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Publication - Report

Climate Change Plan: third report on proposals and policies 2018-2032 (RPP3)

Published: 28 Feb 2018

This plan sets out the path to a low carbon economy while helping to deliver sustainable economic growth and secure the wider benefits to a greener, fairer and healthier Scotland in 2032.

222 page PDF

2.9 MB

222 page PDF

2.9 MB

Contents
Climate Change Plan: third report on proposals and policies 2018-2032 (RPP3)
Chapter 3 Transport

222 page PDF

2.9 MB

Chapter 3 Transport

The transport sector covers all transport modes in Scotland, including public transport, freight, aviation, shipping, private motoring, active travel and the regulations, policies and infrastructure designed to support all of these.

Where We Are Now

Figure 7: Historical Transport Emissions by Mode
Figure 7: Historical Transport Emissions by Mode

In 2015, transport emissions (including those from international aviation and shipping) amounted to 13.1 MtCO 2e, marginally below the 1990 baseline figure of 13.3 MtCO 2e. Currently, transport accounts for 27% of total Scottish emissions [69] . Within that long-term profile, we have seen significant reductions more recently: since transport emissions peaked at 14.9 MtCO 2e in 2007, they have fallen by a total of 1.8 MtCO 2e, although in the last two years emissions from transport have risen marginally, driven by increases from cars, goods vehicles and international aviation.

The composition of total emissions has changed over time. International maritime emissions have seen the most marked reduction. Emissions from cars fell by 115kt between 1990 and 2015. Light commercial vehicles have seen a growth in kilometres and emissions and there have been increases in both international aviation emissions and domestic aviation emissions.

Road transport emissions

The largest contributor to transport emissions is the road sector. In combination, cars, lorries, vans, buses and motorcycles accounted for 9.6 MtCO 2e in 2015 (73% of total transport emissions). This compares with 9.3 MtCO 2e and 69% in 1990.

Figure 8: Road transport emissions
Figure 8: Road transport emissions

Maritime emissions

Emissions from maritime transport in 2015 are estimated to be 1.4 MtCO 2e, or 11% of total transport emissions. This compares to 2.6 MtCO 2e and 20% in 1990. Within that profile, emissions from international shipping have been volatile year on year, while emissions from domestic shipping have decreased more steadily since 1990.

Figure 9: Maritime emissions
Figure 9: Maritime emissions

Aviation emissions

In 2015, aviation emissions stood at 2.0 MtCO 2e, or 15% of total transport emissions. This compares with 1.4 MtCO 2e or 11% in 1990. Passenger numbers in that period increased from just over 10 million to 25.5 million. The growth in demand of 155% is thus associated with a significantly lower growth in emissions of 43% reflecting effective efficiency improvements, including increased load factors.

In 2015 international aviation emissions accounted for 65% of total Scottish aviation emissions, almost the reverse of the proportion in 1990, when it was domestic aviation that accounted for 61% of aviation's emissions total.

Figure 10: Aviation emissions
Figure 10: Aviation emissions

Rail emissions

At 0.2 MtCO 2e in 2015, rail accounts for about 1.3% of transport emissions. The 2015 figure is 40% above the equivalent 1990 figure of 0.1 MtCO 2e, and rail emissions have followed a generally rising trend over the period 1990 to 2014, dropping slightly in 2015.

Figure 11: Rail emissions
Figure 11: Rail emissions

Active travel

In 2015, 1% of journeys had cycling as the main mode of transport and the average (mean) journey length was 4.7km. For walking, the equivalent proportion cited in the Scottish Household Survey travel diary was 22%, with 14% of adults usually walking to work and 49% of children usually walking to school as their main mode of transport.

Progress Since RPP2

Progress on RPP2 policies

EU Cleaner Vehicle Directives

EU regulations specify average emissions of new cars in 2021 must be 95g CO 2/km. These regulations have been the primary driver of reduced emissions in cars. The annual rate of car emissions reduction increased from 1% per year in the year before implementation to 4% per year in years afterwards. Efficiency improvements in fossil-fuelled cars will likely be significant in reaching the 2021 emissions targets.

Progress on RPP2 proposals

EU Biofuels target as implemented through the UK Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation ( RTFO)

The main mechanism for the promotion of biofuel use, the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation ( RTFO) legislation places a requirement on transport fuel suppliers to ensure that a percentage of all road vehicle fuel is supplied from sustainable renewable sources. A Statutory Instrument is currently going through the UK legislative process that will revise the RTFO – currently expected to be implemented in April 2018. This will cover the period until 2032, and introduce an increasing obligation level; an additional target for advanced "development fuels"; a cap in eligibility of crop-derived biofuels reducing over the period; and will bring renewable aviation fuels and renewable fuels of non-biological origin into the scheme.

Scottish Ministers support the use of this legislative mechanism, which could mean that sustainable biofuel penetration into certain sectors could reach higher percentages than the expected maximum average across the wider transport sector.

Continued rollout of EV charge points through ChargePlace Scotland

We have continued to expand our network of EV charge points since this proposal. The ChargePlace network now comprises over 1,200 charging points, including 150 'rapid' chargers, one of the most comprehensive networks of rapid charge points in Europe.

Switched-on Fleets

Switched-on Fleets offers evidence-based analysis to identify opportunities for the deployment of EVs in each of Scotland's 32 Community Planning Partnerships. Transport Scotland has provided £2.5 million to enable local authorities to buy or lease plug-in vehicles. The first phase of Switched-on Fleets resulted in over 240 EVs being introduced across 50 public sector fleets.

Scottish Green Bus Fund [70] ( SGBF)

There have been seven rounds of the SGBF. Funding amounting to £16.1 million has supported the introduction of 361 low carbon buses to the fleet. The Fund is complemented by the Bus Service Operator's Grant which currently pays an additional 10.1p/km over the standard rate of 14.4p/km grant for services operated by low carbon vehicles.

Ferries Plan

Three diesel-electric hybrid ferries using a combination of battery and conventional diesel power have been procured and delivered within the last six years and are now all operating daily scheduled ferry services on the west coast.

Case Study

MV Hallaig hybrid ferry
MV Hallaig hybrid ferry.

Credit: Caledonian Maritime Assets Ltd.

Caledonian Maritime Assets Ltd ( CMAL) has awarded £35.8 million of hybrid ferry contracts so far.

Three diesel-electric hybrid ferries ( MV Hallaig, MV Lochinvar and MV Catriona) have been procured and delivered within the last six years. These ferries use a combination of battery and conventional diesel power and are now all operating on daily scheduled services to island communities on the west coast.

These include the Sconser to Raasay route ( MV Hallaig), the Tarbert – Portavadie route ( MV Lochinvar) and the Claonaig – Lochranza route ( MV Catriona).

