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Publication - Consultation Paper

Air Departure Tax: consultations and environmental report

Published: 26 Jun 2017
Part of:
Economy, Transport
ISBN:
9781788510486

Consultations relating to our policy for an overall 50% Air Departure Tax (ADT) reduction by the end of the current session of Parliament. Includes a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA).

126 page PDF

1.8MB

126 page PDF

1.8MB

Contents
Air Departure Tax: consultations and environmental report
Footnotes

126 page PDF

1.8MB

Footnotes

1. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20151202171017/http://www.smith-commission.scot/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/The_Smith_Commission_Report-1.pdf

2. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2016/11/part/2/crossheading/devolved-taxes

3. http://www.parliament.scot/parliamentarybusiness/Bills/102778.aspx

4. http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2016/02/3623

5. http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2016/03/3238/downloads

6. https://beta.gov.scot/publications/scotlands-economic-strategy/

7. Scottish Government (undated) SEA Guidance [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Environment/environmental-assessment/sea/guidance/SEAGuidance (accessed 01/02/2017)

8. Scottish Government (2015) Scotland's Economic Strategy [online] Available at: https://beta.gov.scot/publications/scotlands-economic-strategy/ (accessed 16/04/2017)

9. The Scottish Government (2016) A Plan for Scotland, The Government's Programme for Scotland 2016-17 [online] Available at: https://beta.gov.scot/publications/plan-scotland-scottish-governments-programme-scotland-2016-17 (accessed 16/04/2017)

10. The Scottish Government (2015) Infrastructure Investment Plan [online] Available at: https://beta.gov.scot/publications/infrastructure-investment-plan-2015/ (accessed 16/04/2017)

11. Transport Scotland (2016)National Transport Strategy [online] Available at: http://www.transportscotland.gov.uk/strategy/national-transport-strategy (accessed 02/02/2017)

12. Scottish Government (2014) National Planning Framework 3 [online] Available at: https://beta.gov.scot/policies/planning-architecture/ (accessed 10/04/2017)

13. Scottish Government (2014) Scottish Planning Policy [online] Available at: https://beta.gov.scot/publications/scottish-planning-policy /(accessed 10/04/2017)

14. The Scottish Government (2009) Climate Change Delivery Plan: Meeting Scotland's Statutory Climate Change Targets [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Resource/Doc/276273/0082934.pdf (accessed 02/02/2017)

15. The Scottish Government (2013) Low Carbon Scotland - Meeting the Emissions Reduction Targets 2010-2022 [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Environment/climatechange/scotlands-action/lowcarbon/rpp (accessed 02/02/2017)

16. The Scottish Government (2013) Low Carbon Scotland - Meeting our Emissions Reduction Targets 2013-2027 [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Environment/climatechange/scotlands-action/lowcarbon/meetingthetargets (accessed 02/02/2017)

17. Scottish Government (2017) Draft Climate Change Plan: the Third Report on Policies and Proposals 2017-2032 [online] Available at: /publications/draft-climate-change-plan-draft-third-report-policies-proposals-2017//downloads (accessed 22/03/2017)

18. Reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80% by 2050 with an interim target of a 42 reduction by 2020

19. Scottish Government (2016) A Plan for Scotland: The Scottish Government's Programme for Scotland 2016-17 [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2016/09/2860 (accessed 04/04/2017)

20. Committee on Climate Change (2017) Advice on the new Scottish Climate Change Bill [online] Available at: https://www.theccc.org.uk/publication/advice-on-the-new-scottish-climate-change-bill/ (accessed 22/03/2017)

21. Air Transport Action Group is an independent coalition of member organisations and companies throughout the global air transport industry

22. ICAO has set a more ambitious target of 2% with regard improved fuel efficiency

23. United Nations Climate Summit 2014 (2014) Transport Aviation Action Plan [online] Available at: http://www.un.org/climatechange/summit/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2014/07/UN_ICAO-ATAG-Agreement__2__action-plan.pdf (accessed 02/02/2017)

24. United Nations Climate Summit 2014 (2014) Transport Aviation Action Statement [online] Available at: http://www.un.org/climatechange/summit/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2014/07/UN_ICAO-ATAG-Agreement__1__action-statement.pdf (accessed 02/02/2017)

25. Ibid

26. European Commission (2017) Single European Sky I [online] Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/transport/modes/air/single_european_sky/ses_1_en (accessed 02/02/2017)

27. European Commission (2017) Single European Sky II [online] Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/transport/modes/air/single_european_sky/ses_2_en (accessed 02/02/2017)

28. Civil Aviation Authority (undated) Future Airspace Strategy, the development of future airspace management [online] Available at: http://www.caa.co.uk/default.aspx?catid=2408&pagetype=90 (accessed 02/02/2017)

29. SESAR (2010) The future of flying[online] Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/transport/modes/air/sesar/doc/2010_the_future_of_flying_en.pdf (accessed 06/02/2017)

30. Sustainable Aviation (2015) A strategy towards sustainable development of UK Aviation [online] Available at: http://www.sustainableaviation.co.uk/our-story/ (accessed 02/02/2017)

31. Sustainable Aviation (2016) Sustainable Aviation CO 2 Road-Map 2016 [online] Available at: http://www.sustainableaviation.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/FINAL__SA_Roadmap_2016.pdf (accessed 02/02/2017)

32. Sustainable Aviation (2012) Sustainable Aviation CO 2 Road Map 2012 [online] Available at: http://www.sustainableaviation.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/SA-Carbon-Roadmap-full-report.pdf (accessed 06/02/2017)

