beta

You're viewing our new website - find out more

Publication - Guidance

Qualifications for teachers of hearing and visually impaired children and young persons: guidance

Published: 30 Jan 2007
Directorate:
Learning Directorate
Part of:
Education
ISBN:
9780755914760

Guidance on the appropriate qualifications for teachers of pupils who are hearing impaired, visually impaired or both hearing and visually impaired.

13 page PDF

199.6 kB

13 page PDF

199.6 kB

Contents
Qualifications for teachers of hearing and visually impaired children and young persons: guidance
Appendix A: Competences for teachers of children and young persons who are hearing impaired, or visually impaired, or both hearing and visually impaired.

13 page PDF

199.6 kB

Appendix A: Competences for teachers of children and young persons who are hearing impaired, or visually impaired, or both hearing and visually impaired.

Introduction

1. The Requirements for Teachers (Scotland) Regulations 2005 require that where an education authority employs a teacher wholly or mainly to teach pupils who are hearing impaired 5 , visually impaired or both hearing and visually impaired, then that teacher should possess an appropriate qualification to teach such pupils. The focus of this Appendix is on determining what would constitute an appropriate qualification by outlining the additional specialised knowledge, understanding and skills required of teachers to enable them to meet the specific additional learning needs of their pupils. The starting point is meeting the needs of these pupils, and the competences required to do that effectively, and not on defining the structure of specific courses, or pathways to achieving an appropriate qualification.

2. The main route by which teachers will acquire the necessary competences will continue to be through taking post-graduate diploma courses provided by higher educational institutions. However, the competences, and hence the qualification, may also be obtained through accredited experiential learning and/or through local authority-based or other training, at the discretion of the authority as an employer.

3. In addition to having General Teaching Council (Scotland) Registered Teacher status 6 , the appropriate qualifications shall require:

(a) the acquisition of knowledge, understanding and skills of a generic or core nature which will provide a sound foundation for teachers to work with children and young persons with additional support needs;

(b) additional specialised knowledge, understanding and skills to enable them to operate as effective teachers of pupils who have hearing impairment, or visual impairment, or both hearing and visual impairment.

4. The Standard for Full Registration sets a baseline professional standard which applies to all teachers throughout their careers. It builds on the Standard for Initial Teacher Education ( SITE) and uses the same three categories to elaborate the range of attributes expected of teachers. These are:

  • Professional knowledge and understanding;
  • Professional skills and abilities;
  • Professional values and personal commitment.

5. The various elements of the Standard are illustrated through expected features which give details about what registered teachers know and do in their daily professional lives.

6. In addition to fulfilling the requirements set out in the Standard for Full Registration, teachers employed wholly or mainly to teach pupils who are hearing impaired, visually impaired or both hearing and visually impaired must demonstrate that they achieve the following specific competences, as appropriate.

The specific competences for teachers of learners with hearing impairment

The following are not listed in order of importance and should be given equal weight in meeting the needs of learners with hearing impairments. It is expected that teachers will continue to develop their knowledge, understanding and skills throughout their careers.

8. Teachers will be able to demonstrate, through their application of knowledge, understanding and skills:

Assessment

  • a critical knowledge of different types of linguistic and developmental assessments relevant to hearing impaired pupils, and an ability to carry out a range of assessments, and to interpret and use assessment results effectively, applying them to the curriculum and to skills of daily living.

Multi-agency/partnership working

  • an ability to interpret and evaluate audiological assessments, and provide professional advice and comment to parents, other professionals, and to the pupils concerned, on the implications of these assessments for pupil audition with amplification;
  • an ability to plan, develop and evaluate their strategies for working with parents/carers, teachers and multidisciplinary teams in facilitating linguistic access for hearing impaired learners.

Language and communication

  • an understanding of the linguistic potential of hearing impaired pupils, of barriers to language and literacy acquisition which they may face, and an understanding of the approaches to and processes of language and literacy development;
  • an understanding of key differences between signed and spoken languages and between BSL and various forms of manually coded English ( e.g. Sign Supported English, Signed English, Cued Speech, Makaton, Signalong etc);
  • a knowledge of the full range of ways in which hearing impaired pupils access information and contribute in class, both through English ( e.g. amplification, lip-reading, reading/writing etc.) and BSL (direct or with interpretation);
  • a minimum level of competence in BSL, at least to BSL Stage 1, and a requirement to upgrade skills to meet pupil support needs.