The hybrid ferries procurement has brought a number of economic and environmental benefits, including:

  • Scottish Government investment has secured jobs for people in Port Glasgow and the Inverclyde area.
  • Equipment used in in the ferries has been procured primarily from Scottish companies, where possible.
  • Reduced CO 2 emissions and environmental impact.
  • Able to operate in zero emission mode when at port improving local air quality.
  • The provision of charging infrastructure which may potentially be used by other vessels in the future.
  • Potential future fuel savings depending on the future price of oil.

Use of Intelligent Transport Systems ( ITS) and Average Speed Cameras on the Trunk Road Network

Transport Scotland has utilised ITS to inform transport network users of issues, alternative routes and methods of travel to minimise transport disruption. Variable message signs located at key points along the trunk road network and regularly spaced overhead lane signals advise drivers of incidents and delays. Traffic Scotland provides real time information in response to traffic problems through their website, mobile app and radio.

Development of community based travel planning strategies

Personalised travel planning was provided to over 5,000 households, 49 employers and 2101 staff across 85 schools in 2015 through the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme. Further behaviour change measures, including personal travel planning were delivered under the additional £5 million of funding for SCSP enhanced roll-out in 2016-17. In total, since 2015/16 over £15 million has been invested attracting a further £15 million in match funding and delivering over 450 local initiatives that change people's behaviour.

Cycling and walking

The second Active Travel Summit took place in November 2017 in Stirling and the third iteration of our Cycling Action Plan was published in early 2017, reaffirming the Scottish Government's commitment to the 10% vision of everyday trips by bike by 2020. The Programme for Government 2016-2017 further commits to maintaining record levels of funding to support active transport, such as cycling and walking for the remainder of the parliamentary term, and the Programme for Government 2017‑2018 went further, doubling the annual budget from £40 million to £80 million.

Car Clubs

There are car clubs in 25 locations in 16 Local Authority areas. There are approximately 10,000 members across Scotland, with access to 342 vehicles. 23% of the Scottish Car Club fleet is electric.

Support for Workplace Travel Planning and fuel efficient driving

A new Scotland-wide travel planning site, 'TravelKnowHow Scotland', was launched in September 2016 with 100 organisations registered. In addition, over 20 Business Improvement Districts took part in European Mobility week events. The Energy Savings Trust has trained over 13,400 drivers in fuel efficient driving techniques, which deliver an average 15% improvement in efficiency.

Freight Efficiencies

Annually, Mode Shift Revenue Support enables around 2.5 million tonnes of freight to move by rail rather than road, removing 100,000 HGV road journeys and delivering more than £7 million in environmental benefits. In addition, Freight Facilities Grants funded operations deliver around £3.5 million in environmental benefits. Through the Scottish Freight and Logistics Advisory Group (ScotFlag) and its Urban Freight and Last Mile Connections sub groups, we continue to engage with the industry and key stakeholders to increase efficiencies in respect of urban deliveries and connectivity to intermodal hubs.

Additional Emissions Reduction Potential from Transport in 2025

We will continue to explore and consider alternative proposals and policies to achieve additional emissions reduction potential in transport.

Our Ambition

Figure 12: Transport Emissions Envelopes
Figure 12: Transport Emissions Envelopes

Emissions in the transport sector will fall by 4.7 MtCO 2e (37%) over the lifetime of the Plan. Our ambition is to reduce emissions from transport in ways that promote sustainable environmental and socio-economic wellbeing. To achieve this, we will phase out the need to buy petrol or diesel cars or vans in Scotland by 2032, introduce low emission zones in Scotland's cities to improve air quality and make our towns and cities friendlier and safer spaces for cyclists and pedestrians.

We know that economic and population growth increases demand for the movement of people, goods and services. However we expect the pace of technological change to accelerate, and, together with changes in behaviour, our approach will reduce emissions while encouraging economic growth.

Future abatement will vary significantly across the individual transport modes. The availability of new technology; the cost of implementing technological, logistical and behavioural change measures alongside significant investment in electric vehicle infrastructure; and the return on such investment will all have a bearing on which particular interventions we prioritise.

In Transport, We Will

  • by 2032, phase out the need to buy petrol and diesel cars or vans
  • increase low emission ferries in the Scottish government fleet by: 30%
  • electrify 35% of our rail network
  • introduce low emission zones in Scotland's four biggest cities
  • new infrastructure, improvements in technology and behavior change will be the main drivers for success

The role of technology

In exploring the potential impact of future technologies and fuels on emissions, Transport Scotland commissioned and published research produced independently [71] . The report (Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Potential in the Scottish Transport Sector from Recent Advances in Transport Fuels and Fuel Technologies, 2017) was used to provide the technological underpinning of our policy development and informed the broader TIMES modelling work on transport.

In general terms, the research demonstrated two key things: first, that the natural pace of technological change is likely to deliver substantial abatement without further government intervention; and secondly, that it is possible to accelerate the pace of such change further by targeted interventions.

The importance of the climate change agenda means we must focus our efforts and resources on where there will be the biggest impact in reducing emissions, and where there is technological potential to underpin these efforts. Our behaviour change initiatives (such as our Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme [72] ) have been designed to complement technological change, with one adding value to the other. These initiatives will deliver improvements in urban infrastructure and greater integration between transport modes, particularly in urban areas. These developments were strongly supported in the programme of Climate Conversations [73] .

On the basis of this and other work, the Scottish Government has identified key technological, economic and commercial trends which will form the baseline against which to measure future policy interventions, whether in relation to technology or behaviour change. The Scottish Government will continue to collect and interpret such baseline data. For example, air passenger numbers will be one data source that will allow us to evaluate the impact of changes to Air Departure Tax (currently thought to be marginal in emissions terms and easily offset by other policy interventions).

Traffic growth assumptions

Transport Scotland's Transport Model for Scotland ( TMfS) forecast a 27% growth in car kilometres between 2015 and 2035. The key assumptions underpinning this growth forecast are:

  • Growth in the population and economy – cumulative 10% growth in population on 2012 levels by 2037 and an increase in GVA of 25% by 2032 (a rate of 1.5% GVA per annum). Higher incomes result in more travel opportunities for people, including increased car growth.
  • Number of trips per person stays the same.
  • New homes and businesses are built where permitted, on the most accessible land first.
  • No fundamental change in behaviour – for example, the desire to own a car or have a driving licence.
  • Fuel prices will remain stable, but not constant and parking costs remain constant in real terms. Public transport fares will be stable following the rail pricing model.
  • Only committed improvements in road and rail capacity are included in the model.
  • All travel time is assumed to be as productive as it was when the model was calibrated.
  • The 27% growth assumption assumes no change in behaviour between now and 2035. However, the measures outlined in this Plan are designed to encourage behaviour change where possible across the Scottish population. These measures, combined with our approach of encouraging technological innovation and development, will allow us to accommodate increased population, economic growth and travel demand while reducing emissions.

Element energy

The assumptions outlined in the following sections – on cars, road freight, shipping and aviation – are based on analysis commissioned from Element Energy.

Cars

With petrol and diesel cars, we expect fuel efficiency improvements of 30% – 40% by 2035; and with hybrids and electric vehicles we expect battery costs to halve and their performance to double incrementally over the period to 2035, with a step change in market penetration from 2020 onwards driven primarily by decreasing costs of electric vehicles.