33. Committee on Climate Change (undated) Aviation [online] Available at: https://www.theccc.org.uk/charts-data/ukemissions-by-sector/aviation/ (accessed 02/02/2017)

34. Scottish Government (2016) A Scottish replacement to Air Passenger Duty - Strategic Environmental Assessment Screening and Scoping Report [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2016/03/6647/downloads (accessed 01/02/2017)

35. Scottish Government (2016) A consultation on a Scottish replacement to Air Passenger Duty [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2016/03/3238/downloads (accessed 01/02/2017)

36. Scottish Government (2016) A Scottish replacement to Air Passenger Duty - Strategic Environmental Assessment Screening and Scoping Report [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2016/03/6647/downloads (accessed 01/02/2017)

37. Scottish Government (2016) SEA Screening and Scoping Report Consultation - Analysis of Responses [online] Available at: https://consult.scotland.gov.uk/fiscal-responsibility/air-passenger-duty/ (accessed 01/02/2017)

38. Transport Scotland (2017) Estimate of the Impact on Emissions of a Reduction in air Departure Tax in Scotland (2017 update) [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/air-dep-tax/emissions (accessed 06/06/2017)

39. Transport Scotland (2014) Estimate of the Impact on Emissions of a Reduction in Air Passenger Duty in Scotland [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/publication/estimate-of-the-impact-on-emissions-of-a-reduction-in-air-passenger-duty-in-scotland/ (accessed 04/04/2017)

40. Department of Transport (2011) Sustainable framework for UK aviation consultation [online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/consultations/sustainable-framework-for-uk-aviation-consultation (accessed 01/02/2017)

41. Airports Commission (2015) Airports Commission: Final Report July 2015 [online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/airports-commission-final-report (accessed 01/02/2017)

42. Scottish Government (2012) Climate Change (Scotland) Act 2009 [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Environment/climatechange/scotlands-action/climatechangeact (accessed 04/04/2017)

43. The basket of Kyoto Protocol greenhouse gases comprises carbon dioxide ( CO 2), methane, and nitrous oxide, for which the baseline is 1990; and hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons and sulphur hexafluoride, for which the baseline is 1995. Nitrogen triflouride has subsequently been added.

44. The Scottish Government (2016) Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2014, An official Statistics Publication for Scotland [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0050/00501550.pdf (accessed 30/01/2017)

45. The Scottish Government (2016) Purpose Target: Sustainability [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/About/Performance/scotPerforms/purposetargets/sustainability (accessed 31/01/2017)

46. Inspired PQ S5W-05402

47. Scottish Government (2017) Draft Climate Change Plan: the Third Report on Policies and Proposals 2017-2032 [online] Available at: https://beta.gov.scot/publications/draft-climate-change-plan-draft-third-report-policies-proposals-2017/ (02/05/2017)

48. Scottish Government (2014) Climate Ready Scotland Scottish Climate Change Adaptation Programme [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2014/05/4669 (accessed 05/04/2017)

49. UK Government (2012) UK Climate Change Risk Assessment [online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/uk-climate-change-risk-assessment-government-report (accessed 05/04/2017)

50. Committee on Climate Change (2016) UK Climate Change Risk Assessment 2017 [online] Available at: https://www.theccc.org.uk/uk-climate-change-risk-assessment-2017/ (accessed 05/04/2017)

51. Committee on Climate Change (2016) Scottish Climate Change Adaption Programme: An independent assessment for the Scottish Parliament [online] Available at: https://www.theccc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/Scottish-Climate-Change-Adaptation-Programme-An-independent-assessment-CCC-September-2016.pdf (accessed 05/04/2017)

52. UNFCCC (2016) The Paris Agreement [online] Available at: http://unfccc.int/paris_agreement/items/9485.php (accessed 05/04/2017)

53. European Commission (2016) Climate Action - Paris Agreement [online] Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/international/negotiations/paris_en (accessed 05/04/2017)

54. ibid

55. European Commission (2016) EU Emissions Trading System ( EU ETS) [online] Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/ets/index_en.htm (accessed 31/01/2017)

56. Scottish Government (2013) RPP2 [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2013/06/6387/9 (accessed 31/01/2017)

57. European Commission (2013) The EU Emissions Trading System ( EU ETS) [online] Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/clima/sites/clima/files/factsheet_ets_en.pdf (accessed 31/01/2017)

58. Parliament UK (2017) Aviation Emissions [online] Available at: https://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201617/cmselect/cmeuleg/71-xxxii/7106.htm (accessed 08/05/2017)

59. Scotland's Environment (undated) Climate change [online] Available at: http://www.environment.scotland.gov.uk/our_environment/air_and_climate/climate_change.aspx (accessed 31/01/2017)

60. ICAO (undated) Climate change adaptation [online] Available at: http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/Pages/adaptation.aspx (accessed 31/01/2017)

61. Committee on Climate Change (2016) UK Climate Change Risk Assessment 2017 [online] Available at: https://www.theccc.org.uk/uk-climate-change-risk-assessment-2017/ (accessed 31/01/2017)

62. Scotland's Environment (2016) Scotland's Climate Trends Handbook. Available at: http://www.environment.scotland.gov.uk/climate_trends_handbook/index.html (accessed 31/01/2017)

