ensure they are safe for people to swim in.
We fund the Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) to produce a report on the quality of Scottish bathing waters every year after the conclusion of the bathing season, which runs from 1 June to 15 September.
Further information on bathing waters:
- bathing waters information and maps on SEPA's website
- The Bathing Waters (Scotland) Amendment Regulations 2012
- The Bathing Waters (Sampling and Analysis) (Scotland) Directions 2008
- our bathing water strategy from 2016: Better bathing waters: meeting the challenges of the revised Bathing Water Directive in Scotland.
Shellfish water protected areas
Clean water is vital in areas where shellfish are produced to ensure a good quality product which is safe for human consumption.
We have produced the following:
- regulations for setting the environmental objectives for shellfish water protected areas
- maps of Scotland's shellfish water protected areas
There are 84 shellfish water protected areas in the Scotland River Basin District (RBD), which we identified in the 2013 shellfish water protected areas designation order. We have produced directions for assessing shellfish water protected areas in the Scotland RBD.
Solway Tweed RBD
There is one shellfish water protected area in the Solway Tweed RBD, which we identified in the 2016 shellfish water protected areas designation order. We have produced directions for assessing shellfish water protected areas in the Solway Tweed RBD.
Waters affected by agricultural pollution
Agricultural activity can pollute water with nitrates, which are harmful to both humans and the environment. Areas where groundwaters have nitrate concentrations of more than 50mg/l, or are thought to be at risk of nitrate contamination, are known as Nitrate Vulnerable Zones.
We have established action programmes to reduce and prevent further nitrate contamination.
The Farming and Water Scotland website provides guidance for farmers on reducing pollution risk.
Waters sensitive to sewage discharges
In accordance with the Urban Waste Water Treatment (Scotland) Regulations 1994 (amended by the Urban Waste Water Treatment (Scotland) Amendment Regulations 2003), we fund SEPA to review environmental waters every four years to determine whether they are sensitive to the effects of sewage discharges.
If an area is designated as sensitive, we will take steps to remove nutrients at relevant sewage plants within that area. We have produced maps of all water bodies designated as sensitive areas.