Road freight

With conventional HGVs, efficiency improvements of around 25% are possible by 2035, based on improved aerodynamics, transmissions and operations. Low carbon HGVs (such as diesel-electric hybrid and liquid natural gas) will become more common from the mid-2020s.

Shipping

We might expect up to a 35% improvement in the efficiency of new, larger shipping by 2035, based on hybrid and gas-powered engines, battery-electric engines, and the potential use of assistive technology, such as sails, kites, rotors and aerofoil hulls. Gradual uptake and stock differences mean that this may equate to 10% at the fleet level.

Aviation

We might expect to see a 15% improvement in the efficiency of new aircraft by 2035, based on fleet modernisation, operational improvements, and improved aerodynamics and fabrication techniques (such as the use of composites). Step changes may occur in the 2030s and beyond, based on new engine technology (such as open rotors) and new aircraft designs (such as blended wing technology).

Policy implications

The Element Energy analysis [74] underpinning these brief summaries suggests that technological change will be transformational, significantly reducing emissions while incorporating growth in the economy and population. Supporting such change remains a high priority and forms the basis of our approach as this will have the greatest impact in terms of reducing emissions.

Our research indicates that road transport can contribute the highest level of abatement, essentially because its high share of emissions is matched by the relative availability of technological and behaviour change interventions.

We have focused our policy actions on encouraging increased uptake of new technologies, particularly for road transport as that is where research suggests the greatest impact can be made. This includes greater support for electric vehicles to end the need to purchase a petrol or diesel car or van by 2032, further support for greening the bus fleet and improving the efficiency of road freight.

Transport in 2032

Transport emissions will fall by 4.7 MtCO 2e (37%) over the lifetime of the Plan.

We will have phased out the need to purchase petrol or diesel powered cars or vans by 2032 – with low emission cars and vans being the norm – and a third of the ferries owned by the Scottish Government will be low carbon. We expect that aircraft fleets will be on the cusp of radical new designs; and ground operations at airports and ports will already involve low carbon solutions.

Low emission zones in Scotland's major cities will see air quality noticeably improved; and we will be enjoying the social, health and economic benefits from better transport systems.

By 2050, Scotland will be free from harmful tailpipe emissions from land transport, with other transport modes decarbonising at a slower pace, resulting in a significant reduction in overall transport emissions.

By 2032, we expect fully functioning market solutions for low carbon transport. Freight infrastructure will feature more efficient HGVs operating from out-of-town consolidation centres. Plug-in vehicles will be commonplace, with improved battery technology providing longer ranges and infrastructure supporting both electric and hydrogen powered vehicles.

For major transport infrastructure projects, the Scottish Transport Appraisal Guidance [75] will consider the impact of potential transport infrastructure options against a range of criteria, including the environment.

Journeys made on our road network will be more efficient due to the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (designed to improve the flow of traffic), increased uptake of fuel efficient driver training and widespread use of electric vehicles.

Low emission zones in Scottish cities will limit the access of vehicles that exceed emissions benchmarks, while permitting unrestricted access for low emission cars, vans and buses, as well as smaller goods vehicles relaying goods from consolidation centres.

Low emission vehicles will also play a role in the wider energy system. Electric and hydrogen vehicles will have a role in energy storage. The adoption of smart technologies could allow battery electric vehicles to play a wider role in balancing the grid.

Policy Outcomes, Policies, Development Milestones and Proposals

Policy outcome 1:

Average emissions per kilometre of new cars and vans registered in Scotland to reduce in line with current and future EU/ UK vehicle emission standards.

There are four policies, one policy development milestone and two proposals that will contribute to the delivery of policy outcome 1.

Policies which contribute to the delivery of policy outcome 1

1) With the EU and UK, negotiate stretching emission standards for new cars (and vans) beyond 2020 (and 2021).

Vehicle emission standards are currently set at a European level. Vehicle efficiencies have improved considerably over recent years driven in large part by existing EU emission standards. The current standards specify that the average emission of new cars must be 95g/ CO 2/km and for new vans 147g/ CO 2/km by 2020 (2021). We will work with the EU and UK Government to press for strong future emissions standards beyond those currently in place.

2) With the UK, negotiate Vehicle Excise Duty differentials between ultra-low emission vehicles ( ULEVs) and diesel/petrol vehicles to support and encourage the uptake of ULEVs.

Vehicle Excise Duty ( VED) differentials are in place for lower emission vehicles compared to higher emitting petrol and diesel vehicles. Zero emission vehicles are exempt with a graded scale of differential for vehicles up to 100g/ CO 2/km. Changes coming into force on 1 April 2018 may impact on the adoption of low carbon vehicles as only zero emission vehicles will have reduced VED after year one of the vehicles life. It will be important to maintain this VED differential into the 2020s as although the total cost of ownership premium between a ULEV and petrol or diesel vehicle is likely to decrease in this period, some level of premium will remain.

VED is set by the UK Government, and we will continue to work with them and press the need for a VED differential for ULEVs through the 2020s.

3) With the UK, negotiate biofuels policies that will enable them to be used sustainably in the decarbonisation of the whole transport sector.

The EU biofuels target is implemented in the UK through the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation ( RTFO) legislation, which is in the process of being revised and will ensure that biofuels from sustainable feedstocks and renewable fuels of non-biological origin (such as electrolytic hydrogen made using renewable energy) will make up a growing proportion of transport fuel and enable them to be used most effectively as a finite resource in the decarbonisation of transport.

4) Continue to support fuel-efficient driver training until at least March 2019.

We will continue to fund fuel efficient driver training, improving fuel efficiency in petrol and diesel cars, range in electric vehicles and encouraging safer driving. Almost 6,000 drivers completed training between 2014 and 2016.

Policy development milestone

1) With local authorities and others, evaluate the scope for incentivising more rapid uptake of electric and ultra-low emission cars and vans, through public procurement policies and preferential local incentives (such as access management and parking policies).

Procurement policies can be used to increase penetration of ULEVs through direct procurement by the public sector or by setting contract conditions for companies operating services for local authorities.

Since 2014, Transport Scotland's Switched On Fleets initiative has provided £3.5 million to enable Scottish local authorities and their community planning partners to introduce an estimated 350 new electric cars and vans into the Scottish public sector fleet. There is potential to build on this strong foundation by strengthening public procurement policies in Scotland to positively favour ULEVs.

We will therefore work with Scotland Excel, COSLA and others to determine whether a new procurement policy could be introduced in Scotland which introduces a presumption that all new vehicles purchased by public sector organisations in Scotland are ULEVs, unless there are operational or technical reasons for not doing so. We will also encourage the public sector in advance of this work to set contract conditions for their suppliers, specifying the requirement for ULEV use. We will align this to the work on the Programme for Government 2017‑2018 commitments on EVs.

