beta

You're viewing our new website - find out more

Publication - Statistics Publication

Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2014

Published: 14 Jun 2016
ISBN:
9781786523099

This publication provides estimates of greenhouse gas emissions in Scotland for the years 1990 to 2014.

76 page PDF

2.3MB

Contents
Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2014
Section E. Further information, Glossary and Acknowledgements

Section E. Further information, Glossary and Acknowledgements

Further Information

Methodology and Source data

Full details of the methodology used to estimate Scottish greenhouse gas emissions together with further breakdowns are provided on the National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory website in the publication:
Greenhouse Gas Inventories for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990-2014

Scottish Greenhouse Gas Inventory Uncertainties Project

The Scottish Government commissioned a project to understand the uncertainties associated with the estimates of Scottish Greenhouse gas Emissions in 2013:
http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Environment/Publications/GHGUncertainties2013Summary

Scotland's Carbon Footprint

Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions on a Consumption Basis (" Scotland's Carbon Footprint 1998-2012)

Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2013. Key Revisions since 2008

This paper was published in 2015 and provides a breakdown of the key revisions to the Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions Official Statistics publication over successive years from the 1990-2008 inventory to the 1990-2013 inventory.
http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Environment/Publications/ghgrevisions-2013

Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009

This legislation outlines the requirements for percentage reductions targets for 2020 and 2050 and fixed annual targets
http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Environment/climatechange/scotlands-action/climatechangeact

Relevant Secondary Legislation associated with Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009

Climate Change (Annual Targets) (Scotland) Order 2010

This Order sets the first batch of annual emissions reduction targets, for the period 2010-2022.
http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2010/359/introduction/made

Climate Change (Annual Targets) (Scotland) Order 2011

This Order sets the second batch of annual emissions reduction targets, for the period 2023-2027.
http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Environment/climatechange/scotlands-action/climatechangeact/order2011

The Carbon Accounting Scheme (Scotland) Regulations 2010

These Regulations establish the scheme for monitoring compliance with the annual emissions reduction targets set for 2010-2012.
http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2010/216/contents/made.

The Carbon Accounting Scheme (Scotland) Amendment Regulations 2015

These Regulations establish the scheme for monitoring compliance with the annual emissions reduction targets set for 2013.
http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2015/189/contents/made

The Carbon Accounting Scheme (Scotland) Amendment Regulations 2016

These Regulations establish the scheme for monitoring compliance with the annual emissions reduction targets set for 2014.
http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2016/46/contents/made

The Climate Change (Additional Greenhouse Gas) (Scotland) Order 2015

This legislates for the inclusion of the new greenhouse gas (nitrogen trifluoride) to be added to the basket of gases in Scotland's greenhouse gas inventory.
http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2015/197/contents/made

National Performance Framework Sustainability Purpose Targets
http://www.gov.scot/About/Performance/scotPerforms/purpose/sustainability

Department of Energy and Climate Change ( DECC) statistics
https://www.gov.uk/government/organisations/department-of-energy-climate-change/about/statistics#emissions-and-climate-change-statistics

UK greenhouse gas inventory national system
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/uk-greenhouse-gas-emissions-statistics-user-guidance

UK greenhouse gas inventory summary factsheets
https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/uk-greenhouse-gas-inventory-summary-factsheets

Committee on Climate Change ( CCC)

The CCC is an independent body established under the Climate Change Act to advise the UK Government and devolved administrations on reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
http://www.theccc.org.uk

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFCCC)

The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ( UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty. The objective of the treaty is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system.