63. Scottish Government (2014) Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2014, An official Statistics Publication for Scotland [online] Available at: https://beta.gov.scot/publications/scottish-greenhouse-gas-emissions-2014/ (accessed 31/01/2017)

64. ibid

65. ibid

66. Scottish Government (2014) Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2014, An official Statistics Publication for Scotland [online] Available at: https://beta.gov.scot/publications/scottish-greenhouse-gas-emissions-2014/ (accessed 31/01/2017)and data obtained from published Pivot tables

67. National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (2016) Report: Greenhouse Gas Inventories for England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland: 1990-2014 [online] Available at: http://naei.defra.gov.uk/reports/reports?report_ (accessed 6/6/2017)

68. Transport Scotland (2016) Scottish Transport Statistics No 35 2016 Edition [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/publication/scottish-transport-statistics-no-35-2016-edition/ (accessed 16/04/2017)

69. ibid

70. ibid

71. ibid

72. Civil Aviation Authority (2017) Information on aviation's environmental impact [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP1524EnvironmentalInformation29032017.pdf (accessed 16/04/2017/2017)

73. Civil Aviation Authority (2017) Information on aviation's environmental impact [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP1524EnvironmentalInformation29032017.pdf (accessed 16/04/2017/2017)

74. Committee on Climate Change (undated) Factsheet: Aviation [online] Available at: https://www.theccc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Aviation-factsheet.pdf (accessed 16/04/2017)

75. Civil Aviation Authority (2017) Information on aviation's environmental impact [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP1524EnvironmentalInformation29032017.pdf (accessed 16/04/2017/2017)

76. ibid

77. ibid

78. ibid

79. ibid

80. Sustainable Aviation (2016) Sustainable Aviation CO 2 Road-Map [online] Available at: http://www.sustainableaviation.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/FINAL__SA_Roadmap_2016.pdf (accessed 31/01/2017)

81. Sustainable Aviation (2015) Sustainable Fuels UK Road-Map [online] Available at: http://www.sustainableaviation.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/SA-SAF-Roadmap-FINAL-24-Nov-2.pdf (accessed 02/02/2017)

82. EUROCONTROL (2017) Environmental issues for aviation: Climate Change [online] Available at: http://www.eurocontrol.int/articles/environmental-issues-aviation (accessed 02/02/2017)

83. ibid

84. Stockholm Environment Institute (2011) Indirect Impacts from Aviation: Nitrogen Oxides, Ozone and Methane [online] Available at: http://www.co2offsetresearch.org/aviation/IndirectEmissions.html (accessed 13/02/2017)

85. ATAG (undated) Aviation Benefits Beyond Borders Aviation and climate change [online] Available at: http://aviationbenefits.org/environmental-efficiency/aviation-and-climate-change/ (accessed 13/02/2017)

86. Department for Transport (2011) Developing a sustainable framework for UK aviation [online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/2579/consultationdocument.pdf (accessed 13/02/2017)

87. Transport Scotland (2017) Estimate of the Impact on Emissions of a Reduction in air Departure Tax in Scotland (2017 update) [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/air-dep-tax/emissions (accessed 06/06/2017)

88. These figures have been estimated using actual passenger numbers from 2015 and demand based upon DfTs growth forecasts

89. Transport Scotland (2017) Estimate of the Impact on Emissions of a Reduction in air Departure Tax in Scotland (2017 update) [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/air-dep-tax/emissions (accessed 06/06/2017)

90. Transport Scotland (2014) Estimate of the Impact on Emissions of a Reduction in Air Passenger Duty in Scotland [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/publication/estimate-of-the-impact-on-emissions-of-a-reduction-in-air-passenger-duty-in-scotland/ (accessed 11/05/2017)

91. Transport Scotland (2017) Estimate of the Impact on Emissions of a Reduction in air Departure Tax in Scotland (2017 update) [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/air-dep-tax/emissions (accessed 06/06/2017)

92. ibid

93. ibid

94. HM Revenue & Customs (2012) Modelling the Effects of Price Differentials at UK Airports, HM and Customs Research Report 118 [online] Accessed 6/6/2017)

95. Transport Scotland (2014) Estimate of the Impact on Emissions of a Reduction in Air Passenger Duty in Scotland [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/publication/estimate-of-the-impact-on-emissions-of-a-reduction-in-air-passenger-duty-in-scotland/ (accessed 04/04/2017)

96. Transport Scotland (2017) Estimate of the Impact on Emissions of a Reduction in air Departure Tax in Scotland (2017 update) [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/air-dep-tax/emissions (accessed 06/06/2017)

97. Transport Scotland (2014) Estimate of the Impact on Emissions of a Reduction in Air Passenger Duty in Scotland [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/publication/estimate-of-the-impact-on-emissions-of-a-reduction-in-air-passenger-duty-in-scotland/ (accessed 04/04/2017)

98. Transport Scotland (2014) Estimate of the Impact on Emissions of a Reduction in Air Passenger Duty in Scotland [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/publication/estimate-of-the-impact-on-emissions-of-a-reduction-in-air-passenger-duty-in-scotland/ (accessed 04/04/2017)

98. ibid

99. Stockholm Environment Institute (2011) The Climate Footprint of Air Travel [online] Available at: http://co2offsetresearch.org/aviation/index.html (accessed 06/02/2017)

100. ATAG (undated) Aviation Benefits Beyond Borders Aviation and climate change [online] Available at: http://aviationbenefits.org/environmental-efficiency/aviation-and-climate-change/ (accessed 13/02/2017)