Policy proposals which contribute to the delivery of policy outcome 1

1) Collaborate with a local authority to model reductions in congestion and improvements in use of public transport, in possible association with a low emission zone.

Engagement, including with local authorities, on the National Transport Strategy ( NTS) began in 2017 and the strategy will be published in 2019. More formal engagement is being delivered through workings groups, such as the Greener and Healthier working group. We have also begun collaborating with local authorities in advance of the implementation of low emission zones in Glasgow and Edinburgh through the creation of a Low Emission Zone Leadership Group and will continue to work with them over the coming months.

2) Introduce low emission zones ( LEZs) into Scotland's four biggest cities between 2018 and 2020 and into other Air Quality Management Areas by 2032 where the National Low Emissions framework appraisals advocate such mitigation.

LEZs set an environmental limit on certain road spaces, allowing access to only the cleanest vehicles. We will work in partnership with local authorities and regional transport partnerships to deliver LEZs that are well designed to consistent national standards. The National Low Emissions Framework document will set the framework within which LEZs are introduced and will be published in line with the commitments of the Cleaner Air for Scotland strategy.

Relative significance of policies, policy development milestones and proposals to the delivery of policy outcome 1

Outcome 1 will account for a significant proportion of overall emissions reduction, as cars currently emit 43% of all transport emissions.

Monitoring

Policy output indicator for policy outcome 1

1) Average emissions of new cars registered in Scotland have continued to reduce in line with EU/ UK standards.

2) Average emissions of new vans registered in Scotland have continued to reduce in line with EU/ UK standards.

3) Annual share of biofuels as a percentage of total petrol and diesel sales in the UK.

Year 2018 2019 2020 2021
Total change in average gCO 2e/ km (cars) 107 103 99 95
Total change in average gCO 2e/ km (vans) 165 156 147 -
Biofuels as % of total petrol and diesel sales* n/a n/a n/a n/a

*At the time of publication, the UK Government is taking a Statutory Instrument through the UK Parliament to amend the RTFO system, which will likely result in new targets being set in this area.

Implementation indicators for policy outcome 1:

1) Average emissions per kilometre of cars and vans registered in Scotland.

2) The outcome of changes in VED at each budget.

3) Negotiations regarding biofuels are ongoing within the context of an EU framework. Scotland has engaged in the development of the approach.

4) Number of individuals and organisations who have completed fuel efficient driver training.

Policy outcome 2:

Proportion of ultra-low emission new cars and vans registered in Scotland annually to reach 100% by 2032.

There are eight policies and four proposals that will contribute to the delivery of policy outcome 2.

Policies which contribute to the delivery of policy outcome 2

1) With the EU and UK, negotiate stretching emission standards for new cars (and vans) beyond 2020.

Vehicle emission standards are currently set at a European level. Vehicle efficiencies have improved considerably over recent years driven in large part by existing EU emission standards. The current standards specify that the average emission of new cars in 2021 must be 95g/ CO 2/km and for new vans 147g/ CO 2/km by 2020. We will work with the EU and UK Government to press for strong future emissions standards beyond those currently in place.

2) With the UK, negotiate Vehicle Excise Duty differentials between ultra-low emission vehicles ( ULEVs) and diesel/petrol vehicles to support and encourage the uptake of ULEVs.

VED differentials are in place for lower emission vehicles compared to higher emitting petrol and diesel vehicles. Zero emission vehicles are exempt with a graded scale of differential for vehicles up to 100g/ CO 2/km. Changes that came into force on 1 April 2017 may impact on the adoption of low carbon vehicles as only zero emission vehicles will have reduced VED after year one of the vehicles' life. It will be important to maintain this VED differential into the 2020s as although the total cost of ownership premium between a ULEV and petrol or diesel vehicle is likely to decrease in this period, some level of premium will remain.

VED is set by the UK Government, and we will continue to press the need for a VED differential for ULEVs through the 2020s.

3) Enhance the capacity of the electric vehicle charging network (ChargePlace Scotland):

  • continue to grow the network up to 2022
  • provide support for home charge points for consumers
  • provide support for workplace charge points
  • work with each of our delivery partners to create Scotland's 'Electric A9', including charging points along the route and demonstrating that electric vehicles offer important advantages to motorists in rural and urban Scotland
  • provide funding for towns and cities to become 'Switched On' – working with partners, local authorities will get funding to meet local EV transition needs such as supporting charging initiatives for tenements and EV incentives.

Given the importance of an extensive and reliable EV charging network across Scotland to enable the widespread adoption of EVs, Transport Scotland will continue to provide funding to support the ongoing expansion of the EV charging network. Transport Scotland will also continue to support the installation of domestic and workplace charge points and work with partners to identify solutions for households without off street charging.

The composition of this funding package will be reviewed annually to ensure funding is deployed in such a way as to maximise support for EV uptake. A review will be undertaken before August 2019 prior to the end of the current agreement with our network operator, ChargeYourCar. Delivery of this policy will be supported by changes to the Scottish planning system, such as no longer needing planning permission for on-street charging points.

Case Study

An electric vehicle being charged at one of ChargePlace Scotland's network of charge points
An electric vehicle being charged at one of ChargePlace Scotland's network of charge points

Credit: ChargePlace Scotland

In ChargePlace Scotland [76] , we already have one of the most comprehensive EV charging networks in Europe, with over 800 public charge points. This includes over 175 rapid chargers which can charge a vehicle in as little as 20 – 30 minutes.

Since 2012, the Scottish Government has invested approximately £15 million in the development of this network. This has been done in partnership with all 32 Scottish local authorities and the Energy Saving Trust, developing and strengthening the network to ensure EV drivers have the confidence to complete their journeys without experiencing 'range anxiety'. A host is the designated owner of the charge points they have installed and are also responsible for their maintenance and general upkeep.

The ChargePlace Scotland network is operated on behalf of the Scottish Government through a procured framework agreement. The charging infrastructure is one part of an integrated package of incentives to accelerate the uptake of electric vehicles in Scotland.

4) Provide interest-free loans through the Energy Saving Trust to enable the purchase of EVs by both consumers and businesses until at least March 2020.

In addition to the UK Government's plug-in car and van grant, Transport Scotland is providing over £8.2 million of funding to the Energy Saving Trust ( EST) in 2017-2018 for a Low Carbon Transport Loan Scheme for both consumers and businesses. Currently, individuals can apply for a loan of up to £35,000 to cover the cost of purchasing an EV, while businesses can apply for a loan of up to £100,000, which can be used towards a wide range of measures to reduce the business' transport footprint (including the purchase of ULEVs of up to £35,000 per vehicle). Current loan provision will continue until at least March 2020 and will be reviewed on a yearly basis.

5) With local authorities, review licensing regulations and consider introducing incentives to promote the uptake of ULEVs in the taxi and private hire sector, with loan funding for vehicle purchase until at least March 2020.