The treaty itself set no binding limits on greenhouse gas emissions for individual countries and contains no enforcement mechanisms. In that sense, the treaty is considered legally non-binding. Instead, the treaty provides a framework for negotiating specific international treaties (called "protocols") that may set binding limits on greenhouse gases.
http://unfccc.int/

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC) assesses the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change. They provide advice to the UNFCCC on the scientific evidence and developments which are used to inform National Inventories.
http://www.ipcc.ch/

Meteorological Office (Met Office)

The Meteorological (Met Office) publishes mean monthly and annual air temperature figures for Scotland from 1910 to 2015.
http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/pub/data/weather/uk/climate/datasets/Tmean/date/Scotland.txt

EU Emissions Trading System ( EU ETS)

Further information can be found in the Department for Energy and Climate Change ( DECC) website.
https://www.gov.uk/participating-in-the-eu-ets

Scottish Government Methodology Paper: Determining the Scottish EU ETS cap for 2014

This documents the calculations which determine the 'specified amounts' for emissions from (i) fixed installations located in Scotland and covered by the EU emissions trading system ( EU- ETS) and (ii) aviation covered by the EU- ETS.
http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Environment/Publications/EUETScap2014

Scottish Energy Statistics

The Scottish Government's Energy in Scotland 2016 statistics compendium publication presents statistics on the energy sector in Scotland. It presents statistics and analysis for the following topics

  • An overview of the energy sector in Scotland - including an Energy Balance for Scotland
  • Energy Consumption
  • Electricity
  • Heat
  • Transport
  • Oil and Gas
  • Energy Prices
  • Climate Change
  • Low Carbon Economy

A Key Facts booklet has been published to give users, at a glance, the headline statistics and key information for each of the main topic areas covered in Energy in Scotland 2016.
http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Business/Energy

Scottish Transport Statistics

These statistics are produced by Transport Scotland on an annual basis, as part of a compendium publication on a wide range of transport issues.
http://www.transportscotland.gov.uk/statistics/scottish-transport-statistics-all-editions

Detailed inventory mapping

Table E1. Mapping between Scottish Government sectors, National Communication sectors, International Panel for Climate Change sectors and source

Note that the inventory data can be mapped in a variety of different ways. Further mappings of the 1990-2014 inventory can be found in the Excel tables and Pivot Table which accompany this publication.

SG Sector

NC Category

IPCC Sector

Source Name

Energy Supply

Energy Supply

1A1ai Public Electricity & Heat Production

Miscellaneous industrial/commercial combustion

Power stations

Public sector combustion

1A1b Petroleum Refining

Refineries - combustion

1A1ci Manufacture of solid fuels

Coke production

Solid smokeless fuel production

1A1cii Oil and gas extraction

Upstream Gas Production - fuel combustion

Upstream oil and gas production - combustion at gas separation plant

Upstream Oil Production - fuel combustion

1A1ciii Other energy industries

Collieries - combustion

Gas production

Nuclear fuel production

Town gas manufacture

1B1ai Underground mines:Abandoned

Closed Coal Mines

1B1ai Underground mines:Mining activities

Deep-mined coal

1B1ai Underground mines:Post-mining activities

Coal storage and transport

1B1aii Surface mines:Mining activities

Open-cast coal

1B1b Solid Fuel Transformation

Charcoal production

Coke production

Iron and steel - flaring

Solid smokeless fuel production

1B2a1 Oil exploration

Upstream Oil Production - Offshore Well Testing

1B2a2 Oil production

Petroleum processes

Upstream Oil Production - process emissions

1B2a3 Oil transport

Upstream Oil Production - Offshore Oil Loading

Upstream Oil Production - Onshore Oil Loading

1B2a4 Oil refining/storage

Upstream Oil Production - Oil terminal storage

1B2b1 Gas exploration

Upstream Gas Production - Offshore Well Testing

1B2b3 Gas processing

Upstream Gas Production - process emissions

1B2b4 Gas transmission and storage

Gas leakage

Upstream Gas Production - Gas terminal storage

1B2b5 Gas distribution

Gas leakage

1B2c Flaring Gas

Upstream Gas Production - flaring

1B2c Flaring Oil

Upstream Oil Production - flaring

1B2c Venting Gas

Upstream Gas Production - venting

1B2c Venting Oil

Upstream Oil Production - venting

2A4d Other process uses of carbonates:other

Power stations - FGD

Transport (excluding International Aviation and Shipping)