101. Committee on Climate Change (2009) Meeting the UK Aviation targets - options for reducing emissions to 2050 [online] Available at: https://www.theccc.org.uk/publication/meeting-the-uk-aviation-target-options-for-reducing-emissions-to-2050/ (accessed 06/02/2017)

102. Climate Summit 2014 (2014) Transport Aviation Action Plan [online] Available at: http://www.un.org/climatechange/summit/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2014/07/UN_ICAO-ATAG-Agreement__2__action-plan.pdf (accessed 06/02/2017)

103. ATAG (2010) Beginners Guide to Aviation Efficiency [online] Available at: http://www.atag.org/our-publications/latest.html (accessed 19/04/2017)

104. Boeing (undated) Boeing Next-Generation 737 [online] Available at: http://www.boeing.com/commercial/737ng/#/design-highlights/environmentally-progressive/cleaner-for-the-community/more-efficient-operations/ (accessed 06/02/2017)

105. ATAG (2010) Beginners Guide to Aviation Efficiency [online] Available at: http://www.atag.org/our-publications/latest.html (accessed 19/04/2017)

106. Civil Aviation Authority (2017) Information on aviation's environmental impact [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP1524EnvironmentalInformation29032017.pdf (accessed 16/04/2017/2017)

107. ATAG (2010) Beginners Guide to Aviation Efficiency [online] Available at: http://www.atag.org/our-publications/latest.html (accessed 19/04/2017)

108. ibid

109. Sustainable Aviation (undated) Continuous Descent Operation Campaign [online] Available at: http://www.sustainableaviation.co.uk/sustainable-aviations-continuous-descent-operation-campaign/ (accessed 19/04/2017)

110. SESAR (2014) SESAR and the environment document [online] Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/transport/modes/air/sesar/index_en.htm (accessed 31/01/2017)

111. Civil Aviation Authority (2017) Information on aviation's environmental impact [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP1524EnvironmentalInformation29032017.pdf (accessed 16/04/2017/2017)

112. ICAO (undated) Environmental Protection Alternative Fuels [online] Available at: http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/Pages/AlternativeFuels-QuestionsAnswers.aspx (accessed 06/02/2017)

113. ICAO (undated) Environmental Protection Alternative Fuels [online] Available at: http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/Pages/AlternativeFuels-QuestionsAnswers.aspx (accessed 06/02/2017)

114. Committee on Climate Change (2009) Meeting the UK Aviation targets - options for reducing emissions to 2050 [online] Available at: https://www.theccc.org.uk/publication/meeting-the-uk-aviation-target-options-for-reducing-emissions-to-2050/ (accessed 10/02/2017)

115. ibid

116. Stockholm Environmental Institute (2011) Flight Profile and Distance [online] Available at: http://co2offsetresearch.org/aviation/Distance.html (accessed 10/05/2017)

117 ibid

118. Civil Aviation Authority (2017) Information on aviation's environmental impact [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP1524EnvironmentalInformation29032017.pdf (accessed 16/04/2017/2017)

119. ibid

120. Stockholm Environmental Institute (2011) Flight Profile and Distance [online] Available at: http://co2offsetresearch.org/aviation/Distance.html (accessed 10/05/2017)

121. ibid

122. Jardine, C. (2009) Calculating the Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Flights [online] Available: http://www.eci.ox.ac.uk/research/energy/downloads/jardine09-carboninflights.pdf (accessed 10/05/2017)

123. Civil Aviation Authority (2017) Information on aviation's environmental impact [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP1524EnvironmentalInformation29032017.pdf (accessed 16/04/2017/2017)

124. Civil Aviation Authority (2017) Information on aviation's environmental impact [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP1524EnvironmentalInformation29032017.pdf (accessed 16/04/2017/2017)

125. ibid

126. ATAG (2010) Beginners Guide to Aviation Efficiency [online] Available at: http://www.atag.org/our-publications/latest.html (accessed 19/04/2017)

127. European Commission (2017) Proposal to amend the EU ETS for aviation https://ec.europa.eu/clima/sites/clima/files/com_2017_54_en.pdf

128. ICAO (2016) Historic Agreement reached to mitigate international aviation emissions [online] Available at: http://www.icao.int/Newsroom/Pages/Historic-agreement-reached-to-mitigate-international-aviation-emissions.aspx (accessed 25/04/2017)

129. ICAO (2016) Historic Agreement reached to mitigate international aviation emissions [online] Available at: http://www.icao.int/Newsroom/Pages/Historic-agreement-reached-to-mitigate-international-aviation-emissions.aspx (accessed 25/04/2017)

130. ibid

131. European Commission (2017) Reducing emissions from aviation [online] Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/transport/aviation_en (accessed 08/05/2017)

132. European Commission (2017) Proposals for amending the EU ETS for aviation http://ec.europa.eu/transparency/regdoc/rep/1/2017/EN/COM-2017-54-F1-EN-MAIN-PART-1.PDF (accessed 22/05/2017)

133. Carbon Brief (2016) Carbon Brief Clear on Carbon, International Policy [online] Available at: https://www.carbonbrief.org/aviation-consume-quarter-carbon-budget (accessed 10/08/2016)

134. ICAO (08/02/2016) New ICAO Aircraft CO 2 Standard one step closer to final adoption [online] Available at: http://www.icao.int/Newsroom/Pages/New-ICAO-Aircraft-CO2-Standard-One-Step-Closer-To-Final-Adoption.aspx (accessed 20/07/2016)