There are more than 20,000 taxis and private hire cars in Scotland, offering potential for increased adoption of EVs. Transport Scotland will continue to fund the EST's Low Carbon Transport Loan which offers an interest-free loan of up to £100,000 to businesses including licensed taxi and private hire operators to encourage them to switch to EVs. In addition, 'Hackney cab' operators can apply for a loan to replace vehicles that are at least eight years old with a lower emission alternative. Transport Scotland will also consider expanding the loan scheme to include ultra-low emission 'Hackney cabs' when they are available to buy.

Following extensive engagement over recent years, almost all of Scotland's local authorities now allow EVs to be licensed as taxis and private hire vehicles. We will work with the EST to encourage the remaining local authorities to review their interpretation of licensing regulations, learning from areas such as Dundee and Edinburgh where EVs are already being used as taxis or private hire vehicles.

6) Promote the benefits of EVs to individuals and fleet operators (exact nature of promotion to be decided annually).

A combination of the Scottish Government's Greener Scotland marketing campaigns, major annual events such as Greenfleet Scotland/Evolution and a series of EV road shows have enabled engagement with a significant number of individuals and businesses. This engagement has focused on promoting EV benefits, dispelling myths and providing test drives in a wide range of vehicles. This will help normalise the EV driving experience and help dispel range anxiety for many drivers.

This activity will continue with the exact nature and composition of the communication and marketing initiatives being determined on an annual basis to ensure maximum level of engagement from the available budget.

7) We will support the public sector to lead the way in transitioning to EVs, putting in place procurement practices that encourage EVs.

Procurement policies can be used to increase penetration of ULEVs through direct procurement by the public sector or by setting contract conditions for companies operating services for local authorities.

Between 2014‑2017 Transport Scotland's Switched On Fleets initiative has provided £3.5 million to enable Scottish local authorities and their community planning partners to introduce an estimated 350 new electric cars and vans in the Scottish public sector fleet. There is potential to build on this strong foundation by strengthening public procurement policies in Scotland to positively favour ULEVs.

We will therefore work with Scotland Excel, COSLA and others to determine whether a new procurement policy could be introduced in Scotland which introduces a presumption that all new vehicles purchased by public sector organisations in Scotland are ULEVs, unless there are operational or technical reasons for not doing so. We will also encourage the public sector in advance of this work to set contract conditions for their suppliers, specifying the requirement for ULEV use.

8) We will establish by 2019 an innovation fund to support innovation in business, academia and industry around EV adoption.

We will provide financial support for local solutions and small scale research and development to address the particular challenges to expanding the charging infrastructure in Scotland, such as in tenement properties and capitalising on opportunities such as better linking electric vehicles with renewable energy storage systems in Scotland.

Policy proposals which contribute to the delivery of policy outcome 2

1) Consider draft proposals in the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive ( EPBD), relating to the provision of EV charge points/wiring in new residential and commercial developments. Investigate how such measures could potentially be trialled in Scotland and consider developing guidance on charge point provision to support planning authorities.

The review of the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive ( EPBD), contains proposals regarding the provision of pre-cabling and charging points in new residential and non-residential developments respectively (and those undergoing major renovations). Building on this work, the Scottish Government will consider the draft proposals in the EPBD, and investigate undertaking a trial with a developer in Scotland. The outputs of any trial would help shape a potential national rollout of such provisions.

2) In advance of a decision as to whether charging points will be a feature of building standards, Transport Scotland will consider developing guidance on charge points to support planning authorities.

Scotland's Statutory National Planning Framework 3 [77] and non-statutory Scottish Planning Policy [78] (both published 2014) recognise and support the rollout of plug-in vehicles and the charging infrastructure. Scottish Planning Policy is clear that electric vehicle charge points should always be considered as part of any new development and provided where appropriate. The National Planning Framework and Scottish Planning Policy are anticipated to be subject to review from 2018.

3) Continue to investigate the role that other alternative fuels, such as hydrogen, gas and biofuel can play in the transition to a decarbonised road transport sector. Consider the scope for market testing approaches to alternative fuels infrastructure and supply.

Building on our investment in both the Aberdeen H2 bus project and the Levenmouth community energy project, we will continue to work with key partners to investigate the use of hydrogen as a transport fuel, as well as exploring wider environmental and economic opportunities of using hydrogen for energy applications, especially in promoting renewables, energy balancing and storage.

We will also continue to engage with our partners, including fuel supply companies, local authorities and developers on the role lower carbon intensive fuels such as liquid petroleum gas, compressed natural gas and biofuels can play in the transition towards a near zero emission road transport sector by 2050.

4) Work with Scottish Enterprise, the UK Government, and other bodies to investigate the potential to undertake trials of connected and autonomous vehicles in Scotland.

Over the next few years, advances in connected and automated vehicle technology will likely have an impact on our transport system with the potential to deliver major benefits: fewer crashes on our roads; freedom to travel for those who currently find that difficult; more efficient road networks that are safer, smoother and swifter; reduced environmental impact; and new jobs in the technology and automotive sectors. We want to make sure that Scotland is prepared for this potential transformation. We will work with partners and investigate the possibility of Scotland hosting large scale autonomous and connected vehicle trials.

Relative significance of policies, policy development milestones and proposals to the delivery of policy outcome 2

Policy outcome 2 will account for a significant proportion of overall emissions reduction, as cars currently emit 43% of all transport emissions.

The proposals and policies under policy outcome 2 are focused on removing some of the key domestic barriers identified to a more rapid take-up of, in particular, battery electric vehicles. There is a strong read across to the measures in policy outcome 1.

Monitoring

Policy output indicators for policy outcome 2

1) Percentage of grant funding for charge points utilised each year.

2) Percentage of charge point installs completed each year.

3) Annual utilisation of the CPS network.

Year 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032
Total % share of car sales that are classified as low emissions 2.1 3.6 4.7 6.1 7.8 10.1 13.0 16.8 21.7 28.0 36.1 46.6 60.1 77.5 100.0
Total % share of van sales that are classified as low emissions 0.7 1.0 1.4 2.0 2.9 4.1 5.8 8.3 11.9 16.9 24.1 34.4 49.1 70.1 100.0

Implementation indicators for policy outcome 2

1) Percentage of grant funding for publically available charge point installations that is utilised each financial year.

2) Percentage of grant funding for domestic/workplace charge point installations that is utilised each financial year.

3) Percentage of publically available charge point installs that are completed each financial year.

4) Percentage of domestic/workplace charge point installs that are completed each financial year.

Policy outcome 3:

Average emissions per tonne kilometre of road freight to fall by 28% by 2032.

There are four policies and two proposals which will contribute to the delivery of policy outcome 3.

Policies which contribute to the delivery of policy outcome 3

1) With the EU and UK, negotiate an emission standard for Heavy Goods Vehicles ( HGVs) from 2025.