Transport

1A3a Domestic aviation

Aircraft - domestic cruise

Aircraft - domestic take off and landing

1A3bi Cars

Road transport - cars - cold start

Road transport - cars - motorway driving

Road transport - cars - rural driving

Road transport - cars - urban driving

1A3bii Light duty trucks

Road transport - LGVs - cold start

Road transport - LGVs - motorway driving

Road transport - LGVs - rural driving

Road transport - LGVs - urban driving

1A3biii Heavy duty trucks and buses

Road transport - buses and coaches - motorway driving

Road transport - buses and coaches - rural driving

Road transport - buses and coaches - urban driving

Road transport - HGV articulated - motorway driving

Road transport - HGV articulated - rural driving

Road transport - HGV articulated - urban driving

Road transport - HGV rigid - motorway driving

Road transport - HGV rigid - rural driving

Road transport - HGV rigid - urban driving

1A3biv Motorcycles

Road transport - mopeds (<50cc 2st) - urban driving

Road transport - motorcycle (>50cc 2st) - rural driving

Road transport - motorcycle (>50cc 2st) - urban driving

Road transport - motorcycle (>50cc 4st) - motorway driving

Road transport - motorcycle (>50cc 4st) - rural driving

Road transport - motorcycle (>50cc 4st) - urban driving

1A3bv Other road transport

Road transport - all vehicles LPG use

1A3c Railways

Rail - coal

Railways - freight

Railways - intercity

Railways - regional

1A3d Domestic navigation

Inland goods-carrying vessels

Motorboats / workboats ( e.g. canal boats, dredgers, service boats, tourist boats, river boats)

Personal watercraft e.g. jet ski

Sailing boats with auxiliary engines

Shipping - coastal

1A3eii Other Transportation

Aircraft - support vehicles

1A4ai Commercial/Institutional

Railways - stationary combustion

1A4ciii Fishing

Fishing vessels

1A5b Other:Mobile

Aircraft - military

Shipping - naval

2D1 Lubricant Use

Marine engines

Road vehicle engines

2D3 Non-energy products from fuels and solvent use:Other

Road transport - urea

International Aviation and Shipping

International Aviation and Shipping

Aviation Bunkers

Aircraft - international cruise

Aircraft - international take off and landing

Aircraft between UK and CDs - Cruise

Aircraft between UK and CDs - TOL

Aircraft between UK and Gibraltar - Cruise

Aircraft between UK and Gibraltar - TOL

Aircraft between UK and other Ots (excl Gib.) - Cruise

Aircraft between UK and other OTs (excl Gib.) - TOL

Aircraft engines

Marine Bunkers

Shipping - international IPCC definition

Shipping between UK and Gibraltar

Shipping between UK and OTs (excl. Gib)

Agriculture and Related Land Use

Agriculture

1A4ci Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing:Stationary

Agriculture - stationary combustion

1A4cii Agriculture/Forestry/Fishing:Off-road

Agriculture - mobile machinery

2D1 Lubricant Use

Agricultural engines

3A1 Enteric Fermentation dairy cattle

Agriculture livestock - dairy cattle enteric

3A1 Enteric Fermentation non-dairy cattle

Agriculture livestock - other cattle enteric

3A2 Enteric Fermentation sheep

Agriculture livestock - sheep enteric

3A3 Enteric Fermentation swine

Agriculture livestock - pigs enteric

3A4 Enteric Fermentation other:deer

Agriculture livestock - deer enteric

3A4 Enteric Fermentation other:goats

Agriculture livestock - goats enteric

3A4 Enteric Fermentation other:horses

Agriculture livestock - horses enteric

3B1 Manure Management dairy cattle

Agriculture livestock - dairy cattle wastes

3B1 Manure Management non-dairy cattle

Agriculture livestock - other cattle wastes

3B2 Manure Management sheep

Agriculture livestock - sheep wastes

3B3 Manure Management swine

Agriculture livestock - pigs wastes

3B4 Manure Management other:deer

Agriculture livestock - deer wastes

3B4 Manure Management other:goats

Agriculture livestock - goats wastes

3B4 Manure Management other:horses

Agriculture livestock - horses wastes

3B4 Manure Management other:poultry

Agriculture livestock - all poultry wastes

Agriculture livestock - broilers wastes

Agriculture livestock - laying hens wastes

Agriculture livestock - other poultry wastes

3B4 Other

Agriculture livestock - manure leaching (indirect)