Medical/disability related knowledge

  • a knowledge of the processes involved in Universal Newborn Hearing Screening and the implications of early diagnosis for linguistic and cognitive development;
  • an understanding of the different types of discourse associated with deafness, and different constructions of deafness ( e.g. social and medical);
  • a knowledge of the impact on learning of specific medical conditions, syndromes and disabilities which can be associated with hearing impairment, including where hearing impairment arises as part of multiple and complex support needs.

Specialised technology

  • a knowledge of the range of aids to audition (including hearing aids, cochlear implants, radio aids and environmental equipment), and an ability to compare and critically evaluate their impact and effective use, in collaboration with the learner, whenever appropriate, within a range of settings in the school environment.

Specific legislations and policy

  • an ability to reflect on the effectiveness of their practice in different contexts and roles, and on the level of their awareness of appropriate practices for learners with a hearing impairment from ages 0-18 years, in the context of current legislation, policies and advice for education and access, and local and national support provision.

Teaching and learning

  • an understanding of cognitive/intellectual potential and diversity, both verbal and non-verbal, among hearing impaired pupils, and implications for learning;
  • an understanding of the range of barriers hearing impaired learners face in accessing the curriculum and of the full range of strategies for facilitating linguistic access and educational support within different contexts;
  • the capacity to facilitate the development of pupils' ability to understand, negotiate and manage their own linguistic access strategies;
  • an understanding of the specific needs and issues which can arise with hearing impaired pupils at transitions to and from different stages of education and experience.

The specific competences for teachers of learners with visual impairment

The following are not listed in order of importance and should be given equal weight in meeting the needs of learners with visual impairments. It is expected that teachers will continue to develop their knowledge, understanding and skills throughout their careers.

9. Teachers will be able to demonstrate, through their application of knowledge, understanding and skills:

Assessment

  • a critical knowledge of different types of assessment and terminologies, and an ability to observe and assess the functional use of vision by visually impaired learners;
  • an ability to carry out a range of appropriate assessments, and to interpret, discuss and use assessments effectively, applying them to the curriculum and to skills of daily living;
  • an understanding that most standard assessment tools are not designed or standardised to take account of the developmental needs of young learners with a visual impairment and that, given the low incidence nature of visual impairment and subsequent standardisation difficulties, all assessments should be regarded as guides requiring interpretation taking account of the circumstances of the individual learner.

Multi-agency/partnership working

  • an ability to plan, develop and evaluate their strategies for working with parents/carers, teachers and multidisciplinary teams in support of visually impaired learners.

Language and communication

  • an understanding of the range of specialised approaches to the development of functional and pre-linguistic communication for visually impaired learners ( e.g. behaviour as communication, intensive interaction, vocalisation, personal gesture, experiential signifiers, objects of reference etc.); linguistic systems ( e.g. speech related to experience, on body signing etc.) and an overview of augmentative and alternative communication ( AAC) systems ( e.g. speech output communication aids, Braille, Moon, etc).

Medical/disability related knowledge

  • a familiarity with the effects of a range of ocular and cerebral visual impairments, genetic and acquired, and with the range of disability and needs associated with the present population of young learners with a visual impairment and the resulting implications for learning and development, including early movement and development, safety and health;
  • a knowledge of, and ability to use effectively, the orientation and mobility techniques for both able bodied and wheelchair using children and young people with a visual impairment;
  • a knowledge of the impact on learning of specific medical conditions, syndromes and disabilities which can be associated with visual impairment;
  • an understanding of the specific needs and issues which can arise with visually impaired pupils at transitions to and from different stages of education and experience.

Specialised technology

  • a knowledge of the developing range of alternative forms of accessible media, specialised communications hardware and software and teaching strategies to utilize these alternative forms of media, specialised communication hardware and software;
  • a knowledge of low vision aids and their use;
  • a critical knowledge of and ability to use a range of ICT and, as appropriate, low and high technology augmentative communication approaches to facilitate access to the curriculum and life long learning.