135. ibid

136. ibid

137. ICAO (08/02/2016) New ICAO Aircraft CO 2 Standard one step closer to final adoption [online] Available at: http://www.icao.int/Newsroom/Pages/New-ICAO-Aircraft-CO2-Standard-One-Step-Closer-To-Final-Adoption.aspx (accessed 20/07/2016)

138. Committee on Climate Change (2017) Advice on the new Scottish Climate Change Bill [online] Available at: https://www.theccc.org.uk/publication/advice-on-the-new-scottish-climate-change-bill/ (accessed 22/03/2017)

139. Committee on Climate Change (2009) Meeting the UK Aviation targets - options for reducing emissions to 2050 [online] Available at: https://www.theccc.org.uk/publication/meeting-the-uk-aviation-target-options-for-reducing-emissions-to-2050/ (accessed 10/02/2017)

140. ibid

141. Inspired PQ S5W-05402

142. Transport Scotland (2017) Estimate of the Impact on Emissions of a Reduction in air Departure Tax in Scotland (2017 update) [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/air-dep-tax/emissions (accessed 06/06/2017)

143. ibid

144. Transport Scotland (2014) Estimate of the Impact on Emissions of a Reduction in Air Passenger Duty in Scotland [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/publication/estimate-of-the-impact-on-emissions-of-a-reduction-in-air-passenger-duty-in-scotland/ (accessed 04/04/2017)

145. Transport Scotland (2017) Estimate of the Impact on Emissions of a Reduction in air Departure Tax in Scotland (2017 update) [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/air-dep-tax/emissions (accessed 06/06/2017)

146. Carbon Brief (2016) Carbon Brief Clear on Carbon, International Policy [online] Available at: https://www.carbonbrief.org/aviation-consume-quarter-carbon-budget (accessed 10/08/2016)

147. The Air Quality Standards (Scotland) Regulations 2010 [online] Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2010/204/pdfs/ssi_20100204_en.pdf (accessed 06/02/2017)

148. The Air Quality (Scotland) Amendment Regulations 2016 [online] Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/sdsi/2016/9780111030837/contents (accessed 06/02/2017)

149. Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/ EC [online] Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/noise/directive_en.htm (accessed 06/02/2017)

150. Environmental Noise (Scotland) Regulations 2006 [online] Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2006/465/made (accessed 06/02/2017)

151. Scotland's Environment (2014) Air Quality [online] Available at: http://www.environment.scotland.gov.uk/our_environment/air_and_climate/air_quality.aspx (accessed 06/02/2017)

152. EUROCONTROL (2015) Environmental Issues for aviation, aircraft noise [online] Available at: http://www.eurocontrol.int/articles/environmental-issues-aviation (accessed 06/02/2017)

153. Environmental Noise Directive 2002/49/ EC [online] Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/noise/directive_en.htm (accessed 07/02/2017)

154. Civil Aviation Authority (2014) Managing Aviation Noise [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/modalapplication.aspx?catid=1&pagetype=65&appid=11&mode=detail&id=6251&filter=2 (accessed 19/04/2017)

155. Queen Mary University of London (2015) Aircraft noise effect on health, report prepared for the Airport Commission [online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/446311/noise-aircraft-noise-effects-on-health.pdf (accessed 07/02/2017)

156. Stansfield A.A. and Matheson M.P. (2003) Noise pollution: non-auditory effects on health [online] Available at: http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org/content/68/1/243.full (accessed 06/02/2017)

157. Civil Aviation Authority (2014) Managing Aviation Noise [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/modalapplication.aspx?catid=1&pagetype=65&appid=11&mode=detail&id=6251&filter=2 (accessed 19/04/2017)

158. Civil Aviation Authority (2017) Information on aviation's environmental impact [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP1524EnvironmentalInformation29032017.pdf (accessed 16/04/2017/2017)

159. Civil Aviation Authority (2014) Managing Aviation Noise [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/modalapplication.aspx?catid=1&pagetype=65&appid=11&mode=detail&id=6251&filter=2 (accessed 19/04/2017)

160. Datazones have roughly the same population; however the boundaries of datazones are kept constant although the populations may change over time. http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/SIMD/FAQs

161. SIMD 2016 Results (2016) Introducing the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2016 [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0050/00504809.pdf (accessed 06/02/2017)

162. Air Quality in Scotland (2017) Air quality management areas [online] Available at: http://www.scottishairquality.co.uk/laqm/aqma (accessed 07/02/2017)

163. The Scottish Government (2013) NPF3 and SPP - SEA Environmental Report [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2013/04/3435 (accessed 08/02/2017)

164. Civil Aviation Authority (2014) Managing Aviation Noise [online] Available at: https://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP%201165%20Managing%20Aviation%20Noise%202.pdf (accessed 19/04/2017)

165. Civil Aviation Authority (2017) Information on aviation's environmental impact [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP1524EnvironmentalInformation29032017.pdf (accessed 16/04/2017/2017)

166. Sustainable Aviation (2015) Noise Road Map [online] Available at: http://www.sustainableaviation.co.uk/road-maps/ (accessed 07/02/2017)

167. ibid

168. ICAO (undated) Aircraft noise: Balanced Approach to Aircraft Noise [online] Available at: http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/Pages/noise.aspx (accessed 19/04/2017)

169. Sustainable Aviation (2015) Noise Road Map [online] Available at: http://www.sustainableaviation.co.uk/road-maps/ (accessed 07/02/2017)