Agriculture livestock - manure liquid systems (indirect)

Agriculture livestock - manure other (indirect)

Agriculture livestock - manure solid storage and dry lot (indirect)

3D Agricultural Soils

Agricultural soils

3D1 Agricultural soils-Mineralization/Immobilization

Agricultural soils - Mineralization/Immobilization Associated with change in Soil Organic Matter

3F Field burning

Field burning

3G1 Liming - limestone

Liming

3G2 Liming - dolomite

Liming

3H Urea application

Agriculture - application of urea

Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry

4B Cropland

Cropland - Drainage and rewetting and other management of organic and mineral soils

4B1 Cropland remaining Cropland

Cropland remaining Cropland - Biomass Burning - Wildfires

Cropland remaining Cropland - Carbon stock change

4B2 1 Forest Land converted to Cropland

Forest Land converted to Cropland - Biomass Burning - Controlled Burning

Forest Land converted to Cropland - Carbon stock change

Forest Land converted to Cropland - Direct N 2O emissions from N Mineralization/Immobilization

4B2 2 Grassland converted to Cropland

Grassland converted to Cropland - Carbon stock change

Grassland converted to Cropland - Direct N 2O emissions from N Mineralization/Immobilization

4B2 4 Settlements converted to Cropland

Settlements converted to Cropland - Carbon stock change

4C Grassland

Grassland - Drainage and rewetting and other management of organic and mineral soils

4C1 Grassland remaining Grassland

Grassland remaining Grassland - Biomass Burning - Wildfires

Grassland remaining Grassland - Carbon stock change

Grassland remaining Grassland - Direct N 2O emissions from N Mineralization/Immobilization

4C2 1 Forest Land converted to Grassland

Forest Land converted to Grassland - Biomass Burning - Controlled Burning

Forest Land converted to Grassland - Carbon stock change

Forest Land converted to Grassland - Direct N 2O emissions from N Mineralization/Immobilization

4C2 2 Cropland converted to Grassland

Cropland converted to Grassland - Carbon stock change

4C2 3 Wetlands converted to Grassland

Wetlands converted to Grassland - Carbon stock change

4C2 4 Settlements converted to Grassland

Settlements converted to Grassland - Carbon stock change

4D Wetlands

Wetlands - Drainage and rewetting and other management of organic and mineral soils

4D1 Wetlands remaining wetlands

Peat Extraction Remaining Peat Extraction - Carbon stock change

4D2 Land converted to wetlands

Grassland converted to flooded land - Carbon stock change

Land converted for Peat Extraction - Carbon stock change

Business and Industrial Process

Business

1A2a Iron and steel

Blast furnaces

Iron and steel - combustion plant

1A2b Non-Ferrous Metals

Autogeneration - exported to grid

Autogenerators

Non-Ferrous Metal (combustion)

1A2c Chemicals

Chemicals (combustion)

1A2d Pulp Paper Print

Pulp, Paper and Print (combustion)

1A2e food processing beverages and tobacco

Food & drink, tobacco (combustion)

1A2f Non-metallic minerals

Cement production - combustion

Lime production - non decarbonising

Other industrial combustion

1A2gvii Off-road vehicles and other machinery

Industrial off-road mobile machinery

1A2gviii Other manufacturing industries and construction

Autogeneration - exported to grid

Autogenerators

Other industrial combustion

1A4ai Commercial/Institutional

Miscellaneous industrial/commercial combustion

2B1 Chemical Industry:Ammonia production

Ammonia production - combustion

2B8g Petrochemical and carbon black production:Other

Chemicals (combustion)