We will work with the UK Government and our EU partners to encourage the introduction of a new binding carbon emission standard for new HGVs registered and operating in Scotland (and the rest of the UK/ EU). Currently new HGVs must meet Euro VI [79] standard but this is focused on pollutants and does not include a CO 2 standard. The introduction of a fuel efficient standard for newly registered HGVs will encourage HGV manufacturers to bring forward new models which are more efficient and produce lower levels of carbon emissions. As these new vehicles penetrate the HGV fleet operating in Scotland and replace higher emission vehicles, more road freight miles will be driven in the most up to date fuel efficient vehicles, thereby leading to a reduction in CO 2 emissions from the freight sector.

The EU European Strategy for Low Emission Mobility [80] proposes a post-2020 strategy for lorries, buses and coaches. Given the 10 year average life of an HGV, the Commission argues that steps to address emissions must be in place by 2020. A first step will be the proposed legislation on monitoring/reporting of heavy duty vehicle fuel consumption and CO 2 emissions with further proposals due later in 2017. We will support efforts at this level to reduce emissions.

2) With the UK, negotiate biofuels policies that will enable them to be used sustainably in the decarbonisation of the whole transport sector.

The EU biofuels target is implemented in the UK through the Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation ( RTFO) legislation, which is in the process of being revised and will ensure that biofuels from sustainable feedstocks and renewable fuels of non-biological origin (such as electrolytic hydrogen made using renewable energy) will make up a growing proportion of transport fuel and enable them to be used most effectively as a finite resource in the decarbonisation of transport.

3) Deliver our Rail Freight Strategy.

Delivering the Goods [81] , Scotland's Rail Freight strategy was published in March 2016 and set out 22 actions that Transport Scotland and/or industry partners will take with a range of organisations to develop a sustainable rail freight industry with identifiable growth potential over time. Currently, per tonne of freight, rail freight produces 76% less CO 2 than road freight [82] so there is potential to reduce emissions by switching freight from road to rail. A report setting out progress against the Strategy's six critical success factors is due for publication in June 2018 including the success factor of: longer, faster, greener freight trains. In the short-term, a number of actions in the Strategy relate to the Scottish Government's planning for the next rail control period and the Office of Rail and Road's ( ORR) periodic review both of which relate to the period 2019-2024.

These plans were outlined in the Scottish Ministers' High Level Output Specification ( HLOS) [83] published in 2017, and require Network Rail to develop a plan with the wider industry to facilitate the growth of new rail freight to business. The plan should include both maximising the use of existing flows and the development of new business/terminal facilities. The HLOS also looks to improve the attractiveness of rail freight with challenging performance targets and a requirement for Network Rail to develop a freight journey time metric to increase the average speed of freight trains by 10%.

4) Continue to support local authorities in delivering the ECO Stars [84] programme, reducing fuel consumption for HGVs, buses, coaches and vans (reviewed annually).

ECO Stars is a UK wide fleet recognition scheme covering HGVs, buses, coaches, vans and taxis. The ultimate aim is to reduce fuel consumption and thereby lower emissions of both CO 2 and air pollutants. The scheme provides recognition of best operational practices and guidance for making improvements. In 2017‑2018, the Scottish Government is providing funding support for 11 local authorities to operate ECO Stars schemes for HGVs, buses, coaches and vans, and three authorities for taxis.

As of May 2016, these schemes collectively covered 148 unique members and 13,070 vehicles, representing approximately 11% of Scotland's HGV fleet and 23% of the public transport fleet.

Policy proposals which contribute to the delivery of policy outcome 3

1) Work with the freight sector to examine the scope for new freight logistics and infrastructure (potentially including freight consolidation centres on the outskirts of cities and urban areas following the introduction of LEZs); and to support market testing of local initiatives.

Through ScotFLAG we are working with our partners across the public and private sector to identify and facilitate any opportunities to increase the efficiency and sustainability of freight movements, including exploring opportunities for load consolidation.

A ScotFLAG Urban Freight sub-group has been set up with a remit to identify opportunities, share best practice and coordinate activity aimed at increasing the sustainability, safety and efficiency of freight movements in Scotland's urban areas. This sub-group is chaired by the Freight Transport Association.

2) Introduce low emission zones into Scotland's four biggest cities between 2018 and 2020 and into other Air Quality Management Areas by 2032 where the National Low Emissions framework appraisals advocate such mitigation.

LEZs set an environmental limit on certain road spaces, allowing access to only the cleanest vehicles. We will work in partnership with local authorities and regional transport partnerships to deliver LEZs that are well designed to consistent national standards. The National Low Emissions Framework document will set the framework within which LEZs are introduced and will be published in line with the commitments of the Cleaner Air for Scotland strategy.

Relative significance of policies, policy development milestones and proposals to the delivery of policy outcome 3

Policy outcome 3 will account for a moderate proportion of total emissions reduction. Road freight carried on HGVs accounts for 1.7 MtCO 2e, and implementation of all the proposals and policies could reduce emissions from HGVs by 28% by 2032 [85] .

Monitoring

Policy output indicators for Policy Outcome 3:

1) Average emissions of HGVs per tonne kilometre.

2) Report on the number of ECO Stars member organisations and impact on emissions and fuel savings.

3) Report qualitatively against the actions outlined in the Rail Freight Strategy.

Policy outcome 3 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032
Total emissions ( gCO 2e) per tonne kilometre of Road Freight Index 2017=100 98 96 94 92 91 89 87 85 83 81 79 78 76 74 72

Implementation indicators for policy outcome 3

1) Uptake of the ECO Stars programme.

2) Progress in delivering the Rail Freight Strategy.

Explanation for selection of indicators

Data on freight and freight kilometres is published annually within the Scottish Transport Statistics, as are the emissions associated with HGVs. It is possible to measure the emissions per tonne kilometre from these data, however work will be undertaken to try and improve the indicator to better reflect the desired outcome.

Policy outcome 4:

Proportion of the Scottish bus fleet which are low emission vehicles has increased to 50% by 2032.

There is one policy, one policy development milestone and one proposal which contribute to the delivery of policy outcome 4.

Policy which contributes to the delivery of policy outcome 4

1) Provide financial support for the purchase and operation of low carbon buses.

Transport Scotland has developed targeted interventions to encourage operators to purchase and operate low emission buses in the Scottish fleet. These help the Government to meet its aims for improved air quality and reductions in emissions of greenhouse gases.

A review of the Scottish Green Bus Fund ( SGBF) is currently underway as of early 2018 and we are considering changing the basis for assessing applications, widening the criteria to include aspects such as technological ambition, amount of carbon saved per passenger per vehicle, value for money and previous organisational experience. Infrastructure is unlikely to be included as other funding processes (such as the Bus Investment Fund [86] ) could be used to help with these costs if funding is available. The SGBF will likely remain an annual fund.

Policy development milestone

1) In the context of the review of the National Transport Strategy and Transport Bill, we will examine the scope for climate change policies, in relation to buses, across the public sector in high-level transport legislation strategies and policies.

National Transport Strategy engagement began in 2017 and the Strategy will be published in 2019.

Policy proposals which contribute to the delivery of policy outcome 4

1) With local authorities and others, model and pilot reductions in congestion and improvements in use of public transport, in possible association with a low emission zone.