170. Department of Transport (2004) Guidance on the Preparation of Airport Master Plans [online] Available at: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http:/www.dft.gov.uk/about/strategy/whitepapers/air/pwpa/guidanceonthepreparationofai5683 (accessed 07/02/2017)

171. ATAG (2010) Beginners Guide to Aviation Efficiency [online] Available at: http://www.atag.org/our-publications/latest.html (accessed 19/04/2017)

172. Civil Aviation Authority (2015) Aviation noise information [online] Available at: https://www.caa.co.uk/Environment/Environmental-information/Information-by-environmental-impact/Noise/Aviation-noise-information/ (accessed 07/02/2017)

173. Scottish Government (2007) Scottish Noise Mapping [online] Available at: https://noise.environment.gov.scot/ (accessed 07/02/2017)

174. Civil Aviation Authority (2015) Aviation noise and why it matters - What level of aviation noise is allowed in the UK? [online] Available at: https://www.caa.co.uk/Environment/Environmental-information/Information-by-environmental-impact/Noise/What-noise-is-and-why-it-matters/FAQs/ (accessed 07/02/2017)

175. WHO (undated) Development of WHO Environmental noise guidelines for the European Region [online] Available at: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/environment-and-health/noise/activities/development-of-who-environmental-noise-guidelines-for-the-european-region (accessed 07/02/2017)

176. Civil Aviation Authority (2017) Information on aviation's environmental impact [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP1524EnvironmentalInformation29032017.pdf (accessed 16/04/2017/2017)

177. ICAO (2016) ICAO Environmental Report 2016 - On Board A Sustainable Future [online] Available: http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/Pages/env2016.aspx (accessed 07/02/2017)

178. Civil Aviation Authority (2014) Managing Aviation Noise [online] Available at: https://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP%201165%20Managing%20Aviation%20Noise%202.pdf (accessed 19/04/2017)

179. ibid

180. Sustainable Aviation (2015) Noise Road Map [online] Available at: http://www.sustainableaviation.co.uk/road-maps/ (accessed 07/02/2017)

181. EC (2015) Air Quality - Existing Legislation [online] Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air/quality/legislation/existing_leg.htm (accessed 07/02/2017)

182. The Air Quality Standards (Scotland) Regulations 2010 [online] Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2010/204/pdfs/ssi_20100204_en.pdf (accessed 07/02/2017)

183. Scottish Government (2016) Local Air Quality Management policy guidance [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2016/03/9717 (accessed 07/02/2017)

184. Scotland's Environment (undated) Air Quality [online] Available at: http://www.environment.scotland.gov.uk/our_environment/air_and_climate/air_quality.aspx (accessed 07/02/2017)

185. ibid

186. Scottish Government (2016) Air Quality - Air Pollutant Emissions, High Level summary of Statistics Trend [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Environment/trendairpollutants (accessed 20/04/2017)

187. National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (2016) https://uk-air.defra.gov.uk/assets/documents/reports/cat07/1609130909_Devolved_Administrations_Air_Quality_Pollutant_Inventories_1990-2014_Issue1.1.pdf (accessed 20/04/2017)

188. Scotland's Environment (undated) Air [online] Available at: http://www.environment.scotland.gov.uk/get-informed/air/ (accessed 20/04/2017)

189. Scottish Government (2016) Air Quality - Air Pollutant Emissions, High Level summary of Statistics Trend [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Environment/trendairpollutants (accessed 20/04/2017)

190. Environmental Act 1995 - Section 83(1) [online] Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1995/25/section/83 (accessed 07/02/2017)

191. Air Quality in Scotland (undated) Air quality management areas [online] Available at: http://www.scottishairquality.co.uk/laqm/aqma (accessed 07/02/2017)

192. The Air Quality Standards (Scotland) Regulations 2010 [online] Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2010/204/pdfs/ssi_20100204_en.pdf (accessed 07/02/2017)

193. EUROCONTROL (2015) Environmental Issues for Aviation, Local Air Quality [online] Available at: http://www.eurocontrol.int/articles/environmental-issues-aviation (accessed 07/02/2017)

194. ibid

195. Sustainable Aviation (undated) UK Aviation and Air Quality [online] Available at: http://www.sustainableaviation.co.uk/uk-aviation-and-air-quality/ (accessed 20/04/2017)

196. EUROCONTROL (2015) Environmental Issues for Aviation, Local Air Quality [online] Available at: http://www.eurocontrol.int/articles/environmental-issues-aviation (accessed 07/02/2017)

197. Sustainable Aviation (undated) UK Aviation and Air Quality [online] Available at: http://www.sustainableaviation.co.uk/uk-aviation-and-air-quality/ (accessed 20/04/2017)

198. The Scottish Government (2013) NPF3 and SPP - SEA Environmental Report [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2013/04/3435 (accessed 08/02/2017)

199. ICAO (2016) ICAO Environmental Report 2016 On Board A Sustainable Future [online] Available: http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/Pages/env2016.aspx (accessed 07/02/2017)

200. ibid

201. Civil Aviation Authority (2017) Information on aviation's environmental impact [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP1524EnvironmentalInformation29032017.pdf (accessed 16/04/2017/2017)

202. Sustainable Aviation (undated) UK Aviation and Air Quality Report [online] Available at: http://www.sustainableaviation.co.uk/uk-aviation-and-air-quality/ (accessed 20/04/2017)

