CRWIA Stage 2
Scoping - key questions
1. What children’s rights are likely to be affected by the policy/measure?
The TCPDP has a focus on the drivers of child poverty – income from employment; costs of living; income from social security. In addition, the plan focuses on longer-term actions to improve well-being and quality of life. The following articles refer to these priorities.
Article 1 defines a child as anyone under the age of 18. Note that the Scottish Government prefers to use the term ‘children and young people’.
The main articles which the TCPDP will impact on are noted below,
1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for the treatment of illness and rehabilitation of health. States Parties shall strive to ensure that no child is deprived of his or her right of access to such health care services.
1. States Parties shall recognize for every child the right to benefit from social security, including social insurance, and shall take the necessary measures to achieve the full realization of this right in accordance with their national law.
2. The benefits should, where appropriate, be granted, taking into account the resources and the circumstances of the child and persons having responsibility for the maintenance of the child, as well as any other consideration relevant to an application for benefits made by or on behalf of the child.
1. States Parties recognize the right of every child to a standard of living adequate for the child's physical, mental, spiritual, moral and social development.
2. The parent(s) or others responsible for the child have the primary responsibility to secure, within their abilities and financial capacities, the conditions of living necessary for the child's development.
3. States Parties, in accordance with national conditions and within their means, shall take appropriate measures to assist parents and others responsible for the child to implement this right and shall in case of need provide material assistance and support programmes, particularly with regard to nutrition, clothing and housing.
4. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to secure the recovery of maintenance for the child from the parents or other persons having financial responsibility for the child, both within the State Party and from abroad. In particular, where the person having financial responsibility for the child lives in a State different from that of the child, States Parties shall promote the accession to international agreements or the conclusion of such agreements, as well as the making of other appropriate arrangements.
1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of the child and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts.
2. States Parties shall respect and promote the right of the child to participate fully in cultural and artistic life and shall encourage the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural, artistic, recreational and leisure activity.
2. How will the policy/measure affect children’s wellbeing as defined by the wellbeing indicators?
Section 96(2) of Children and Young People (Scotland) Act lists the eight wellbeing
indicators, sometimes referred to by the acronym SHANARRI:
- Safe – protected from abuse, neglect or harm at home, at school and in the community.
- Healthy – having the highest attainable standards of physical and mental health, access to suitable healthcare, and support in learning to make healthy and safe choices.
- Achieving – being supported and guided in learning and in the development of skills, confidence and self-esteem, at home, in school and in the community.
- Nurtured – having a nurturing place to live in a family setting, with additional help if needed, or, where this is not possible, in a suitable care setting.
- Active – having opportunities to take part in activities such as play, recreation and sport, which contribute to healthy growth and development, at home, in school and in the community.
- Respected – having the opportunity, along with carers, to be heard and involved in decisions that affect them.
- Responsible – having opportunities and encouragement to play active and responsible roles at home, in school and in the community, and where necessary, having appropriate guidance and supervision, being involved in decisions that affect them.
- Included – helping to overcome social, education, physical and economic inequalities, and being accepted as part of the community in which they live and learn.
The TCPDP impacts across all of the children’s wellbeing indicators, providing a cross-portfolio response and setting out measures to immediately tackle child poverty and move to a preventative approach.
It will particularly impact on Included and Nurtured indicators, as tackling child poverty will ensure that children are able to fully participate in society. As targets take account of housing costs the provision of high quality, affordable housing will play a key role.
It also impacts on the Respected indicator, as consultation responses from children and young people, and organisations representing their interests will play a key part in developing appropriate action.
3. How many children and young people are likely to be affected by the policy or measure?
2015-16 statistics for households living below average income  ( HBAI) outline that 26% of children in Scotland live in relative poverty. The Institute for Fiscal Studies has, however, projected  increases to child poverty in Scotland, which may mean 29% of children in poverty by 2021.
This accounts for 260,000 children in Scotland in 2015-16, with a possible increase to 290,000 children by 2021 unless action is taken.
The Child Poverty (Scotland) Act 2017 aims for significant reductions in child poverty by 2023 and 2030. In 2030, fewer than 10% of children should be living in relative poverty. The TCPDP provides a platform for a range of ambitious actions for action over the period to 2022.
4. What research evidence is available?
Considerable research evidence is available which sets out the challenge, in terms of numbers of children in poverty, the variation dependent on locality/region and by protected characteristics. Much of this is set out in the accompanying EQIA.
Research is also available which outlines potential approaches which could assist in meeting the ambitious targets. A sample of the available range is outlined below.
National poverty statistics are published annually by the Scottish Government and set out the numbers of children living in poverty in Scotland;
Poverty equality analysis;
Experimental statistics were published in November 2017 providing local level data on the numbers of children and young people living in material deprivation by local authority area. The report was entitled - ‘Children in families with limited resources across Scotland 2014-2016’
End Child Poverty published figures (January 2018) on the level of child poverty in each constituency, local authority and ward in the UK.
Independent Advisor on Poverty and Inequality, The Life Chances of Young People in Scotland, A Report to the First Minister – and accompanying analysis;
The Joseph Rowntree Foundation’s comprehensive report, UK poverty: Causes, costs and solutions, presents the evidence for their strategy to solve UK poverty.
5. Has there been any public or stakeholder consultations on the policy/measure?
A wide ranging public consultation was conducted between November 2017 and February 2018, in line with the requirements of the Child Poverty (Scotland) Act 2017.
The Scottish Government engaged with a range of organisations representing children, young people and parents, as well as groups of children, young people and parents themselves. In order to engage effectively and authentically with children, we also commissioned the Children’s Parliament to convene a number of discussion groups within schools, including those within SIMD 1 and 2 areas to ensure the voices of children with lived experience of poverty were included. For young people, we commissioned Young Scot to co-design and run an engagement session with young people – again, efforts were made to ensure this was a diverse group and included a number of care-experienced young people. In addition, the Prince’s Trust convened a group of young people to discuss key issues around child poverty: their client group is predominantly young people from disadvantaged communities.
Consultation has also been conducted with relevant Parliamentary Committees.
The consultation seeks to establish the key areas of focus for the Delivery Plan and the actions required to influence change. The full list of consultees is outlined in Stage 1.
6. Has there been any estimate of the resource implications of the policy/measure?
Costs associated with the development of the TCPDP and associated publication costs were outlined within the Financial Memorandum produced as part of the Bill process.
Resource implications associated with delivery of actions are set out within the Plan, wherever possible.