Specific legislation and policy

  • an ability to reflect on the effectiveness of their practice in different contexts and roles, and the level of their awareness of appropriate practices for learners with visual impairment from ages 0-18 years, in the context of current legislation, policies and advice for education and access, and local and national support provision.

Teaching and learning

  • an understanding of how children with visual impairment learn, including the impact of visual impairment and other disabilities on language and communication, access to information and mobility and movement, and the significance of these for curriculum development and teaching approaches;
  • an understanding of the range of barriers visually impaired learners face in accessing the curriculum, and of strategies for enabling access and support within different contexts;
  • an ability to identify, design, adapt and evaluate appropriate materials and environmental conditions to meet the needs of the full range of children and young people with a visual impairment, including those with other additional support needs;
  • an ability to use and teach alternative reading and writing systems including Braille Grade 1 and Moon;
  • an understanding that to teach Grade 2 Braille, which is the standard for Braille users, teachers will be required to upgrade their skills to include a competence to teach Grade 2 Braille.

The specific competences for teachers of learners with both hearing and visual impairment.

The following are not listed in order of importance and should be given equal weight in meeting the needs of learners with both hearing and visual impairments. It is expected that teachers will continue to develop their knowledge and understanding throughout their career.

10. Teachers will be able to demonstrate, through their application of knowledge, understanding and skills:

Assessment

  • a critical knowledge of different types of assessment and terminologies, and an ability to observe and assess the functional use of vision and hearing by learners with both hearing and visual impairment and how the learner integrates both senses; an ability to carry out a range of appropriate formal assessments, and to interpret, discuss and use assessments effectively, applying them to the curriculum and to skills of daily living.

Multi-agency/partnership working

  • an ability to plan, develop and evaluate their teaching and support strategies for working with parents/carers, teachers and multidisciplinary teams in support of learners with both a hearing and visual impairment.

Language and communication

  • an understanding of key differences between signed and spoken languages and competence in BSL to Stage 1;
  • a knowledge of a range of specialised approaches to the development of functional communication including: pre-intentional, intentional and pre-linguistic ( e.g. behaviour as communication, intensive interaction, co-creative communication, movement and gesture, objects of reference, etc.); linguistic systems ( e.g. speech, including specific adaptations to BSL and manually coded English, on body signing etc. and the difference between spoken and signed languages); an overview of augmentative and alternative communication ( AAC) systems ( e.g. in addition to some of the above, symbol systems and symbol communication books and charts, visual communication systems, visual timetables, Braille Grade 1, Moon etc.).

Medical/disability related knowledge

  • a knowledge of medical and neurological factors and causes of sensory impairments and sensory processing difficulties, and an awareness of the relationship between these and their implications for learning and development of learners with both hearing and visual impairment, including early movement development, safety and health;
  • a knowledge of the impact on learning and teaching of specific medical conditions, syndromes and disabilities which may underlie support needs including where hearing and visual impairment arise as part of multiple and complex conditions.

Specialised technology

  • a knowledge of the developing range of alternative forms of accessible media, specialised communications hardware and software and related teaching strategies;
  • a knowledge of the use of a range of technological tools including alternative communication and/or writing systems, low vision aids and hearing aid systems.

Specific legislation and policy

  • an ability to reflect on the effectiveness of their practice in different contexts and roles, and the level of their awareness of appropriate practices for learners with both a hearing and a visual impairment from ages 0-18 years, in the context of current legislation, policies and advice for education and access, and local and national support provision.

Teaching and learning

  • an understanding of how children and young people with both hearing and visual impairment learn, including the impact of complex mixes of sensory and other disabilities on language and communication, access to information and mobility and movement, and the significance of these for curriculum development and teaching approaches;
  • an ability to identify, design, adapt and evaluate appropriate materials and environmental conditions to meet individual learners' needs; including through the use of traditional approaches and ICT;
  • an understanding of the specific needs and issues which can arise for learners with both hearing and visual impairment at transitions to and from different stages of education and experience.

Scottish Executive Education Department