203. Civil Aviation Authority (2017) Information on aviation's environmental impact [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP1524EnvironmentalInformation29032017.pdf (accessed 16/04/2017/2017)

204. Transport Scotland (2017) Estimate of the Impact on Emissions of a Reduction in air Departure Tax in Scotland (2017 update) [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/air-dep-tax/emissions (accessed 06/06/2017)

205. Convention on Biological Diversity (undated) Aichi Biodiversity Targets [online] Available at: https://www.cbd.int/sp/targets/default.shtml (accessed 08/02/2017)

206. Convention on Biological Diversity (1992) Text of the Convention of Biological Diversity [online] Available at: https://www.cbd.int/convention/text/ (accessed 08/02/2017)

207. European Commission, The Habitats Directive [online] Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/legislation/habitatsdirective/index_en.htm (accessed 08/02/2017)

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210. Scottish Government (2013) 2020 Challenge for Scotland's Biodiversity - A Strategy for the conservation and enhancement of biodiversity in Scotland [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2013/06/5538 (accessed 08/02/2017)

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212. SNH (2015) An Ecosystems Approach [online] Available at: http://www.snh.gov.uk/about-scotlands-nature/scotlands-biodiversity/an-ecosystems-approach/ (accessed 08/02/2017)

213. Mackey E.C. and Mudge G.P. (2010) Scotland's Wildlife: An assessment of biodiversity in 2010, Scottish Natural Heritage, Inverness [online] Available at: http://www.snh.gov.uk/docs/B811968.pdf (accessed 08/02/2017)

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228. Scottish Government (2016) Scotland's Soil - Soil Organic Matter [online] Available at: http://www.soils-scotland.gov.uk/context/organic (accessed 08/02/2017)

229. SEPA (undated) Soil [online] Available at: http://www.sepa.org.uk/environment/land/soil/ (accessed 08/02/2017)

230. Dobbie, K.E., Bruneau, P.M.C., Towers, W. (2011) The State of Scotland's Soil [online] Available at: http://www.sepa.org.uk/media/138741/state-of-soil-report-final.pdf (accessed 08/02/2017)

231. Scotland's Environment (2016) Soil [online] Available at: http://www.environment.scotland.gov.uk/get-informed/land/soils/ (accessed 08/02/2017)

232. European Commission (2015) JRC Technical Reports, Soil Threats in Europe, Status, methods, drivers and effects on ecosystem services [online] Available at: http://esdac.jrc.ec.europa.eu/public_path/shared_folder/doc_pub/EUR27607.pdf (accessed 08/02/2017)

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234. European Commission (2000) The Water Framework Directive [online] Available at: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/resource.html?uri=cellar:5c835afb-2ec6-4577-bdf8-756d3d694eeb.0004.02/DOC_1&format=PDF (accessed 08/02/2017)

235. SEPA (undated) River Basin Management Planning [online] Available at: https://www.sepa.org.uk/environment/water/river-basin-management-planning/ (accessed 08/02/2017)

236. Water Environment and Water Services (Scotland) Act (2003) [online] Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2003/3/contents (accessed 08/02/2017)

237. Water Environment (Controlled Activities) (Scotland) Regulations (2011) [online] Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2011/209/contents/made (accessed 08/02/2017)

238. The Pollution Prevention and Control (Scotland) Regulations (2012) [online] Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2012/360/contents/made (accessed 08/02/2017)

239. Scottish Government (2015) Flood Risk Management Act 2009 [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Topics/Environment/Water/Flooding/FRMAct (accessed 08/02/2017)

240. Directive 2007/60/ EC The EU Floods Directive [online] Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/flood_risk/ (accessed 08/02/2017)

241. Scotland's Environment (undated) Water [online] Available at: http://www.environment.scotland.gov.uk/get-informed/water/ (accessed 08/02/2017)

242. SEPA (2015) The river basin management plan for the Scotland river basin district: 2015-2027 [online] Available at: https://www.sepa.org.uk/media/163445/the-river-basin-management-plan-for-the-scotland-river-basin-district-2015-2027.pdf (accessed 09/02/2017)

243. The Scottish Government (2013) NPF3 and SPP - SEA Environmental Report [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2013/04/3435 (accessed 08/02/2017)

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245. Civil Aviation Authority (2017) Information on aviation's environmental impact [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP1524EnvironmentalInformation29032017.pdf (accessed 16/04/2017/2017)

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248. Water Environment (Controlled Activities) (Scotland) Regulations (2011) [online] Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2011/209/contents/made (accessed 08/02/2017)

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251. Historic Environment (Amendment) (Scotland) Act 2011 [online] Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/asp/2011/3/contents/enacted (accessed 09/02/2017)

252. Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 (as amended) [online] Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1979/46/pdfs/ukpga_19790046_en.pdf (accessed 09/02/2017)

253. Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) (Scotland) Act 1997 [online] Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1997/9/contents (accessed 09/02/2017)

254. Historic Environment Scotland (2014) Our Place in Time: The Historic Environment Strategy for Scotland [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0044/00445046.pdf (accessed 09/02/2017)

255. Historic Scotland (2016) Historic Environment Scotland Policy Statement [online] Available at: https://www.historicenvironment.scot/advice-and-support/planning-and-guidance/legislation-and-guidance/historic-environment-scotland-policy-statement/ (accessed 21/10/2016)

256. SNH (2016) National Scenic Areas, [online] Available at: http://www.snh.gov.uk/protecting-scotlands-nature/protected-areas/national-designations/nsa/ (accessed 09/02/2017)

