1. 'Figus, G., Turner, K., McGregor, P. & Katris, A. (2017). Making the case for supporting broad energy efficiency programmes: Impacts on household incomes and other economic benefits. Energy Policy, 111(September), 157–165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2017.09.028.
2. Applying the latest construction sector employment multiplier (for 2014) from the Scottish Government input-output tables. The £100 million spend is in 2018 prices. Since the multiplier is expressed in 2014 prices, the £100 million is first deflated to 2014 prices using the GDP deflator before applying the employment multiplier.
3. According to NRS Estimates of Households and Dwellings, 2016, there are 2.45 million households or 2.58 million dwellings. Domestic energy efficiency data presented in later sections is based on the Scottish House Condition Survey (available at http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/16002/PublicationAnnual), which samples occupied dwellings and is therefore calibrated to total household rather than dwelling estimates.
4. The research and development of new approaches for the energy efficiency of these pre-1919 buildings is overseen by Historic Environment Scotland.
8. For example, the lifetime of cavity wall insulation can be over 40 years.
9. In the economics literature, this is referred to as a negative externality, which is a type of market failure which arises when there are costs to society which are not reflected in a market transaction.
10. Figure 25, Scottish House Condition Survey, 2016.
11. Marmot Review Team (2011). “The Health Impacts of Cold Homes and Fuel Poverty”. Available at: http://www.instituteofhealthequity.org/projects/the-health-impacts-of-cold-homes-and-fuel-poverty
12. Hills (2012). “Getting the measures of fuel poverty, Final Report of the Fuel Poverty Review”. Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/final-report-of-the-fuel-poverty-review
13. Cochrane Systematic Review (2013). Available at: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008657.pub2/abstract
14. “Evidence Review of the Potential Wider Impacts of Climate change Mitigation Options: Built Environment Sector”, available at http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2017/01/3358
15. “Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: household energy”, available at http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(09)61713-X/abstract
16. See for example Grey, C. N. B., Jiang, S., Nascimento, C., Rodgers, S. E., Johnson, R., Lyons, R. A., & Poortinga, W. (2017), “The short-term health and psychosocial impacts of domestic energy efficiency investments in low-income areas: a controlled before and after study.” BMC Public Health. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4075-4; and Willand, N., Ridley, I., & Maller, C. (2015), “Towards explaining the health impacts of residential energy efficiency interventions - A realist review.” Part 1: Pathways. Social Science and Medicine, (133) 191-201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.02.005
23. Link to CMA response to Consultation on Heat & Energy Efficiency Strategies, and Regulation of District Heating: https://consult.gov.scot/energy-and-climate-change-directorate/local-heat-and-energy-efficiency/consultation/view_respondent?_b_index=0&uuId=546918900
24. Link to CMA response to Scotland's Energy Efficiency Programme: Second Consultation on Local Heat & Energy Efficiency Strategies, and Regulation of District and Communal Heating: https://consult.gov.scot/energy-and-climate-change-directorate/lhees-and-dhr2/consultation/view_respondent?uuId=896439750