2D1 Lubricant Use

Industrial engines

Other industrial combustion

2D4 Other NEU

Non Energy Use: petroleum coke

2E1 Integrated circuit or semiconductor

Electronics - HFC

Electronics - NF 3

2F1a Commercial refrigeration

Commercial Refrigeration

2F1b Domestic refrigeration

Domestic Refrigeration

2F1c Industrial refrigeration

Industrial Refrigeration

2F1d Transport refrigeration

Refrigerated Transport

2F1e Mobile air conditioning

Mobile Air Conditioning

2F1f Stationary air conditioning

Stationary Air Conditioning

2F2a Closed foam blowing agents

Foams

Foams HFCs for the 2006 GLs

2F2b Open foam blowing agents

One Component Foams

2F3 Fire Protection

Firefighting

2F5 Solvents

Precision cleaning - HFC

2F6b Other Applications:Contained-Refrigerant containers

Refrigerant containers

2G1 Electrical equipment

Electrical insulation

2G2 Military applications

AWACS

2G2 Particle accelerators

Particle accelerators

2G2e Electronics and shoes

Electronics - PFC

Electronics - SF 6

Sporting goods

2G2e Tracer gas

SF 6 used as a tracer gas

2G3a Medical aplications

N 2O use as an anaesthetic

5C2.2b Non-biogenic:Other

Accidental fires - other buildings

Industrial Process

2A1 Cement Production

Cement - decarbonising

2A2 Lime Production

Lime production - decarbonising

2A3 Glass production

Glass - general

2A4a Other process uses of carbonates:ceramics

Brick manufacture - all types

Brick manufacture - Fletton

2B1 Ammonia Production

Ammonia production - feedstock use of gas

2B10 Chemical Industry:Other

Chemical industry - general

2B2 Nitric Acid Production

Nitric acid production

2B3 Adipic Acid Production

Adipic acid production

2B6 Titanium dioxide production

Chemical industry - titanium dioxide

2B7 Soda Ash Production

Chemical industry - soda ash

2B8a Methanol production

Chemical industry - methanol

2B8b Ethylene Production

Chemical industry - ethylene

2B8c Ethylene Dichloride and Vinyl Chloride Monomer

Chemical Industry - ethylene dichloride

2B8d Ethylene Oxide

Chemical industry - ethylene oxide

2B8e Acrylonitrile

Chemical industry - acrylonitrile

2B8f Carbon black production

Chemical industry - carbon black

2B9a1 Fluorchemical production:By-product emissions

Halocarbons production - by-product

2B9b3 Fluorchemical production:Fugitive emissions

Halocarbons production - fugitive

2C1a Steel

Basic oxygen furnaces

Electric arc furnaces

Ladle arc furnaces

2C1b Pig iron

Iron and steel - flaring

2C1d Sinter

Sinter production

2C3 Aluminium Production

Primary aluminium production - general

Primary aluminium production - PFC emissions

2C4 Magnesium production

Magnesium cover gas

2C6 Zinc Production

Non-ferrous metal processes

2G3b N 2O from product uses: Other

Other food - cream consumption

2G4 Other product manufacture and use

Chemical Industry - other process sources

Residential

Residential

1A4bi Residential stationary

Domestic combustion

1A4bii Residential:Off-road

House and garden machinery

2D2 Non-energy products from fuels and solvent use:Paraffin wax use

Non-aerosol products - household products

2F4a Metered dose inhalers

Metered dose inhalers

2F4b Aerosols:Other

Aerosols - halocarbons

5B1a composting municipal solid waste

Composting (household)

5C2.2b Non-biogenic:Other

Accidental fires - dwellings

5C2.2b Non-biogenic:Other Accidental fires (vehicles)

Accidental fires - vehicles

Waste Management

Waste Management

5A1a Managed Waste Disposal sites anaerobic

Landfill

5B1a composting municipal solid waste

Total composting (non-household)