Engagement, including with local authorities, on the National Transport Strategy ( NTS) began in 2017 and the strategy will be published in 2019. More formal engagement is being delivered through workings groups, such as the Greener and Healthier working group. We have also begun collaborating with local authorities in advance of the implementation of low emission zones in Glasgow and Edinburgh through the creation of a Low Emission Zone Leadership Group and will continue to work with them over the coming months.

2) Introduce low emission zones into Scotland's four biggest cities between 2018 and 2020 and into other Air Quality Management Areas by 2032 where the National Low Emissions Framework [87] appraisals advocate such mitigation.

LEZs set an environmental limit on certain road spaces, allowing access to only the cleanest vehicles. We will work in partnership with local authorities and regional transport partnerships to deliver LEZs that are well designed to consistent national standards. The National Low Emissions Framework document will set the framework within which LEZs are introduced and will be published in line with the commitments of the Cleaner Air for Scotland strategy.

Relative significance of policies, policy development milestones and proposals to the delivery of policy outcome 4

Policy outcome 4 will account for a small proportion of overall emissions reductions, as bus and coach emissions account for less than 4% of total transport emissions.

There is potential for behavioural switch as bus is a mode with the ability to scale up flexibly in response to increased demand, but to achieve significant change from car use would mean a step change increase in bus journeys.

Monitoring

Policy output indicator for Policy Outcome 4

1) Proportion of bus fleet made up of low emission vehicles is 50% by 2032.

Policy outcome 4 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032
Proportion of bus fleet made up of low emission vehicles (%) 13 15 18 20 23 25 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 50

Implementation indicators for policy outcome 4

1) Number of low carbon buses purchased including those through the Scottish Green Bus Fund.

2) Annual low carbon bus expenditure through Scottish Green Bus Fund and Bus Service Operators Grant incentive.

3) Numbers of kilometres run by low emission buses as a percentage of total bus kilometres.

Explanation for the selection of indicators

Data on the number of green buses purchased is available and, providing qualifying buses claim the Bus Service Operators Grant top up for low carbon buses, the percentage of the fleet share will also be known.

Policy outcome 5:

By 2032 low emission solutions have been widely adopted at Scottish ports and airports.

There is one proposal that will contribute to the delivery of policy outcome 5.

1) Encourage and support Scottish port authorities and airports to adopt low emission solutions.

We will work with port authorities, the shipping industry, and airports to encourage and support them to introduce low emission solutions on a voluntary basis. For example, we will work with port authorities to identify the potential costs and benefits of cold ironing (the use of shore power by ships while in harbour) and other low emission measures to ship owners and operators.

Similarly, we will work with airport owners (and operators) to identify measures that can be taken to reduce emissions associated with ground operations and planes while on the ground (such as single engine taxiing, the use of ground power for planes at stand, and low emission ground vehicles). We will work with ports and airports, ship owners and operators and airlines to overcome barriers to the voluntary adoption of these measures and ensure they are taken into account when considering their future investment plans.

Relative significance of proposal to the delivery of policy outcome 5

Policy outcome 5 will accounts for a small proportion of overall emissions reduction. The key drivers in emissions reduction from aviation and shipping will come from international agreements and from ongoing improvements in design and materials.

Monitoring

Policy output indicator for policy outcome 5

1) Qualitative report on Transport Scotland's input into port and airport strategies.

Implementation indicator for policy outcome 5

1) Qualitative annual report on Transport Scotland's engagement with Scottish port authorities and airports.

Policy outcome 6:

Proportion of ferries in Scottish Government ownership which are low emission has increased to 30% by 2032.

There is one policy development milestone that will contribute to the delivery of outcome 6

Policy development milestone

1) Examine the scope for procuring hybrid and low carbon powertrains in the public sector marine fleet as part of our vessel replacement programme.

We are developing a programme of procurements to replace vessels in the Caledonian Maritime Assets ( CMAL) ferry fleet with lower emission powertrains. For each project we will consider diesel-electric hybrid and liquid natural gas ( LNG) fuelling options; in addition CMAL will continue to pursue technical designs which improve fuel efficiency and CalMac Ferries Ltd will continue its operational work on reducing fuel consumption. We are supporting the Scottish-based Hyseas consortium with its initiative to trial a hydrogen powered 'ro-ro'(roll-on, roll-off) vehicle ferry. We publish annual Vessel Replacement and Deployment Plans which set out our evolving plans and projects in more detail.

Relative significance of policies, policy development milestones and proposals to the delivery of policy outcome 6

Policy outcome 6 will account for a small proportion of overall emissions reduction, as domestic maritime activity only accounts for 0.3 MtCO 2e or 2.5% of transport's total emissions.

Monitoring

Policy output indicator for policy outcome 6

1) Number of low emission ferries in Scottish Government ownership.

Policy outcome 6 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032
Number of low emission ferries in Scottish Government ownership 3 4 4 5 5 5 6 6 7 7 7 8 8 9 9

Implementation indicator for policy outcome 6

1) Update on programme of procurement through the Vessel Replacement Plan.

Policy outcome 7:

We will have electrified 35% of the Scottish rail network by 2032.

There is one policy development milestone that will contribute to the delivery of outcome 7.

Policy development milestone which contribute to the delivery of policy outcome 7

1) Electrification of the rail network in the High Level Output Statement for Control Period 6 (2019-2024).

It is estimated that the use of electric trains across the rail network will result in a reduction in emissions when compared with equivalent diesel trains. We will also investigate hybrid trains and other emerging technologies to determine the suitability for application on Scotland's railways as a potential energy and cost-saving alternative to overhead wire electrification.

Relative significance of policies, policy development milestones and proposals to the delivery of outcome 7.

Policy outcome 7 will account for a small proportion of overall emissions reduction, as rail makes up less than 1% of total transport emissions.

Monitoring

Policy output indicator for policy outcome 7

1) The percentage of the rail track electrified

Policy outcome 7 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032
Percentage of rail track electrified (kilometres) 27 27 28 29 29 30 30 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 35

Implementation indicator for policy outcome 7

1) Annual information on electrification is contained within the Scottish Transport Statistics [88] .

Policy outcome 8:

Proportion of total domestic passenger journeys travelled by active travel modes has increased by 2032, in line with our Active Travel Vision, including the Cycling Action Plan for Scotland Vision that 10% of everyday journeys will be by bike by 2020.

There are two policies which will contribute to the delivery of policy outcome 8.

Policies which contribute to the delivery of policy outcome 8

1) Active travel: double funding for active travel from £40 million to £80 million from 2018‑2019, significantly increasing our ambition on active travel.

Increasingly, we will plan place-making and infrastructure improvement projects that incorporate the needs of active travellers. As announced in the Programme for Government 2017‑2018 the active travel budget for 2018‑2019 will be increased from £40 million to £80 million from 2017‑2018. This will enable a significant scaling up of activity around walking and cycling, ensuring we can make our towns and cities friendlier and safer spaces for cyclists and pedestrians.

