2. Referred to as agencies throughout the guidance for brevity
on the management of health complications arising from female
genital mutilation, 2016:
10. In the event that these procedures are requested for the
purpose of female genital cosmetic surgery (
and the woman is fully autonomous and able to give consent,
these to be distinct from the lack of consent and the coercion and
violence which attend
on the management of health complications from
In the NHS in Scotland, FGCS is covered by the Adult Exceptional Aesthetic Referral Protocol [ http://www.sehd.scot.nhs.uk/mels/CEL2011_27.pdf] and should only be considered for women with a functional impairment confirmed by an appropriate specialist.
11. Haseena Lockhat (2004) Female Genital Mutilation: treating the tears, London: Middlesex University Press
12. Hemmings, J. (2011) The
Interim Report, Options
13. Behrendt A, Moritz S. (2005) Posttraumatic stress disorder and memory problems after female genital mutilation. Am J Psychiatry. 162:1000–1002.
16 Female genital mutilation/cutting: a statistical overview and
exploration of the dynamics of change (2013):
17 WHO (2010) ‘Global Strategy to stop health-care providers from performing female genital mutilation UNAIDS, UNDP, UNFPA, UNICEF, UNHCR, UNIFEM, WHO, FIGO, ICN, IOM, WCPT, WMA, MWIA
27. Quote from interviews conducted as part of Forward (2009) FGM is always with us: experiences, perceptions and beliefs of women affected by female genital mutilation in London: results from a PEER study
31. Adapted from the Department of Health (2015) Female Genital Mutilation risk and safeguarding: guidance for professionals.