5B2a Anaerobic digestion municipal solid waste

Anaerobic Digestion (other)

Mechanical Biological Treatment

5C1.1b Biogenic:Sewage sludge

Incineration - sewage sludge

5C1.2a Non-biogenic:municipal solid waste

Incineration

5C1.2b Non-biogenic:Clinical waste

Incineration - clinical waste

5C1.2b Non-biogenic:Other Chemical waste

Incineration - chemical waste

5D1 Domestic wastewater treatment

Sewage sludge decomposition

Sewage sludge decomposition in private systems

5D2 Industrial wastewater treatment

Industrial Waste Water Treatment

Development

Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry

4E1 Settlements remaining Settlements

Settlements remaining Settlements - Carbon stock change

Settlements remaining Settlements - Direct N 2O emissions from N Mineralization/Immobilization

4E2 1 Forest Land converted to Settlements

Forest Land converted to Settlements - Biomass Burning - Controlled Burning

Forest Land converted to Settlements - Carbon stock change

Forest Land converted to Settlements - Direct N 2O emissions from N Mineralization/Immobilization

4E2 2 Cropland converted to Settlements

Cropland converted to Settlements - Carbon stock change

Cropland converted to Settlements - Direct N 2O emissions from N Mineralization/Immobilization

4E2 3 Grassland converted to Settlements

Grassland converted to Settlements - Carbon stock change

Grassland converted to Settlements - Direct N 2O emissions from N Mineralization/Immobilization

Public Sector Buildings

Public

1A4ai Commercial/Institutional

Public sector combustion

Forestry

Land Use, Land Use Change and Forestry

4A Forest Land

Forest Land - Drainage and rewetting and other management of organic and mineral soils

4A1 Forest Land remaining Forest Land

Forest Land remaining Forest Land - Biomass Burning - Wildfires

Forest Land remaining Forest Land - Carbon stock change

4A2 1 Cropland converted to Forest Land

Cropland converted to Forest Land - Carbon stock change

4A2 2 Grassland converted to Forest Land

Grassland converted to Forest Land - Carbon stock change

4A2 4 Settlements converted to Forest Land

Settlements converted to Forest Land - Carbon stock change

4A2 5 Other land converted to Forest Land

Other land converted to Forest Land - Carbon stock change

4A2 Land converted to Forest Land

Direct N 2O emission from N fertilisation of forest land

4G Harvested Wood Products

HWP Produced and Consumed Domestically - Carbon stock change

HWP Produced and Exported - Carbon stock change

Why are some greenhouse gas emissions not considered in this statistics release?

The methods used to compile the Scottish Greenhouse Gas Inventory are consistent with international reporting and are therefore comparable to the greenhouse gas emission estimates reported by all other EU Member States and other Annex 1 parties [25] to the UNFCCC. All countries estimate and submit their greenhouse gas inventory estimates to be consistent with methods set out in international guidance for national inventory methods from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC), known as the IPCC (2006) guidelines. The IPCC (2006) guidelines state that national inventories should report on all anthropogenic (human) emissions and removals of greenhouse gas emissions, as a result of human activities within a country's territorial sphere.

However, there are some emissions and removals of carbon dioxide that occur as a result of short-cycle biogenic processes. This biocarbon has only recently been abstracted from the atmosphere before it is then re-released as carbon dioxide. In accordance with the IPCC (2006) guidelines, these emissions and sinks are therefore excluded from the greenhouse gas inventory, as they could lead to double counting. If countries do choose to estimate these biocarbon emissions, they are reported outside of the national inventory total, as a memo item to that country's submission to the UNFCCC. This means that some sources and sinks of greenhouse gases are not included in the Scottish and UK inventory totals.