We will maintain the annual budget for active travel at record levels until at least 2021. That budget will fund both improvements and extensions to infrastructure and environments for active travel throughout the country (particularly in urban areas) and a range of behaviour change initiatives to support people to choose active travel for short, everyday journeys where appropriate.

Integration between walking, cycling and public transport will be improved (for example, through better bike parking and the development of active travel hubs at public transport interchanges). We will continue to work with a range of delivery partners to deliver behaviour change programmes that increase awareness, skills, confidence and ability to help overcome attitudinal barriers to walking and cycling. This will be achieved through significant investment and improvements in infrastructure, such as support for electric bikes and projects to allow older people to cycle.

Additionally, as announced in the Programme for Government 2017-2018, we will also appoint an Active Nation Commissioner to ensure we deliver world class infrastructure across Scotland.

Further information on how the Scottish Government will meet its active travel vision is outlined in our Cycling Action Plan for Scotland [89] and the National Walking Strategy [90] . Both strategies outline measures to change behaviours and improve infrastructure.

2) Support the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places ( SCSP) [91] programme to encourage behaviour change.

The Smarter Choices, Smarter Places initiative is designed to support increased use of public transport, cycling and walking for everyday journeys. The programme has delivered more than 450 local initiatives that change people's behaviour and encourages cycling or walking. In total, since 2015-2016 over £15 million has been invested, attracting a further £15 million in match funding.

The programme focuses on locally designed initiatives including travel planning. As part of SCSP, a range of travel planning campaigns, public awareness events and mapping of active and public transport options have occurred across Scotland.

Local authorities target specific populations for travel behaviour change projects. These projects include travel planning (at work, school or home), public awareness events, signage and mapping, fuel efficient driver training, supporting car clubs and work with public transport operators. The budget for 2017‑2018 is just over £5 million, all of which goes to local authorities and attracts match funding.

Relative significance of policies to the delivery of policy outcome 8

Policy outcome 8 will account for a small proportion of overall emissions reduction, as most journeys under a mile are already undertaken by walking.

Monitoring

Policy output indicator for policy outcome 8

1) Active travel budget for the year.

2) Progress towards active travel vision.

Implementation indicators for policy outcome 8

1) Qualitative update on what has been achieved through active travel expenditure.

2) Qualitative report on the implementation and achievements of SCSP.

Explanation for selection of indicators

There is no single quantitative metric appropriate for monitoring this policy outcome. Transport Scotland, alongside our partners, will continue to measure cycling and walking rates as part of the CAPS vision and the National Walking Strategy using detailed analysis to inform improvements.

Enabling Factors and Wider Impacts

The transport sector's proposals and policies outlined in the Plan have the potential to bring additional co-benefits to communities, businesses and the third sector.

Increased uptake of electric vehicles will allow individuals and businesses to save on fuel costs, leading to journeys which are both cheaper and greener. Low emission zones, consolidation centres on the periphery of urban areas and support for the purchase of low emission buses will ensure the most polluting vehicles do not enter our towns and cities. Adverse health effects from exposure to pollutants are estimated to cause up to 50,000 deaths per year in the UK and reduce the average life expectancy by 7-8 months. Significantly reducing vehicle emissions in our towns and cities will improve health, reduce pollution related illnesses and consequently bring savings to health care providers.

Businesses and individuals will benefit from more reliable, faster deliveries in areas covered by consolidation centres. This is because the smaller, low emission vans travelling out of consolidation centres can travel directly to their destinations, whereas an HGV would travel round its delivery stops sequentially. A fleet of electric light goods vehicles will allow freight to be transported to its destination with minimal fuel costs. Freight operators will be able to make more efficient use of their vehicles as they will not be delayed in congestion when delivering to inner city areas.

The combined value of air quality improvements as a result of reduced emissions may be in excess of £500 million per year. This is in addition to further benefits coming from reduced noise pollution, which also has an impact on health and wellbeing [92] .

Taking cost projections for petrol and diesel cars into account, and the expected impact of future technological change, electric vehicles should become significantly cheaper to purchase and operate. This offers everyone the opportunity to make savings through reduced fuel and vehicle operating costs. Fuel efficient driving and travel planning offer further cost savings as well as potentially reducing the risk of traffic accidents.

In the future, electric vehicles may be able to provide services to the power grid, smoothing out demand by drawing and returning power as needed by acting as a means of energy storage. An increase in the number of journeys made by active and public transport will further reduce congestion and pollution, in addition to the associated benefits that come through living an active lifestyle. Active travel and car sharing offer a potential route to combat transport poverty by increasing the availability of low cost, low carbon transport options and reducing the need to own a car. Car clubs, supported by Transport Scotland, will allow households to access efficient vehicles without the costs associated with car ownership.

A significant proportion of the up-front funding required to implement many of these policies is likely to fall on the public sector. With electric vehicles, the Scottish Government has funded the roll out of the ChargePlace Scotland network of charge points and funds their operation. It is expected that there will be a need for the public sector to continue to incentivise electric vehicle uptake until they are competitive with petrol and diesel vehicles. As the price of electric vehicles falls, individuals and businesses will be encouraged to invest in low carbon alternatives through government policy interventions.

The introduction of freight consolidation centres may present some disruption for logistics organisations, resulting from the need to relocate premises. However, there is the potential for further savings through moving to premise which are more energy-efficient. Low emission zones may also present challenges to fleet operators as it will impact on fleet renewal decision.

The potential impact of proposals and policies which necessitate increased expenditure for individuals, such as higher vehicle emission standards or the costs of upgrading to an electric vehicle, will need to be monitored to ensure they do not disproportionately impact particular groups.

Other measures, such as the implementation of low emission solutions at ports and airports and the roll out of low emission solutions in the bus and maritime sectors will likely require initial public sector support.

These additional public sector costs should be balanced against the potential health, social and economic benefits arising. The Scottish Government will ensure that potential adverse impacts are appropriately managed.

Planning system

The Scottish Government's 'Designing Streets' [93] policy outlines the Government's commitment to pursue the delivery of streets as places where vehicle movement is integrated rather than prioritised. Trunk roads, motorways, and major thoroughfares retain vehicular movement as their main function. When reprioritising road space for other uses is considered, the principles outlined as part of Designing Streets should apply.

The Scottish Government has deregulated the infrastructure needed for on-street electric vehicle charging points by giving them permitted development status, which means that planning permission no longer needs to be sought. This will apply to many potential installations, making their installation quicker and cheaper.

For new development, a key principle of Scottish Planning Policy is that the development should support walkable access to local amenities and these are also accessible by bicycle and public transport. Established policy reinforces the transport hierarchy of supporting opportunities for people to walk and cycle first, followed by travel by public transport, followed by travel by private cars.

Scottish Planning Policy supports the provision for improved and additional freight facilities, including for rail freight where there is an identified need. In this way, land for freight consolidation centres and lower carbon forms of freight transport can be provided for.


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