257. SNH (2016) Local Designations, [online] Available at: http://www.snh.gov.uk/protecting-scotlands-nature/protected-areas/local-designations/ (accessed 09/02/2017)

258. SNHi [online] Available at: http://www.snh.gov.uk/publications-data-and-research/snhi-information-service/map/ (09/02/2017)

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260. RCAHMS and Historic Scotland (2017) PastMap [online] Available at: http://pastmap.org.uk/ (accessed 09/02/2017)

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262. Scotland's Environment (2016) Landscape [online] Available at: http://www.environment.scotland.gov.uk/get-informed/land/landscape/ (accessed 09/02/2017)

263. Scotland's Environment (2015) Historic Environment [online] available at: http://www.environment.scotland.gov.uk/media/202524/people-and-the-environment-historic-environment.pdf (accessed 09/02/2017)

264. The Scottish Government (2013) NPF3 and SPP - SEA Environmental Report [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2013/04/3435 (accessed 08/02/2017)

265. Scotland's Environment (2016) Landscape [online] Available at: http://www.environment.scotland.gov.uk/get-informed/land/landscape/ (accessed 09/02/2017)

266. Historic Environment Scotland (2014) Scotland's Historic Environment Audit [online] Available at: https://www.historicenvironment.scot/media/2392/shea-2014-main-report.pdf (accessed 09/02/2017)

267. Historic Environment Scotland (2014) Scotland's Historic Environment Audit [online] Available at: https://www.historicenvironment.scot/media/2392/shea-2014-main-report.pdf (accessed 09/02/2017)

268. Department of Transport (2004) Guidance on the Preparation of Airport Master Plans [online] Available at: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http:/www.dft.gov.uk/about/strategy/whitepapers/air/pwpa/guidanceonthepreparationofai5683 (accessed 10/08/2016)

269. Scottish Government (2016) Making Things Last: A Circular Economy Strategy for Scotland [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Resource/0049/00494471.pdf (accessed 09/02/2017

270. Transport Scotland (2017) Lifeline Air Services [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/transport-network/ (accessed 09/02/2017)

271. Department for Transport (2014) Statistical release, Public experiences of and attitudes towards air travel: 2014 [online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/336702/experiences-of-attitudes-towards-air-travel.pdf (accessed 10/02/2017)

272. Civil Aviation Authority (2017) Information on aviation's environmental impact [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP1524EnvironmentalInformation29032017.pdf (accessed 16/04/2017/2017)

273. Civil Aviation Authority (2017) Information on aviation's environmental impact [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP1524EnvironmentalInformation29032017.pdf (accessed 16/04/2017/2017)

274. The Scottish Government (2013) NPF3 and SPP - SEA Environmental Report [online] Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Publications/2013/04/3435 (accessed 08/02/2017)

275. Civil Aviation Authority (2017) Information on aviation's environmental impact [online] Available at: http://publicapps.caa.co.uk/docs/33/CAP1524EnvironmentalInformation29032017.pdf (accessed 16/04/2017/2017)

276. ibid

277. Transport Scotland (2017) Estimate of the Impact on Emissions of a Reduction in air Departure Tax in Scotland (2017 update) [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/air-dep-tax/emissions (accessed 06/06/2017)

278. Transport Scotland (2014) Estimate of the Impact on Emissions of a Reduction in Air Passenger Duty in Scotland [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/publication/estimate-of-the-impact-on-emissions-of-a-reduction-in-air-passenger-duty-in-scotland/ (accessed 04/04/2017)

279. Transport Scotland (2017) Estimate of the Impact on Emissions of a Reduction in air Departure Tax in Scotland (2017 update) [online] Available at: https://www.transport.gov.scot/air-dep-tax/emissions (accessed 06/06/2017)

280. ibid

281. ICAO (undated) Environmental Protection Alternative Fuels [online] Available at: http://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/Pages/AlternativeFuels-QuestionsAnswers.aspx (accessed 06/02/2017)

282. Scottish Government (2016) Scottish Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2014 [online] Available at: https://beta.gov.scot/publications/scottish-greenhouse-gas-emissions-2014/ (accessed 08/05/2017)

283. ibid

284. European Commission (2017) Reducing emissions from aviation [online] Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/transport/aviation_en (accessed 08/05/2017)

285. Committee on Climate Change (2017) Advice on the new Scottish Climate Change Bill [online] Available at: https://www.theccc.org.uk/publication/advice-on-the-new-scottish-climate-change-bill/ (accessed 22/03/2017)

286. Scottish Government (2017) Draft Climate Change Plan: the Third Report on Policies and Proposals 2017-2032 [online] Available at: /publications/draft-climate-change-plan-draft-third-report-policies-proposals-2017//downloads (accessed 22/03/2017)

287. Scotland's Environment (2016) Noise mapping [online] Available at: https://noise.environment.gov.scot/frequently-asked-questions.html (accessed 08/05/2017)

288. Air Quality in Scotland (undated) Monitoring site summary [online] Available at: http://www.scottishairquality.co.uk/latest/summary (accessed 08/05/2017)

289. Scottish Government response to the Scottish Parliament Finance and Constitution Committee's Stage 1 report on the Air Departure Tax (Scotland) Bill [Online] Available at: http://www.parliament.scot/S5_Finance/General%20Documents/Letter_to_Convener_-_ADT_-_21_April_2017.pdf (accessed 08/06/2017)


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