Examples of reasons for why some sources and sinks of greenhouse gases are not included in the greenhouse gas inventory

1. Due to short-cycle biocarbon (carbon only been recently abstracted from the atmosphere)

  • Carbon dioxide ( CO 2) emissions from biomass combustion. For example, this includes CO 2 emissions from biomass power stations
  • Process emissions in food and drink production. These include CO 2 emissions from brewing, fermenting and malting and in the production of food.
  • CO 2 emissions from biodegradable waste to landfill. Emissions are not estimated where they arise from biogenic sources of waste such as food. Fossil-derived organic matter (such as plastic) is assumed to be non-biodegradable and there are no emissions associated with its decomposition.

However, methane ( CH 4) emissions from biodegradable waste sent to landfill are considered in these greenhouse gas statistics as they are formed by the anaerobic (oxygen-free) decay of organic matter in solid waste disposal sites.

2. Where there has been no anthropogenic influence

  • Natural accumulation and storage of carbon in peatland. For emissions or removals of peatland to be considered for IPCC reporting, they require humans to alter the peatland - either through wetland drainage, rewetting, peatland extraction or through another land use change. The UK and Scotland has elected to include the IPCC (2006) Wetlands Supplement as part of their inventory reporting: http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/home/wetlands.html http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/wetlands/. The Wetlands Supplements will estimate the carbon effects of drainage and rewetting peatland, although these not categories will not be fully included in the greenhouse gas inventory for a number of years.

3. Beyond the territorial definitions as prescribed by the IPCC (2006) reporting requirements

  • "Blue carbon". Blue carbon refers to the carbon captured by the world's oceans and coastal ecosystems. The carbon captured by living organisms in oceans is stored in the form of biomass and sediments from mangroves, salt marshes and seagrasses. However, it is worth pointing out that that coastal wetlands will included in the IPCC (2006) wetlands supplement when it becomes included in the greenhouse inventory.

Glossary

Adjusted emissions

Greenhouse gas emissions that have taken into account purchases/sales through the EU ETS. Adjusted emissions may be higher or lower than actual emitted emissions depending on the quantity of purchases or sales. Scottish Government emissions reduction targets are assessed using adjusted emissions.

Afforestation

The act or process of establishing a forest on land that has not been forested in recent history.

Baseline Period

Emissions reduction is based on a Baseline Period. For the greenhouse gases CO 2, CH 4 and N 2O, 1990 was specified as the baseline. 1995 is the baseline for emissions of the F-gases.

Carbon dioxide ( CO 2)

Carbon dioxide is one of the main gases responsible for climate change. It is mostly emitted through the oxidation of carbon in fossil fuels, e.g. burning coal.

Carbon sink

A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores CO 2 for an indefinite period.

Climate change

Climate change is a long-term change in the earth's climate. This can be accelerated by human activity, e.g. by releasing CO 2 into the atmosphere.

Deforestation

The removal of forest stands by cutting and burning to provide land for agricultural purposes, residential or industrial building sites, roads, etc., or the harvesting of trees for building materials or fuel.

EU ETS

The European Union Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading System ( EU ETS) is the largest multi-national emissions trading system in the world. Launched in 2005, the EU ETS is an EU policy aimed at mitigating climate change by limiting greenhouse gas emissions from industry sectors and aviation. Operating across Europe the system is mandatory for large energy-intensive industrial installations. Compared with 2005 levels, the EU ETS aims to deliver a 21 per cent reduction in emissions by 2020 and a 43 per cent reduction by 2030. Participants include more than 11,000 heavy energy-using installations in power generation, the manufacturing industry and airlines across 31 countries in the European Economic Area ( EEA).

Over 11,000 installations throughout the EU are covered by the system, accounting for around 45 per cent of the EU's total CO 2 emissions.

The EU ETS began in 2005. Phase III started in January 2013 and runs to December 2020.

Fluorinated gases (F-gases)

F-gases are the generic name given to HFCs, PFCs, SF 6 and NF 3. These have been used as replacements for CFCs, which are ozone depleting substances that have been banned under the Montreal Protocol. They have very high global warming potentials.

Greenhouse effect

The greenhouse effect is the process by which heat from the sun is trapped within the Earth's atmosphere by greenhouse gases. This process is also known as radiative forcing.

Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas which absorbs infrared radiation emitted from the surface of the Earth, helping to retain a portion of that energy in the atmosphere as heat.

Global warming potential ( GWP)

GWP is a measure of how much a greenhouse gas is estimated to contribute to global warming. It is a relative scale which compares the potency of each gas to CO 2.

Hydrofluorocarbons ( HFCs)

HFCs are produced commercially as a substitute for chlorofluorocarbons ( CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons ( HCFCs). HFCs are largely used in refrigeration and insulating foam. Their Global Warming Potentials range from 12 to 14,800 times that of CO 2, depending on the gas type.

Inventory

The inventory contains greenhouse gas emissions estimates for Scotland and the UK. The Inventory is a disaggregation of the UK Inventory, which is based on five major sectors: energy, industrial processes, agriculture, land-use, land-use change and forestry, and waste.

IPCC

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ( IPCC) assesses the scientific, technical and socio-economic information relevant for the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change. They provide advice to the UNFCCC on the scientific evidence and developments which are used to inform National Inventories.

LULUCF

Estimates of emissions and removals from land use, land use change and forestry ( LULUCF) depend critically on assumptions made on the rate of loss or gain of carbon in Scotland's carbon rich soils. In Scotland, LULUCF activities, taken as a whole, acts as a sink, absorbing more greenhouse gas emissions than it releases.

Methane ( CH 4)

Methane is a greenhouse gas that is around 25 times more potent in the atmosphere than CO 2 over a 100-year time horizon. Main sources include agriculture and landfill.

National Communication ( NC) Sectors

The UK NC sectors are agreed groupings of the more detailed sectors reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change by the UK. This report uses Scottish Government sectors. Mapping of these to NC sectors and IPCC sectors can be seen in Section E.

Nitrogen trifluoride ( NF 3)

Nitrogen trifluoride is a greenhouse gas that is around 17,200 times more potent in the atmosphere than CO 2 over a 100-year time horizon. The main source of nitrogen trifluoride is in the making of semiconductors.

Nitrous oxide ( N 2O)

Nitrous oxide is a greenhouse gas that is around 298 times more potent in the atmosphere than CO 2 over a 100-year time horizon. The main source is agricultural soil.

Other Petroleum Gas ( OPG)

This consists mainly of ethane plus some other hydrocarbons, excluding butane and propane.

Perfluorocarbons ( PFCs)

PFCs are a by-product of aluminium smelting. They are also the replacement for CFCs in manufacturing semiconductors. The Global Warming Potentials of PFCs ranges from 7,390 - 17,340 times that of CO 2 over a 100-year time horizon.

Radiative forcing

An externally imposed perturbation in the radiative energy budget of the Earth's atmosphere. Such a perturbation can be brought about by changes in the concentrations of radiatively active species ( e.g. greenhouse gases), changes in the solar irradiance incident upon the planet, or other changes that affect the radiative energy absorbed by the surface ( e.g. changes in surface reflection properties).

Sequestration

The process by which carbon sinks remove carbon dioxide ( CO 2) from the atmosphere.

Source ( UNFCCC definition)

Any process or activity which releases a greenhouse gas or a precursor greenhouse gas to the atmosphere.

Sulphur hexafluoride ( SF 6)

It is largely used in heavy industry to insulate high-voltage equipment and to assist in the manufacturing of cable-cooling systems. Its global warming potential is 22,800 times that of CO 2 over a 100-year time horizon.

UNFCCC

In 1992, the UNFCCC was adopted as the basis for a global response to climate change. The ultimate objective of the Convention is to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that will prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system.

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank our contractors, Ricardo- AEA, in consortium with Aether, Rothamsted Research and the Centre for Ecology & Hydrology for their invaluable support in compiling and improving the Scottish greenhouse gas inventory every year. Links to the Devolved Administrations inventories for each year can be found here: http://naei.defra.gov.uk/reports/reports?section_id=4


Contact